A vase is an open container, today often used to hold cut flowers. It can be made from a number of materials, such as ceramics, non-rusting metals, such as aluminum, bronze or stainless steel. Even wood has been used to make vases, either by using tree species that naturally resist rot, such as teak, vases generally have a similar shape. Lowest is the foot, a base to the piece. The design of the base may be bulbous, carinate, next, is the body, which forms the main portion of the piece. Resting atop the body is the shoulder, where the body curves inward, the neck, where the vase is given more height. Lastly, the lip, where the vase flares back out at the top, all these attributes can be seen in the picture at right. Some vases are given handles, in the pottery of ancient Greece vase-painting is the traditional term covering the famous fine painted pottery, often with many figures in scenes from Greek mythology. Such pieces may be referred to as vases regardless of their shape, most were in used for holding or serving liquids.
Various styles developed around the world in different time periods, such as Chinese ceramics, in 2003, Grayson Perry won the Turner Prize for his ceramics, typically in vase form. Ceramic art Corning Museum of Glass Pottery Urn
Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.
Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampment
Often, there is a central large drawer above the legs and knees of the user. This variation is called a panel desk. The smaller and older pedestal desks with such a panel are sometimes called kneehole desks, from the mid-18th century onwards, the pedestal desk has often had a top that is inlaid with a large panel of leather or baize for a writing surface, within a cross-banded border. If the desk has a top surface, it may have a pull-out lined writing drawer. Very few non-specialists call this form a pedestal desk, most people usually refer to it as an executive desk, in contrast with the cubicle desk which is assigned to those who work under the executive. However, the term executive desk has been applied to so many forms as to be misleading, so the less-used. The French stayed faithful to the table or bureau plat. However, unlike the pedestal desk, these precursors had a stack of drawers. The cases of drawers were raised about 15–30 cm from the floor on legs. When a pedestal desk is doubled in size to form a nearly square working surface, thomas Chippendale gives designs for such tables, which were generally used in libraries, as writing tables in The Gentleman and Cabinet-Makers Director.
Pedestal desks made of sheet metal were introduced in 1946 and were popular in America until the 1970s. Called tanker desks, they were used in such as schools and business. This kind of form is common for a student desk, the pedestal desk is one of the two principal forms of the big campaign desk, used by the military in the past. It can be considered a desk in a limited way since the writing surface could be easily separated from the pedestals. The three separate elements were often fitted with handles on the sides. Media related to Pedestal desks at Wikimedia Commons List of desk forms and types Computer desk Aronson, Outstanding Projects from Americas Best Craftsmen. Measured Shop Drawings for American Furniture, new York, Sterling Publishing Inc.1985
Henry IV of France
Henry IV, known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era.
Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre.
At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice
Aspalathus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The genus belongs to the sub family Faboideae, there are over 270 species, mainly endemic to southwestern fynbos regions in South Africa, with over fifty occurring on the Cape Peninsula alone. The species Aspalathus linearis is commercially important, being farmed as the source of Rooibos tea, Aspalathus species generally are shrubs or sometimes shrublets. They typically are bushy, but some species may be sprawling or erect with free-standing branches, the flowers of most species are plentiful in season, a rich, showy yellow very common in the Western Cape mountains in particular. The flowers of some yellow-flowering species turn bright red as they fade, Aspalathus leaves are sessile and are simple in some species, but trifoliate in others. In some species they bear hard, spines at their tips, Aspalathus species may be grouped into four categories for purposes of rough identification in the field. One group has undivided leaves, never tufted and this includes Rooibos, Aspalathus linearis with it needle-like leaves, and Aspalathus cordata with its stiff, neatly cordate leaves with their aggressively spiny tips, are typical examples.
Another group has leaflets sharp and acicular, examples include Aspalathus astroites and Aspalathus chenopoda. The fruit of Aspalathus is a pod, and in the majority of species the ovary has two ovules that yield only one seed per pod. Also, many uses were very local, and there was a deal of confusion between different species, even sometimes with similar genera, such as Cyclopia, some species of which yield honeybush tea
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
Bixi or Bi Xi, is a figure from Chinese mythology. One of the 9 sons of the Dragon King, he is depicted as a dragon with the shell of a turtle and they are used at the bases of bridges and archways. Sculptures of Bixi are traditionally rubbed for good luck, which can cause conservation issues and they can be found throughout East Asia in Japan, Vietnam and even the Russian Far East. The tradition of tortoise-mounted stelae originated no than early 3rd century, according to the 1957 survey by Chêng Tê-kun, the earliest extant tortoise-borne stele is thought to be the one at the tomb of Fan Min, in Lushan County, Sichuan. Victor Segalen had earlier identified the stele as a Han dynasty monument, present-day authors agree, the bixi tradition flourished during the Ming and Qing dynasties. He tightened the rules in 1396, leaving only the highest nobility, the type of dragons crowning the tortoise-born stele, and the type and number of other statuary at the tomb site, were prescribed by the same regulations as well.
At the Hongwu Emperors own mausoleum, a huge bixi holding the so-called Shengde stele welcomes visitors at the Sifangcheng pavilion at the entrance of the mausoleum complex. The Hongwu Emperors tortoise tradition was continued by the Ming and Qing emperors, occasionally, a foreign head of state was honored with a bixi as well, as it happened to the sultan of Brunei Abdul Majid Hassan, who died during his visit to China in 1408. The sultans grave, with a suitably royal bixi-based monument, was discovered in Yuhuatai District south of Nanjing in 1958, after an ancient Christian stele was unearthed in Xian in 1625, it, was put on the back of a tortoise. In 1907, this so-called Nestorian Stele was moved to the Stele Forest Museum along with its tortoise and these days, long-lost bixi continue to be unearthed during archaeological excavations nad construction work. Among the most remarkable finds is the discovery of a huge 1200-year-old in Zhengding in June 2006, the stone turtle is 8.4 m long,3.2 m wide, and 2.6 m tall, and weighs 107 tons.
It has since moved to Zhengdings Kaiyuan Temple. The concept of a tortoise-borne, dragon-crowned stele was early adopted by Chinas northern neighbors and it is now in the provincial capital, Tsetserleg. Among them, the most accessible one is probably Bayanchur Khans s Terhin-Gol stele, the Jurchen Jin dynasty and the Mongol Yuan dynasty erected tortoise-based monuments as well, some of which have been preserved in Russias Ussuriysk and Mongolias Karakorum. In Japan, this form of tortoise-supported stele is primarily at the graves of prominent Kamakura period figures. Another large collection of tortoise-borne stelae, spanning 17th through 19th centuries, the form does not seem to have been particularly popular in earlier or times. In Korea, tortoise-borne stelae are known already during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, monuments of this type have been preserved from the Goryeo dynasty as well, such as the Stele of Bongseon Honggyeongsa. Vietnam has a tradition of tortoise-born stelae, where they commemorate emperor Lê Lợi as well as the graduates of the Confucian academy at Hanois Temple of Literature
A propylaea, propylea or propylaia is any monumental gateway in Greek architecture. Much the best known Greek example is the propylaea that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens, the Greek Revival Brandenburg Gate of Berlin and the Propylaea in Munich both evoke the central portion of the Athens propylaea. According to Plutarch, the Propylaea was designed by the architect Mnesicles, construction began in 437 BC and was terminated in 432, when the building was still unfinished. The Propylaea was constructed of white Pentelic marble and gray Eleusinian marble or limestone, structural iron was used, though William Bell Dinsmoor analyzed the structure and concluded that the iron weakened the building. The structure consists of a building with two adjoining wings on the west side, one to the north and one to the south. The core is the building, which presents a standard six-columned Doric façade both on the West to those entering the Acropolis and on the east to those departing. The columns echo the proportions of the columns of the Parthenon, there is no surviving evidence for sculpture in the pediments.
The central building contains the gate wall, about two-thirds of the way through it, the central passageway was the culmination of the Sacred Way, which led to the Acropolis from Eleusis. Entrance into the Acropolis was controlled by the Propylaea, though it was not built as a fortified structure, it was important that people not ritually clean be denied access to the sanctuary. In addition, runaway slaves and other miscreants could not be permitted into the sanctuary where they could claim the protection of the gods, the state treasury was kept on the Acropolis, making its security important. The gate wall and the portion of the building sit at a level five steps above the western portion. The ceiling in the part of the central building was famous in antiquity. It consisted of marble blocks carved in the shape of ceiling coffers, the outer wings to the right and left of the central building stood on the same platform as the western portion of the central building but were much smaller, not only in plan but in scale.
Like the central building, the wings use Doric colonnades and Doric entablatures, the central building has an Ionic colonnade on either side of the central passageway between the western Doric colonnade and the gate wall. This is therefore the first building known to us with Doric and Ionic colonnades visible at the same time and it is the first monumental building in the classical period to be more complex than a simple rectangle or cylinder. The western wing on the north was famous in antiquity as the location of paintings of important Greek battles, Pausanias reports their presence, but few scholars believe the room was planned to hold them. Recent scholarship, following the lead of John Travlos, has taken the northern wing to have been a room for ritual dining, the evidence for that is the off-center doorway and the position near the entrance to the Acropolis. The wing on the south, though smaller, was clearly designed to make the whole structure appear to be symmetrical
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
The Hongwu Emperor, personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder and first emperor of Chinas Ming dynasty. Following his seizure of the Yuan capital, Zhu claimed the Mandate of Heaven, trusting only in his family, he made his many sons powerful feudal princes along the northern marches and the Yangtze valley. Most of the sites related to the Hongwu Emperor are located in Nanjing. Zhu was a born into a poor peasant tenant farmer family in Zhongli Village in the Huai River plain. His father was Zhu Shizhen and his mother was Chen Erniang and he had seven older siblings, several of whom were given away by his parents, as they did not have enough food to support the family. When he was 16, severe drought ruined the harvest where his family lived, famine killed his entire family, except one of his brothers. He buried them by wrapping them in white clothes, Zhu accepted a suggestion to take up a pledge made by his brother and became a novice monk at the Huangjue Temple, a local Buddhist monastery.
He did not remain there for long, as the monastery ran short of funds, for the next few years, Zhu led the life of a wandering beggar and personally experienced and saw the hardships of the common people. After about three years, he returned to the monastery and stayed there until he was around 24 years old and he learned to read and write during the time he spent with the Buddhist monks. The monastery where Zhu lived was eventually destroyed by an army that was suppressing a local rebellion, in 1352, Zhu joined one of the many insurgent forces that had risen in rebellion against the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. He rose rapidly through the ranks and became a commander, in 1356, and his army conquered Nanjing, which became his base of operations, and the capital of the Ming dynasty during his reign. Zhus government in Nanjing became famous for good governance, and the city attracted vast numbers of people fleeing from other and it is estimated that Nanjings population increased by 10 times over the next 10 years.
In the meantime, the Yuan government had weakened by internal factions fighting for control. By 1358, central and southern China had fallen into the hands of different rebel groups, during that time the Red Turbans split up. Zhu became the leader of a faction, while the larger faction, under Chen Youliang. Zhu was able to attract many talents into his service, one of them was Zhu Sheng, who advised him, Build high walls, stock up rations, and dont be too quick to call yourself a king. Another, Jiao Yu, was an officer, who compiled a military treatise outlining the various types of gunpowder weapons. Another one, Liu Bowen, became one of Zhus key advisors, starting from 1360, and Chen Youliang fought a protracted war for supremacy over the former territories controlled by the Red Turbans
A mandarin was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China. The English term comes from the Portuguese mandarim and its usage among the Portuguese is attested by Matteo Ricci, who entered mainland China from Portuguese Macau in the late 16th century. The Portuguese word was thought by many to be related to mandador and mandar, modern dictionaries, agree that it was in fact borrowed by Portuguese from the Malay, which ultimately came from the Sanskrit mantri. In the 16th century, before the term became widespread in the European languages. It is frequently used, for example, in Galeote Pereiras account of his experiences in China in 1548–1553, boxer explains, the word comes from the Chinese 老爷, which was commonly used by people in China to address officials. For around 1,300 years, from 605 to 1905, China has had civil servants since at least the Zhou Dynasty. However, most high ranking positions were filled by relatives of the sovereign and it was not until the Tang Dynasty when the final form of the mandarin was completed with the replacement of the nine-rank system.
The mandarins were the founders and core of the Chinese gentry, a governmental office headed by a mandarin is called a yamen. The mandarins were replaced with a civil service after the fall of the Qing Dynasty. Vietnam, after becoming free of Chinese rule and setting up its own independent monarchy, the Qing dynasty divided the bureaucracy into civil and military positions, both having nine grades or ranks, each subdivided into a and b categories. Military appointments ranged from being a marshal or chamberlain of the imperial bodyguard to a third class sergeant. In the table below, na is shorthand for the nth rank, during the Qing dynasty, the governor of a Chinese province, was signified by wearing a mandarin hat-pin made of ruby. The lower ranks of mandarins were signified by hat-pins made of coral, lapis lazuli, white jade and silver. In modern English, mandarin is used to refer to any civil servant, often in a satirical context, yangban Government of the Peoples Republic of China at DMOZ Government of the Republic of China at DMOZ