SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Peat

Peat known as turf, is an accumulation of decayed vegetation or organic matter. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, mires, moors, or muskegs; the peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition", but it takes "thousands of years for peatlands to develop the deposits of 1.5 to 2.3 m, the average depth of the boreal peatlands". Sphagnum moss called peat moss, is one of the most common components in peat, although many other plants can contribute; the biological features of Sphagnum mosses act to create a habitat aiding peat formation, a phenomenon termed'habitat manipulation'. Soils consisting of peat are known as histosols. Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flooding or stagnant water obstructs the flow of oxygen from the atmosphere, slowing the rate of decomposition. Peatlands bogs, are the primary source of peat, although less-common wetlands including fens and peat swamp forests deposit peat.

Landscapes covered in peat are home to specific kinds of plants including Sphagnum moss, ericaceous shrubs, sedges. Because organic matter accumulates over thousands of years, peat deposits provide records of past vegetation and climate by preserving plant remains, such as pollen; this allows the reconstruction of past environments and study changes in land use. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world. By volume, there are about 4 trillion cubic metres of peat in the world, covering a total of around 2% of the global land area, containing about 8 billion terajoules of energy. Over time, the formation of peat is the first step in the geological formation of fossil fuels such as coal low-grade coal such as lignite; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change classifies peat as neither a fossil fuel nor a renewable fuel, notes that its emission characteristics are similar to fossil fuels. At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emission intensity of peat is higher than that of coal and natural gas.

Peat is not a renewable source of energy, due to its extraction rate in industrialized countries far exceeding its slow regrowth rate of 1 mm per year, as it is reported that peat regrowth takes place only in 30–40% of peatlands. Because of this, the UNFCCC, another organization affiliated with the United Nations classified peat as a fossil fuel. Many in the peat industry describe it as a "slowly renewable" fuel. Peat forms when plant material does not decay in acidic and anaerobic conditions, it is composed of wetland vegetation: principally bog plants including mosses and shrubs. As it accumulates, the peat holds water; this creates wetter conditions that allow the area of wetland to expand. Peatland features can include ponds and raised bogs; the characteristics of some bog plants promote bog formation. For example, Sphagnum mosses secrete tannins, which preserve organic material. Sphagnum have special water retaining cells, known as Hyaline cells, which can release water ensuring the bogland remains wet which helps promote peat production.

Most modern peat bogs formed 12,000 years ago in high latitudes after the glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age. Peat accumulates at the rate of about a millimetre per year; the estimated carbon content is 547 GtC, 50 GtC and 15 GtC. Peat material is either hemic, or sapric. Fibric peats are the least consist of intact fibre. Hemic peats are decomposed and sapric are the most decomposed. Phragmites peat are composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, other grasses, it is denser than many other types of peat. Engineers may describe a soil as peat which has a high percentage of organic material; this soil is problematic because it exhibits poor consolidation properties – it cannot be compacted to serve as a stable foundation to support loads, such as roads or buildings. In a cited article and Clarke defined peatlands or mires as...the most widespread of all wetland types in the world, representing 50 to 70% of global wetlands. They cover over 3 % of the land and freshwater surface of the planet.

In these ecosystems are found one third of the world's soil carbon and 10% of global freshwater resources. These ecosystems are characterized by the unique ability to accumulate and store dead organic matter from Sphagnum and many other non-moss species, as peat, under conditions of permanent water saturation. Peatlands are adapted to the extreme conditions of high water and low oxygen content, of toxic elements and low availability of plant nutrients, their water chemistry varies from alkaline to acidic. Peatlands occur on all continents, from the tropical to boreal and Arctic zones from sea level to high alpine conditions. A more recent estimate from an improved global peatland map, PEATMAP, based on a meta-analysis of geospatial information at global and national levels puts global coverage higher than earlier peatland inventories at 4.23 million square kilometres 2.84% of the world land area. In Europe, peatlands extend to about 515,000 km2. About 60% of the world's wetl

The Ike & Tina Turner Story: 1960–1975

The Ike & Tina Turner Story: 1960–1975 is an anthology released by Time Life in 2007. It includes a 24 page booklet; the Ike & Tina Turner Story: 1960-1975 compiles recordings that documents Ike & Tina Turner's "evolution from a sharp-dressed St. Louis-based revue, to the opening act for the Rolling Stones, to the toast of Hugh Hefner's Playboy Mansion, to headlining the Soul to Soul 1971 concert in Ghana."The first two discs features Ike & Tina Turner’s greatest hits and some live tracks. The first disc concentrates on the first half of the'60s, the second on their late'60s and'70s work; the third disc is devoted to the entire live album In Person released in 1969, which finds its first CD release on this compilation. Reviewing the album for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote:Time/Life's three-disc box The Ike & Tina Turner Story 1960-1975 comes close to being that long-awaited definitive set. It's close enough to satisfy...yet it falls just short of being the final word due to that long-standing problem of cross-licensing.

Here, the blind spot is the mid- to late'60s, as this is missing the legendary Phil Spector production of "River Deep-Mountain High" and cuts that show up on EMI-affiliated compilations, such as "Funkier Than a Mosquito's Tweeter" and other minor charting singles. These songs "River Deep," are missed, but their absence hurts the set only because this traces their story well and has all the other major hits and singles

Cachoeira Dourada

Cachoeira Dourada is municipality in south-central Goiás state, Brazil. The population was 7,567 in a total area of 521.1 km2. The municipality of Cachoeira Dourada is located in the extreme south of Goiás at a distance of 258 kilometers from the state capital, Goiânia, it lies on the banks of the Paranaíba and is 31 kilometers southwest of the important city of Itumbiara. It is part of the geographical microregion designated Meia Ponte Microregion. There are boundaries on the north and east with Itumbiara, on the south with the Paranaíba, on the west with Inaciolândia; the main access routes are GO-260, GO-153, GO-452, MG-154 and MG-365. The distance to state capital, Goiânia, is 228 km. Highway connections from Goiânia are made by BR-153 / Aparecida de Goiânia / Professor Jamil / Serrinha / Itumbiara / BR-452 / GO-206 / BR-483. Source for distances: Sepin Besides the municipal seat there were the hamlets of Almeirindonópolis, Nilópolis and Vila Operária da Celg. Population density in 2007: 14.52 inhabitants/km2 Population growth rate 1996/2007: -0.76.% Total population in 2007: 7,567 Total population in 1991: 8,502 Urban population in 2007: 5,085 Rural population in 2007: 2,482 City government in 2005: mayor, vice-mayor, 09 councilmembers Cachoeira Dourada was first made a district of Itumbiara in 1962, becoming a municipality in 1982 The main economic activities are cattle raising and the hydroelectric energy plant.

Cotton and soybeans are the most important crops. Retail establishments: 100 in 2007 Industrial establishments: 09 Financial institutions: 03—HSBC, Banco do Brasil S. A. Banco Multiplo Dairies: Miqueline Ltda. Rice: 500 ha. Corn: 4,000 ha. Bananas: 80 ha. Beans: 120 ha. Soybeans: 4,700 ha. Cotton: 680 ha. Farms: 157 Total area: 31,630 ha. Area of permanent crops: 132 ha. Area of perennial crops: 9,013 ha. Area of natural pasture: 19,073 ha. Persons dependent on farming: 600 Farms with tractors: 92 Number of tractors: 177 IBGE Infant mortality rate in 2000: 16.68 Infant mortality rate in 1990: 29.47 Total health units: 04 Hospitals: 01 with 16 beds Literacy rate in 2000: 82.6 Literacy rate in 1991: 73.2 Schools: 08 with 2,667 students MHDI: 0.759 State ranking: 56 National ranking: 1,603 In tourism, the artificial lake formed by the Itumbiara Dam on the Paranaíba is the main attraction. The lake is navigable between Cachoeira Itumbiara, a distance of 64 kilometers; the region has springs of a unique phenomenon in the country.

This water is consumed for its reputed therapeutic qualities. List of municipalities in Goiás Frigoletto