A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.
Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations broke away.
These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism
In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and in the Eastern Rite Catholic Churches, the equivalent vestment is the phelonion. The vestment proper to the priest celebrant at Mass and other sacred actions directly connected with Mass is, unless otherwise indicated, like the stole, it is normally of the liturgical colour of the Mass being celebrated. The chasuble originated as a sort of poncho, called in Latin a casula or little house. It was simply a roughly oval piece of cloth, with a hole in the middle through which to pass the head. It had to be gathered up on the arms to allow the arms to be used freely, in its liturgical use in the West, this garment was folded up from the sides to leave the hands free. Strings were sometimes used to assist in task, and the deacon could help the priest in folding up the sides of the vestment. Beginning in the 13th century, there was a tendency to shorten the sides a little, in the 20th century, there began to be a return to an earlier, more ample, form of the chasuble, sometimes called Gothic, as distinguished from the Roman scapular form.
There exists a photograph of Pope Pius XI wearing the more ample chasuble while celebrating Mass in Saint Peters Basilica as early as 19 March 1930. Ornamentation on vestments should, consist of figures, that is, of images or symbols, the prevalence today of chasubles that reach almost to the ankles, and to the wrists, and decorated with relatively simple symbols or bands and orphreys. By comparison, fiddleback vestments were often heavily embroidered or painted with detailed decorations or whole scenes depicted. Use of scapular Roman chasubles, whether with straight edges or in form, is sometimes associated with traditionalism. However, some priests prefer them simply on grounds of taste and comfort, Pope Benedict XVI sometimes used chasubles of the transitional style common at the end of the 16th century. Many, but not all and Anglican churches make use of the chasuble and it has always been used by the Lutheran denominations of Scandinavia, which practice weekly Communion. German Lutherans, who practise weekly Communion, used it for the first two hundred years after the Reformation but replaced it with the Geneva Gown, a variety of practices emerged in North America but by the mid-20th century, the alb and stole became widely customary.
More recently, the chasuble has been readopted for Communion services in both Germany and North America, today, it has become customary except for some Low Church Anglicans. It is not customary and rarely seen in Protestantism outside of the liturgical churches, in Oscar Wildes 1895 play The Importance of Being Earnest, Dr. Chasuble is a clergyman who, in the 2002 film adaptation, is seen wearing his namesake vestment. Image 1 Image 2 The chasuble from the vestments of the Order of the Golden Fleece in the Secular Treasury of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, a sketch of a chasuble worn by St. Thomas Becket
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. This way of life grew common in the eighth century, in the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth. Those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, in the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e. g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a Vicar Capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, however, they are ordained, that is, priests or members of the clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained almost exclusively in connection with cathedral churches, a canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, which is responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches.
The dean and chapter are the body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, however, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a largely honorary title. It is usually awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese, honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments. They are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral, in some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council, on the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, and hence is currently held by François Hollande. This applies even when the French President is not Catholic, as is the case with the atheist Hollande, the proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain, currently Felipe VI.
The rank of lay canon is especially conferred upon diocesan chancellors and it has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David’s Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception, the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David’s became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries. The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s, even as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, a canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Historically, the chair in Greek at the university was a canon professorship and this canonry was transferred to the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in 1940
Bishop of Lincoln
The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. The present diocese covers the county of Lincolnshire and the unitary authority areas of North Lincolnshire, the bishops seat is located in the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the city of Lincoln. The cathedral was originally a church founded around 653 and refounded as a cathedral in 1072. Until the 1530s the bishops were in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. The historic medieval Bishops Palace lies immediately to the south of the cathedral in Palace Yard, managed by English Heritage, an adjacent residence was converted from office accommodation to reopen in 2009 as a 16-bedroom conference centre and wedding venue. It is now known as Edward King House and provides offices for the Bishops, the historic Bishop of Dorchester was a prelate who administered the Diocese of Dorchester in the Anglo-Saxon period. The bishops seat, or cathedra, was at the cathedral in Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire, in the 660s the seat at Dorchester-on-Thames was abandoned, but briefly in the late 670s it was once more a bishops seat under Ætla, under Mercian control.
The town of Dorchester again became the seat of a bishop in around 875, the diocese merged with that of Lindsey in 971, the bishops seat was moved to Lincoln in 1072 and thus the Mercian Bishops of Dorchester were succeeded by the Bishops of Lincoln. The first bishops of Leicester were originally prelates who administered an Anglo-Saxon diocese between the 7th and 9th centuries, the bishopric fell victim to the invasion by the Danes and the episcopal see was transferred to Dorchester-on-Thames in Oxfordshire. The dioceses of Lindsey and Leicester continued until the Danish Viking invasions, the see of Leicester was transferred to Dorchester, now in Oxfordshire, sometime between 869 and 888. After an interruption, the see of Lindsey was resumed until it was united with the bishopric of Dorchester in the early 11th century, the diocese was the largest in England, extending from the River Thames to the Humber Estuary. In 1072, Remigius de Fécamp moved the see of Dorchester to Lincoln, because of this historic link, for a long time Banbury remained a peculiar of the Bishop of Lincoln.
Until the 1530s the bishops were in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. During the English Reformation they changed their allegiance back and forth between the crown and the papacy, under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the bishops conformed to the Church of England, but under Mary I they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the English Reformation, the bishops and diocese of Lincoln have been part of the reformed Church of England, the dioceses of Oxford and Peterborough were created in 1541 out of parts of the Diocese of Lincoln. The county of Leicestershire was transferred from Lincoln to Peterborough in 1837, for precursor offices, see Bishop of Lindsey, Bishop of Leicester and Bishop of Dorchester Kirby, D. P
The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall and it contains organs including the heart and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain, in humans and other hominids, the thorax is the chest region of the body between the neck and the abdomen, along with its internal organs and other contents. It is mostly protected and supported by the rib cage, spine and veins are contained –, bones. The area exposed by open-necked shirts, the V of the chest is sometimes the location of a skin disease polymorphous light eruption. In the human body, the region of the thorax between the neck and diaphragm in the front of the body is called the chest, the corresponding area in an animal can be referred to as the chest. The shape of the chest does not correspond to part of the thoracic skeleton that encloses the heart.
All the breadth of the shoulders is due to the girdle, and contains the axillae. Level with this line the second ribs join the sternum, at the lower part of the sternum, where the seventh or last true ribs join it, the ensiform cartilage begins, and above this there is often a depression known as the pit of the stomach. The bones of the thorax, called the thoracic skeleton is a component of the axial skeleton and it consists of the ribs and sternum. The ribs of the thorax are numbered in ascending order from 1-12. 11 &12 are known as floating ribs because they have no anterior attachment point in particular the cartilage attached to the sternum, as 1-7 are, whereas ribs 8-10 are termed false ribs as their costal cartilage articulates with the rib aboves costal cartilage. The anatomy of the chest can be described through the use of anatomical landmarks, the female nipple is surrounded for half an inch by a more or less pigmented disc, the areola. The apex of a heart is in the fifth left intercostal space.
Different types of diseases or conditions that affect the chest include pleurisy, flail chest and these conditions can be hereditary or caused by birth defects or trauma. Any condition that lowers the ability to breathe deeply or to cough is considered a chest disease or condition. Injury to the chest results in up to ¼ of all due to trauma in the United States. The major pathophysiologies encountered in blunt chest trauma involve derangements in the flow of air, sepsis due to leakage of alimentary tract contents, as in esophageal perforations, must be considered. Blunt trauma commonly results in chest wall injuries, the pain associated with these injuries can make breathing difficult, and this may compromise ventilation
Mass often refers to the entire church service in general, but is specifically the sacrament of the Eucharist. The term mass is called in the Catholic Church, Western Rite Orthodox churches and many Old Catholic, Anglican, as well as some Lutheran churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship, the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, and was sometimes glossed as sendnes, the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i. e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Already Du Cange reports various opinions on the origin of the noun missa mass, including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology, medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est.
Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as the source and summit of the Christian life, to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is exactly the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary, after making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence. This concludes with the prayer of absolution, however. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer. On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given, on other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide, the first reading is followed by a psalm, either sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament, typically one of the Pauline epistles.
A Gospel Acclamation is sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, the final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, the Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities, and it is desirable that in Masses celebrated with the people the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful should usually follow. The congregation responds, May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, the priest pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts. The Eucharistic Prayer, the centre and high point of the entire celebration, the priest continues with one of many Eucharistic Prayer thanksgiving prefaces, which lead to the reciting of the Sanctus acclamation
Pope Francis is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and he was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentinas provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II and he led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on Gods mercy, concern for the poor, populist causes and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be open and welcoming.
He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology, Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, contraception, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U. S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores and he was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italys Piedmont region, Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario Josés family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, María Elena Bergoglio, the Popes only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina, two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles and he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N°27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technicians diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, in the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards, Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello, Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni, Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted an influence over the Christian states of Europe. Pope Innocent was central in supporting the Catholic Churchs reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and this resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. Pope Innocent is notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, Innocent called for Christian crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land, as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. One of Pope Innocents critical decisions was organizing the Fourth Crusade, originally intended to attack Jerusalem through Egypt, a series of unforeseen circumstances led the crusaders to Constantinople, where they ultimately sacked the city in 1204. Lotario de Conti was born in Gavignano, near Anagni and his father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house, which produced nine Popes, including Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII.
Lotario was the nephew of Pope Clement III, his mother, as Pope, Lotario was to play a major role in the shaping of canon law through conciliar canons and decretal letters. He subscribed the papal bulls between 7 December 1190 and 4 November 1197, as a cardinal, Lotario wrote De miseria humanae conditionis. The work was popular for centuries, surviving in more than 700 manuscripts. Although he never returned to the work he intended to write, On the Dignity of Human Nature. Celestine III died on 8 January 1198 and he was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II, as pope, Innocent III began with a very wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority. The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes and he was determined to protect what he called the liberty of the Church from inroads by secular princes. The patrimonium was routinely threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, the early death of Henry VI left his 4-year-old son Frederick II as king.
Henry VI’s widow Constance of Sicily ruled over Sicily for her son before he reached the age of majority. She was as eager to remove German power from the kingdom of Sicily as was Innocent III, before her death in 1198, she named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity. In exchange, Innocent was able to recover papal rights in Sicily that had been surrendered decades earlier to King William I of Sicily by Pope Adrian IV, the Pope invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198
The white or black cassock, or soutane, is an item of Christian clerical clothing used by the clergy of Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Reformed churches, among others. Ankle-length garment is the meaning of the corresponding Latin term. It is related to habit traditionally worn by nuns, the cassock derives historically from the tunic that in ancient Rome was worn underneath the toga and the chiton that was worn beneath the himation in ancient Greece. In religious services, it has traditionally been worn underneath vestments, the word cassock comes from Middle French casaque, meaning a long coat. In turn, the old French word may come ultimately from Turkish quzzak, the name was originally specially applied to the dress worn by soldiers and horsemen, and to the long garment worn in civil life by both men and women. As an ecclesiastical term the word came into use somewhat late, being mentioned in canon 74 of 1604. The word soutane is a French-derived word, coming from Italian sottana, derived in turn from Latin subtana, the cassock comes in a number of styles or cuts, though no particular symbolism attaches to these.
A Roman cassock often has a series of buttons down the front – sometimes thirty-three, in some English-speaking countries these buttons may be merely ornamental, with a concealed fly-front buttoning, known as a Chesterfield front, used to fasten the garment. A French cassock has buttons sewn to the sleeves after the manner of a suit, an Ambrosian cassock has a series of only five buttons under the neck, with a sash on the waist. A Jesuit cassock, in lieu of buttons, has a fly fastened with hooks at the collar and is bound at the waist with a cincture knotted on the right side. The ordinary Roman cassock worn by Roman Catholic clerics is black except in tropical countries, the 1969 Instruction on the dress of prelates stated that for all of them, even cardinals, the dress for ordinary use may be a simple black cassock without coloured trim. A band cincture or sash, known as a fascia, the Instruction on the dress of prelates specifies that the two ends that hang down by the side have silk fringes, abolishing the sash with tassels.
The Pope wears a white watered-silk fascia, sometimes with his coat of arms on the ends, cardinals have the additional distinction of having both choir cassock sleeves and the fascia made of scarlet watered-silk. The cut of the cassock is still a Roman-cut or French-cut Roman cassock. In the past, a cardinals cassock was made entirely of watered silk and this train was abolished by the motu proprio Valde solliciti of Pope Pius XII with effect from 1 January 1953. An elbow-length shoulder cape, open in front, is worn with the cassock. It is known as a pellegrina and it is distinct from the mozzetta, which is buttoned in front and is worn over a rochet. The general rule of the Roman Catholic Church is that the pellegrina may be worn with the cassock by cardinals, others too have made the same distinction between the simar and the cassock, but many scholars disagree with Nainfas distinction
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus, the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, and one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. The symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, the crucifix emphasizes Jesus sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, Western crucifixes usually have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus body is normally painted on the cross, or in low relief. Strictly speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, an entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either. Large crucifixes high across the axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood.
By the late Middle Ages these were a feature of Western churches. The standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes, there may be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI. The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is normally a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as already dead, his face peaceful, more sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are used in Orthodoxy, including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses. Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face very often shows his suffering, in Orthodoxy he has normally been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Eastern crucifixes have Jesus two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century. The crown of thorns is absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christs suffering.
The S-shaped position of Jesus body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century, probably more from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West, especially to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes. Its in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus suffering and realistic details, during the 13th century the suffering Italian model triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one anywhere in Europe due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the S-shape is generally less pronounced. He may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, on some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha, the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew the place of the skull. Very large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, prayer in front of a crucifix, which is seen as a sacramental, is often part of devotion for Christians, especially those worshipping in a church, and privately
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as a title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning father or abba, in the Septuagint, it was written as abbas. At first it was employed as a title for any monk. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests. An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, the English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under him, by the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot any exception, for the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church. This rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, the change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD448,23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century. The Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight, in the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.
It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Albans, next after the abbot of St Albans ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, the power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, however, by the canon law. One of the goals of monasticism was the purgation of self and selfishness
Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy. It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for services, practices vary, is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest, minister, or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun, in modern times, many Christian clergy have adopted the use of a shirt with a clerical collar. In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism, a distinction between liturgical vestments and clerical clothing is that vestments are required to be blessed before being worn. Conversely, clerical clothing is not, and is regarded as daily wear, inner cassock, The inner cassock is a floor length garment, usually black, worn by all clergy members and seminarians. Outer cassock, Called a ryasa or exorason, the cassock is a large flowing garment worn over the inner cassock by bishops, deacons. Skufia, A soft-sided cap worn by monastics or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor, kamilavka, A stiff hat worn by monastics or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor.
Apostolnik, A veil worn either by nuns, either alone or with a skufia, epanokamelavkion, A veil extending over the back, worn with the kamilavka by all monastics and bishops. Klobuk, A kamilavka with a permanently attached, more common in the Russian tradition. Married Priests can wear an exorasson or zostikon when not celebrating Liturgy and they may wear a vest called a kontorasson, usually during colder weather. The colors of their cassocks vary between the black and blue. Monks, Hieromonks & Bishops all wear the klobuk as part of their mark of celibacy, some monks will wear the zostikon and skufia when doing daily work around a monastery. Readers & Subdeacons rarely wear a cassock outside of church, but are required to wear one in church when not serving. In 1215, a council made it mandatory for all the Christian clergy to wear distinctive dress. Its purpose was not necessarily to elevate the status of the Christian clerics, depending on the climate it can be made of very lightweight material or heavy wool.
In tropical climates white is worn and this is the norm for secular clergy and members of religious institutes. Some religious societies such as the Jesuits and Redemptorists wear their own style of cassock and friars wear a habit which can differ considerably from the cassock. The color is black for priests, black with purple piping for canons, black with fuchsia piping for monsignors, black with red piping for bishops, the Roman Pontiff wears a white cassock