Carl Sigismund Kunth
Carl Sigismund Kunth Karl Sigismund Kunth or anglicized as Charles Sigismund Kunth, was a German botanist. He is known for being one of the first to study and categorise plants from the American continents, publishing Nova genera et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Bonpland et Humboldt. Born in Leipzig, Kunth became a merchant's clerk in Berlin in 1806. After meeting Alexander von Humboldt, who helped him attend lectures at the University of Berlin, Kunth became interested in botany. Kunth worked as Humboldt's assistant in Paris from 1813 to 1819, in which he classified the plants, collected by Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland during their journey through the Americas; when Kunth returned to Berlin in 1820, he became professor of botany at the University of Berlin, as well as vice president of the botanical garden. In 1829, he was elected member of the Academy of sciences of Berlin. In 1829, he sailed for South America and during a space of three years, visited Chile, Brazil, Central America, the West Indies.
After his death in 1850, the Prussian government acquired his botanical collection, which formed part of the royal herbarium in Berlin. An endemic Hawaiian fern species is named after him: Doodia kunthiana, a member of the Blechnacea family of ferns. Note: Kunth = C. S. Kunth = H. B. K. Nova genera et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Bonpland et Humboldt on Botanicus Les mimosees et autres plantes legumineuses du nouveau continent Synopsis plantarum quas in itinere ad plagain aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Humboldt et Bonpland Les graminees de l'Amerique du Sud Handbuch der Botanik Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjects Characteribus, Differentiis et Synonymis. Stutgardiae et Tubingae: Sumtibus J. G. Cottae. 1843. Lehrbuch der Botanik Les melastomees et autres plantes legumineuses de l'Amerique du Sud Wilson, J. G.. "Kunth, Charles Sigismund". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.
New York: D. Appleton. Ernst Wunschmann, "Kunth, Karl Sigismund", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 17, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 394–397 Malpighiaceae/Kunth
Jonathan Stokes was an English physician and botanist, a member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, an early adopter of the heart drug digitalis. Stokes was born in Chesterfield, around 1755 and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1778, qualifying as MD in 1782, he practised medicine in Stourbridge and pursued interests in botany as a plant collector and cataloguer. Stokes became associated with William Withering and botanist, a member of the influential Lunar Society. Stokes had dedicated his thesis on oxygen to Withering and became a member with him of the Lunar Society from 1783 to 1788. Stokes contributed to Withering's An Account of the Foxglove and its Medical Uses, writing a preface on the history of digitalis and providing details of six clinical trials on patients he had treated for heart failure using Withering's pioneer method, he helped to disseminate medical knowledge of digitalis, lecturing to the Medical Society of Edinburgh on 20 February 1799. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1788.
In 1790 Stokes was elected as one of the inaugural 16 associates of the newly founded Linnean Society of London and corresponded with Carolus Linnaeus the Younger. He spent the rest of his life in private medical practice in Chesterfield and pursued many scientific interests, publishing A Botanical Materia Medica: Consisting of the Generic and Specific Characters of the Plants Used in Medicine and Diet, with Synonyms, References to Medical Authors and Botanical Commentaries, he was buried at St Mary's, Chesterfield. The plant Stokesia cyanea or Stokesia laevis is named after him. Stokes collaborated with Withering on all editions up to the third volume of the second edition of Withering's standard botanical text, The Botanical Arrangement of All the Vegetables Naturally Growing in Great Britain. Withering and Stokes disagreed with the level of contribution that Stokes's had made to the new edition. Most records state that Withering fell out with Erasmus Darwin. While it is true there were disagreements with both, the disputes were contemporaneous.
Stokes disagreed with Withering and failed to agree with the appointed arbitrator, a personal friend and known only by reputation to Withering. Withering did not "fall out" with Erasmus Darwin. Erasmus Darwin tried in an underhand way to claim precedence in identifying the medical use of Digitalis, he failed and could not tolerate Withering's success and so set out to deliberately destroy Withering's reputation. A letter from Darwin to Dr. Johnstone in Birmingham dated 1788 exists seeking such evidence and trying to accuse Withering of Quackery – the worst insult that could be used at that time; the letter is in the Osler Withering bequest at the Royal Society of Medicine in London. Darwin wrote two further toned letters to Matthew Boulton in 1789, they all failed. The reason for the disagreement with Stokes is unclear and is down to lack of a formal arrangement between them. Stokes failed to return around 150 of Withering's books. Withering had to reclaim these through legal action; when returned, all of the books had been damaged by having plates removed.
Withering's letter listing the volumes – some were around 100 years old – is in the Osler Withering bequest at the Royal Society of Medicine in London. Withering was protective of his reputation and having to deal with the malice of Erasmus Darwin may have become over-defensive as a reaction. Stokes' contributions to Withering's work was significant but it is now impossible to know whether his claim to be considered as a joint/co-author was justified. Stokes, Jonathan. A Botanical Materia Medica. London: J. Johnson and Company. Stokes, Jonathan. Botanical Commentaries. London: Simpkin and Marshall. Schofield, Robert E.. "The Lunar Society of Birmingham: A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth-Century England". Oxford: Clarendon Press. Uglow, Jenny; the Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-374-19440-8. Goldthorp, W. O.. "Medical Classics: An Account of the Foxglove and Some of its Medicinal Uses by William Withering, published 1785". Br Med J. 338: b2189.
Doi:10.1136/bmj.b2189. OLIS bibliography
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
Johannes Burman, was a Dutch botanist and physician. Burman specialized in plants from Ceylon and Cape Colony; the name Pelargonium was introduced by Johannes Burman. Johannes Burman was the eldest son of his wife Elizabeth Thierens, his brother was the theologian Frans Burman. He started his studies in Leiden in 1722 under Herman Boerhaave, qualified in 1728 as a doctor of medicine, after which he practiced in Amsterdam. After the death of Frederik Ruysch he was appointed Professor of Botany in Amsterdam. Johannes Burman was married to Adriana van Buuren, their son Nicolaas Laurens Burman was a botanist and studied under Linné in Uppsala. Carl Linnaeus, in 1735 on a trip through Holland, was invited by Burman, carrying a letter of recommendation from Herman Boerhaave. Burman was offered him accommodation in his home on Keizersgracht. Linnaeus was employed by Burman six weeks to complete a flora of the plants of Ceylon. Burman introduced Linnaeus to George Clifford III and Clifford showed them a fantastic book.
It was not in Burman's collections and Clifford said he could have it in exchange for Linnaeus, employed to survey the gardens and the menagerie at Hartekamp. Burman was commemorated by Linné in the genus Burmannia and family Burmanniaceae. Burmann published his book with plants from the Cape Colony based on a collection by Nicolaes Witsen, the work of Caspar Commelin and Simon van der Stel? In his book on Amboinese plants he used the work of Rumphius. For research and as illustrations on plants from the West-Indies he used the work of the French botanist Charles Plumier; the standard author abbreviation Burm. is used to indicate this individual as the author when citing a botanical name. Burman's published works include: Thesaurus zeylanicus, exhibens plantas in insula Zeylana nascentes. Rariorum Africanarum plantarum. Herbarium Amboinense, plurimas complectens arbores, herbas... réédition de l’herbier de Georg Eberhard Rumphius. Plantarum Americanarum fasciculus primus. Auctuarium. Vacendorfia.
De ferrariae charactere. Flora malabarici. Herbarium Amboinense Amsterdam. 1747 1750 Media related to Johannes Burman at Wikimedia Commons
Karl Moritz Schumann
Karl Moritz Schumann was a German botanist. Dr. Schumann was the curator of the Botanisches Museum in Berlin-Dahlem from 1880 until 1894, he served as the first chairman of the Deutsche Kakteen-Gesellschaft which he founded November 6, 1892. Karl Moritz Schumann participated as a collaborator in Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien by Adolf Engler and K. A. E. Prantl and in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius; the genera Schumannianthus, Schumanniophyton and several species were named after him, including: Schumann, K. M. "Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen", 1898. Schumann, K. M. et al. "Kakteen im Auftrage der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft", 1900-1921. Schumann, K. M. "Praktikum für morphologische und systematische Botanik", 1904. Works by or about Karl Moritz Schumann at Internet Archive Mexikon — brief biography and picture. Deutsche Kakteen Gesellschaft Harvard University Herbaria entry
Louis Claude Richard
Louis Claude Marie Richard was a French botanist and botanical illustrator. Richard was born at Versailles. Between 1781 and 1789 he collected botanical specimens in the West Indies. On his return he became a professor at the École de médecine in Paris, his books included Demonstrations botaniques, De Orchideis europaeis, Commentatio botanica de Conifereis et Cycadeis and De Musaceis commentatio botanica. He gave us the special description terminology such as pollinium and gynostemium; the genus Richardia Kunth, was named in his honor. It is now a synonym of the genus Zantedeschia; this botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Rich. When citing a botanical name, his son was Achille Richard. He discovered Morgat in the 1880s. A species of Caribbean lizard, Anolis richardii, is named in honor of Louis Claude Richard. A species of Caribbean snake, Typhlops richardii, is named in honor of either Louis Claude Richard or his son Achille Richard. Other botanists called Richard are:Achille Richard, his son Jean Michel Claude Richard Olivier Jules Richard Claude Richard fl.
Joseph Herve Pierre Richard Urban, Ignaz. Notae biographicae, Symb. Antill. 3:111,1900
Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming, he made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, notably erecting a number of plant families that are still accepted today. Brown was born in Montrose on 21 December 1773, he was the son of James Brown, a minister in the Scottish Episcopal Church with Jacobite convictions so strong that in 1788 he defied his church's decision to give allegiance to George III. His mother was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister; as a child Brown attended the local Grammar School Marischal College at Aberdeen, but withdrew in his fourth year when the family moved to Edinburgh in 1790. His father died late the following year. Brown enrolled to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh, but developed an interest in botany, ended up spending more of his time on the latter than the former.
He attended the lectures of John Walker. He began corresponding with and collecting for William Withering, one of the foremost British botanists of his day. Highlights for Brown during this period include his discovery of a new species of grass, Alopecurus alpinus. Brown dropped out of his medical course in 1793. Late in 1794, he enlisted in the Fifeshire Fencibles, his regiment was posted to Ireland shortly after. In June 1795 he was appointed Surgeon's Mate, his regiment saw little action, however, he had a good deal of leisure time all of which he spent on botany. He was frustrated by his itinerant lifestyle, which prevented him from building his personal library and specimen collection as he would have liked, cut him off from the most important herbaria and libraries. During this period Brown was interested in cryptogams, these would be the subject of Brown's first, albeit unattributed, publication. Brown began a correspondence with James Dickson, by 1796 was sending him specimens and descriptions of mosses.
Dickson incorporated Brown's descriptions into his Fasciculi plantarum cryptogamicarum britanniae, with Brown's permission but without any attribution. By 1800, Brown was established amongst Irish botanists, was corresponding with a number of British and foreign botanists, including Withering, James Edward Smith and José Correia da Serra, he had been nominated to the Linnean Society of London. He had begun experimenting with microscopy. However, as an army surgeon stationed in Ireland there seemed little prospect of him attracting the notice of those who could offer him a career in botany. In 1798, Brown heard that Mungo Park had withdrawn from a proposed expedition into the interior of New Holland, leaving a vacancy for a naturalist. At Brown's request, Correia wrote to Sir Joseph Banks, suggesting Brown as a suitable replacement: Science is the gainer in this change of man, he is a Scotchman, fit to pursue an object with cold mind. He was not selected, the expedition did not end up going ahead as proposed, though George Caley was sent to New South Wales as a botanical collector for Banks.
In 1800, Matthew Flinders put to Banks a proposal for an expedition that would answer the question whether New Holland was one island or several. Banks approved Flinders' proposal, in December 1800 wrote to Brown offering him the position of naturalist to the expedition. Brown accepted immediately. Brown was told to expect to sail at the end of 1800, only a few weeks after being offered the position. A succession of delays meant the voyage did not get under way until July 1801. Brown spent much of the meantime preparing for the voyage by studying Banks' Australian plant specimens and copying out notes and descriptions for use on the voyage. Though Brown's brief was collect scientific specimens of all sorts, he was told to give priority to plants and birds, to treat other fields, such as geology, as secondary pursuits. In addition to Brown, the scientific staff comprised the renowned botanical illustrator Ferdinand Bauer. Brown was given authority over Bauer and Good, both of whom were instructed to give any specimens they might collect to Brown, rather than forming separate collections.
Both men would provide enthusiastic and hard-working companions for Brown, thus Brown's specimen collections contain material colle