A remix is a piece of media, altered from its original state by adding, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, video, or photograph can all be remixes; the only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and changes other materials to create something new. Most remixes are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be remixed for a variety of reasons: to adapt or revise a song for radio or nightclub play to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song where none was available to improve the fidelity of an older song for which the original master has been lost or degraded to alter a song to suit a specific music genre or radio format to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to reach a different audience to alter a song for artistic purposes. To provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4 tracks to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of Asha" by Cornershop to improve the first or demo mix of the song to ensure a professional product.
To provide an alternative version of a song to improve a song from its original stateRemixes should not be confused with edits, which involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix, which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered version of a song, a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song like Mike D's remix of Moby's "Natural Blues". While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of remixing, this is not the only media form, remixed in numerous examples. Literature, film and social systems can all be argued as a form of remix Since the beginnings of recorded sound in the late 19th century, technology has enabled people to rearrange the normal listening experience. With the advent of editable magnetic tape in the 1940s and 1950s and the subsequent development of multitrack recording, such alterations became more common. In those decades the experimental genre of musique concrète used tape manipulation to create sound compositions.
Less artistically lofty edits produced medleys or novelty recordings of various types. Modern remixing had its roots in the dance hall culture of late-1960s/early-1970s Jamaica; the fluid evolution of music that encompassed ska, rocksteady and dub was embraced by local music mixers who deconstructed and rebuilt tracks to suit the tastes of their audience. Producers and engineers like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized stripped-down instrumental mixes of reggae tunes. At first they dropped the vocal tracks, but soon more sophisticated effects were created, dropping separate instrumental tracks in and out of the mix and repeating hooks, adding various effects like echo and delay; the German krautrock band Neu! used other effects on side two of their album Neu! 2 by manipulating their released single Super/Neuschnee multiple ways, utilizing playback at different turntable speeds or mangling by using of a cassette recorder. From the mid-1970s, DJs in early discothèques were performing similar tricks with disco songs to get dancers on the floor and keep them there.
One noteworthy figure was Tom Moulton. Though not a DJ, Moulton had begun his career by making a homemade mix tape for a Fire Island dance club in the late 1960s, his tapes became popular and he came to the attention of the music industry in New York City. At first Moulton was called upon to improve the aesthetics of dance-oriented recordings before release, he moved from being a "fix it" man on pop records to specializing in remixes for the dance floor. Along the way, he invented the 12-inch single vinyl format. Walter Gibbons provided the dance version of the first commercial 12-inch single. Contrary to popular belief, Gibbons did not mix the record. In fact his version was a re-edit of the original mix. Moulton and their contemporaries at Salsoul Records proved to be the most influential group of remixers for the disco era; the Salsoul catalog is seen as being the "canon" for the disco mixer's art form. Pettibone is among a small number of remixers whose work transitioned from the disco to the House era.
His contemporaries included François Kevorkian. Contemporaneously to disco in the mid-1970s, the dub and disco remix cultures met through Jamaican immigrants to the Bronx, energizing both and helping to create hip-hop music. Key figures included Grandmaster Flash. Cutting and scratching became part of the culture, creating what Slate magazine called "real-time, live-action collage." One of the first mainstream successes of this style of remix was the 1983 track Rockit by Herbie Hancock, as remixed by Grand Mixer D. ST. Malcolm McLaren and the creative team behind ZTT Records would feature the "cut up" style of hip hop on such records as "Duck Rock". Early pop remixes were simple.
Laurence Andrew "Lol" Tolhurst is a founding member and the former drummer and keyboardist of British band The Cure. He left the Cure in 1989 and was involved in the band Presence and his current project, Levinhurst. In 2011, he was temporarily reunited with the Cure for a number of shows playing the band's earlier work. Tolhurst was born in Horley, in the county of Surrey, the fifth of six children of William and Daphne Tolhurst. Tolhurst was five years old when he first met Robert Smith at St. Francis Primary and Junior Schools, thus began a friendship that culminated in the formation of the Cure. Tolhurst was one of the co-founders of Goth rock band The Cure, was the band's drummer from 1976, playing on the albums Three Imaginary Boys, Seventeen Seconds and Pornography. After the Pornography tour in 1982, he became the band's keyboardist. In late 1989 during the recording of the Cure's eighth studio long-player, entitled Disintegration, Tolhurst was asked to leave the band by Robert Smith due to alcohol and narcotic use adversely affecting his professional reliability.
Despite receiving a credit for "other instrument" on Disintegration, the other members of the band have said that Tolhurst did not play on the album. Following his departure from the Cure and Gary Biddles—who worked with Simon Gallup in Fools Dance—formed the short-lived band Presence, which only released one full-length album at the time called Inside in 1993, he said several years that he had recorded a second album with this band, but the album, entitled Closer, would not be released until 2014, a year after Biddles' death. In 1991, Tolhurst's first son was born in London and musician Gray Andrew Tolhurst. In 1994, Tolhurst sued Robert Smith and Fiction Records over royalty payments claiming joint ownership, with Smith, of the name The Cure, he lost after a long legal battle. He has worked as a producer for the debut album of And Also the Trees. In the early 2000s, Tolhurst and his second wife, Cindy Levinson, formed. A few months before the release of their debut album, Tolhurst said in an interview that he had reconciled with Robert Smith and that the two were friends again.
Shortly afterward, Levinhurst released their debut album, Perfect Life, in 2004. Since they have released an EP called The Grey featuring a cover of The Cure's "All Cats Are Grey"—for which he claimed credit for writing the lyrics—and two other songs, their second album, House by the Sea, was released in April 2007. Their third album, called Blue Star and featuring original Cure bassist Michael Dempsey, was released in the U. S. in June 2009 and worldwide in February 2010. Tolhurst composed music for the film 9,000 Needles, a documentary that won Best Documentary at the 2010 Phoenix Film Festival; the second part of the European tour, "Blue Star Over Europe", occurred in October 2010, followed by a South and North American tour in early 2011. In 2010, The Guardian published an article with a headline reading "The Cure's original drummer asks to rejoin band." However, Tolhurst called the article "a little misleading", saying: I have not asked RS to rejoin the Cure! I have my thing, he has his. I just thought it might be fun to play the old songs together again as Michael and I had a great time playing the TIB songs this March in Europe.
In 2011, it was announced that Tolhurst would be performing with the Cure for the first time in 22 years when the band performed their first three albums—Three Imaginary Boys, Seventeen Seconds and Faith—in their entirety at the Sydney Opera House in Australia. Tolhurst performed with the Cure for seven more shows in London, New York and Los Angeles that year. Tolhurst published his memoir in 2016, Cured: The Tale of Two Imaginary Boys, he tells of his time with the band between 1976 and 1989. Tolhurst, who has known Robert Smith since his childhood, says. Tolhurst undertook an extensive book tour, beginning in the United Kingdom and finishing in the U. S. In 2018, Tolhurst featured in an episode of the BBC Radio 4 series Soul Music, in which he discussed the history of the song "Boys Don't Cry". Tolhurst is married and lives in the U. S, he has one child. With the CureThree Imaginary Boys Seventeen Seconds Faith Happily Ever After Pornography Japanese Whispers The Top Concert: The Cure Live The Head on the Door Standing on a Beach Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me Disintegration Galore Greatest Hits Join the Dots: B-Sides & Rarities 1978–2001 With Presence→ See Presence discography With Levinhurst→ See Levinhurst Discography Levinhurst Lol's MySpace Interview with Tolhurst at chaindlk.com Interview with Tolhurst at freewilliamsburg.com Lol Tolhurst Interview - NAMM Oral History Library
The banjo is a four-, five-, or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head, circular. The membrane is made of plastic, although animal skin is still used. Early forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in the United States, adapted from African instruments of similar design; the banjo is associated with folk, Irish traditional, country music. Banjo can be used in some Rock Songs. Countless Rock bands, such as The Eagles, Led Zeppelin, The Allman Brothers, have used the five-string banjo in some of their songs; the banjo occupied a central place in African-American traditional music and the folk culture of rural whites before entering the mainstream via the minstrel shows of the 19th century. The banjo, along with the fiddle, is a mainstay of American old-time music, it is very used in traditional jazz. The modern banjo derives from instruments, used in the Caribbean since the 17th century by enslaved people taken from West Africa.
Written references to the banjo in North America appear in the 18th century, the instrument became available commercially from around the second quarter of the 19th century. Several claims as to the etymology of the name "banjo" have been made, it may derive from the Kimbundu word mbanza, an African string instrument modeled after the Portuguese banza: a vihuela with five two-string courses and a further two short strings. The Oxford English Dictionary states that it comes from a dialectal pronunciation of Portuguese bandore or from an early anglicisation of Spanish bandurria; the name may derive from a traditional Afro-Caribbean folk dance called "banya", which incorporates several cultural elements found throughout the African diaspora. Various instruments in Africa, chief among them the kora, feature a skin gourd body; the African instruments differ from early African American banjos in that the necks do not possess a Western-style fingerboard and tuning pegs, instead having stick necks, with strings attached to the neck with loops for tuning.
Banjos with fingerboards and tuning pegs are known from the Caribbean as early as the 17th century. Some 18th- and early 19th-century writers transcribed the name of these instruments variously as bangie, bonjaw and banjar. Instruments similar to the banjo have been played in many countries. Another relative of the banjo is the akonting, a spike folk lute played by the Jola tribe of Senegambia, the ubaw-akwala of the Igbo. Similar instruments include the xalam of Senegal and the ngoni of the Wassoulou region including parts of Mali and Ivory Coast, as well as a larger variation of the ngoni developed in Morocco by sub-Saharan Africans known as the gimbri. Early, African-influenced banjos were built around a wooden stick neck; these instruments had varying numbers of strings, though including some form of drone. The five-string banjo was popularized by Joel Walker Sweeney, an American minstrel performer from Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Although Robert McAlpin Williamson is the first documented white banjoist, in the 1830s, Sweeney became the first white performer to play the banjo on stage.
His version of the instrument replaced the gourd with a drum-like sound box and included four full-length strings alongside a short fifth string. This new banjo was at first tuned d'Gdf♯a, though by the 1890s, this had been transposed up to g'cgbd'. Banjos were introduced in Britain by Sweeney's group, the American Virginia Minstrels, in the 1840s, became popular in music halls. In the antebellum South, many black slaves taught their masters how to play. For example, in his memoir With Sabre and Scalpel: The Autobiography of a Soldier and Surgeon, the Confederate veteran and surgeon John Allan Wyeth recalls learning to play the banjo as a child from a slave on his family plantation. Two techniques associated with the five-string banjo are rolls and drones. Rolls are right hand accompanimental fingering pattern that consist of eight notes that subdivide each measure. Drone notes are quick little notes played on the 5th string to fill in around the melody notes; these techniques are both idiomatic to the banjo in all styles, their sound is characteristic of bluegrass.
The banjo was played in the clawhammer style by the Africans who brought their version of the banjo with them. Several other styles of play were developed from this. Clawhammer consists of downward striking of one or more of the four main strings with the index, middle or both fingerwhile the drone or fifth string is played with a'lifting' motion of the thumb; the notes sounded by the thumb in this fashion are on the off beat. Melodies can be quite intricate adding techniques such as double drop thumb. In old time Appalachian Mountain music, a style called two-finger up-pick is used, a three-finger version that Earl Scruggs developed into the famous "Scruggs" style picking was nationally aired in 1945 on the Grand Ole Opry. While five-string banjos are traditionally played with either fingerpicks or the fingers themselves, tenor banjos and plectrum banjos are played with a pick, either to strum full chords, or most in Irish traditional music, play single-note melodies; the modern banjo comes in a variety of forms, including four- and five-string versions.
A six-string version and played to a guitar, has gained popularity. In all of its forms, banjo playing is
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Robert Smith (musician)
Robert James Smith is an English singer and songwriter. He is the lead singer, multi-instrumentalist, principal songwriter and only consistent member of the rock band the Cure, which he co-founded in 1976, he was the lead guitarist for the band Siouxsie and the Banshees from 1982 to 1984 and was part of the short-lived group the Glove in 1983. Smith is known for his distinctive voice and guitar style and his unique stage look, the latter two of which were influential on the goth subculture that rose to prominence in the 1980s. Smith was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of The Cure in 2019. Smith was born in the Lancashire town of Blackpool and is the third of four children born to James Alexander and Rita Mary Smith. Smith came from a musical family – his father sang and his mother played the piano. Raised Catholic, he became an atheist; when he was three years old, in December 1962 his family moved to Horley, where he attended St Francis Primary School before the family moved to Crawley, West Sussex, in March 1966, where Smith attended St Francis Junior School.
He attended Notre Dame Middle School and St Wilfrid's Comprehensive School, Crawley. Both Robert and his younger sister Janet had piano lessons, he told Chris Heath of Smash Hits magazine that from about 1966 his brother Richard taught him "a few basic chords" on guitar. Smith began taking classical guitar lessons from the age of nine, "with a student of John Williams, a excellent guitarist... I got to the point where I was losing the sense of fun. I wish I'd stuck with it." Smith has said. Robert gave up formal tuition and began teaching himself to play by ear, listening to his older brother's record collection. Smith was thirteen or fourteen when he became more serious about rock music and "started to play and learn frenetically". Up until December 1972 he did not have a guitar of his own, had been borrowing his brother's for some time, "so he gave me his guitar for Christmas, but I'd commandeered it anyway – so whether he was giving it to me at Christmas or not, I was going to have it!" One rock biographer maintains that the guitar Smith received for Christmas of 1972 was from his parents, equates this item with Smith's notorious Woolworth's'Top 20' guitar used on many of the Cure's earliest recordings.
Smith was quoted in several earlier sources as saying he purchased the Top 20 himself for £20, in 1978. Smith described Notre Dame Middle School as "a free-thinking establishment" with an experimental approach. On one occasion, Smith said that he wore a black velvet dress to Notre Dame and kept it on all day "because the teachers just thought'oh, it's a phase he's going through, he's got some personality crisis, let's help him through it'." According to Smith "four other kids" beat him up after school, although Jeff Apter notes that Smith has given several conflicting versions of the story. Apter reports that Smith put in minimal effort at Notre Dame, sufficient to gain pass marks, quotes Smith as saying: If you were crafty enough … you could convince the teachers you were special: I did nothing for three years. Smith's secondary school, St Wilfrid's, was stricter than Notre Dame. In the summer of 1975, Smith and his school bandmates sat their O Level exams, but only he and Michael Dempsey stayed on to attend sixth form at St Wilfrid's.
Smith has claimed that he was expelled from St Wilfrid's as an "undesirable influence" after their band Malice's second live performance shortly before Christmas 1976, which took place at the school and caused a riot. I got taken back but they never acknowledged that I was there... I did three'A' levels -- scraped through French and got a ` B' in English. I spent 8 or 9 months on social security until they stopped my money, so I thought'now's the time to make a demo and see what people think'. According to Dave Bowler and Bryan Dray, biographers of the Cure, the school expelled ex-Malice co-founder Marc Ceccagno along with Smith, whose new band, called Amulet, played the December school show. Smith has given conflicting accounts of his alleged expulsion: elsewhere saying that he was suspended, that it was because he did not get along with the school headmaster, and, on another occasion, claiming that he was suspended "because my attitude towards religion was considered wrong. I thought, incredible".
Robert Smith has said that his first band when he was fourteen consisted of "my brother Richard, some of his friends and my younger sister Janet. It was called the Crawley Goat Band – brilliant!" However, while the Crawley Goat Band may have been Smith's first regular group, he would have been just thirteen when he and his Notre Dame schoolmates gave their first one-off performance together as the Obelisk. The Obelisk featured Robert Smith, alongside Marc Ceccagno, Michael Dempsey, Alan Hill and Laurence "Lol" Tolhurst and, according to the Cure's official biography Ten Imaginary Years, gave their only performance at a school function in April 1972. Jeff Apter, dates the performance to April 1973, at variance with Smith and his bandmates having left Notre Dame Middle School by this time. During the latter part of 1972, the nucle
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. The music is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, the label is applied spuriously. Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization and dynamization. Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, extended instrumental segments; some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock.
While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it refers more to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre. The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas; the genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia; as a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, improvisation.
Common features include: electric guitars used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units. The term "psychedelic" was coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond first as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy; as the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being used by 1967. The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are used interchangeably, but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation, heavier, relied on long jams, focused more directly on LSD, made greater use of distortion. In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers and engineers to experiment with musical form, unnatural reverb, other sound effects; some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados. XTC's Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with.
There was no transition to be made. You go from things like'Flying Purple People Eater' to'I Am the Walrus', they go hand-in-hand." Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It"; the first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25". A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock'n' roll scene. By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P. J. Proby, the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK. American folk singer Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music.
He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s. Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz and folk musicians.