Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends people be under pediatric care up to the age of 21. A medical doctor who specializes in this area is known as paediatrician; the word pediatrics and its cognates mean "healer of children". Pediatricians work both in hospitals those working in its subspecialties such as neonatology, as outpatient primary care physicians. Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen understood the differences in growing and maturing organisms that necessitated different treatment: Ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent; some of the oldest traces of pediatrics can be discovered in Ancient India where children's doctors were called kumara bhrtya. Sushruta Samhita an ayurvedic text, composed during the sixth century BC contains the text about pediatrics. Another ayurvedic text from this period is Kashyapa Samhita. A second century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics.
Byzantine physicians Oribasius, Aëtius of Amida, Alexander Trallianus, Paulus Aegineta contributed to the field. The Byzantines built brephotrophia. Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own Haly Abbas, Serapion and Averroes; the Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity. Among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472, by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo. In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger's Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, Heinrich von Louffenburg Versehung des Leibs written in 1429, together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children's physiology and pathology; the Swedish physician Nils Rosén von Rosenstein is considered to be the founder of modern pediatrics as a medical specialty, while his work The diseases of children, their remedies is considered to be "the first modern textbook on the subject".
Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century. He received his medical training in Germany and practiced in New York City; the first accepted pediatric hospital is the Hôpital des Enfants Malades, which opened in Paris in June 1802 on the site of a previous orphanage. From its beginning, this famous hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years, it continues to this day as the pediatric division of the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, created in 1920 by merging with the physically contiguous Necker Hospital, founded in 1778. In other European countries, the Charité in Berlin established a separate Pediatric Pavilion in 1830, followed by similar institutions at Saint Petersburg in 1834, at Vienna and Breslau, both in 1837. In 1852 Britain's first pediatric hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street was founded by Charles West; the first Children's hospital in Scotland opened in 1860 in Edinburgh. In the US, the first similar institutions were the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, which opened in 1855, Boston Children's Hospital.
Subspecialties in pediatrics were created at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins by Edwards A. Park; the body size differences are paralleled by maturation changes. The smaller body of an infant or neonate is different physiologically from that of an adult. Congenital defects, genetic variance, developmental issues are of greater concern to pediatricians than they are to adult physicians. A common adage is that children are not "little adults"; the clinician must take into account the immature physiology of the infant or child when considering symptoms, prescribing medications, diagnosing illnesses. Pediatric physiology directly impacts the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs; the absorption, distribution and elimination of medications differ between developing children and grown adults. Despite completed studies and reviews, continual research is needed to better understand how these factors should affect the decisions of healthcare providers when prescribing and administering medications to the pediatric population.
Many drug absorption differences between pediatric and adult populations revolve around the stomach. Neonates and young infants have increased stomach pH due to decreased acid secretion, thereby creating a more basic environment for drugs that are taken by mouth. Acid is essential to degrading certain oral drugs before systemic absorption. Therefore, the absorption of these drugs in children is greater than in adults due to decreased breakdown and increased preservation in a less acidic gastric space. Children have an extended rate of gastric emptying, which slows the rate of drug absorption. Drug absorption depends on specific enzymes that come in contact with the oral drug as it travels through the body. Supply of these enzymes increase as children continue to develop their gastrointestinal tract. P
In mathematics, more in abstract algebra and universal algebra, an algebraic structure consists of a set A, a collection of operations on A of finite arity, a finite set of identities, known as axioms, that these operations must satisfy. Some algebraic structures involve another set. In the context of universal algebra, the set A with this structure is called an algebra, while, in other contexts, it is called an algebraic structure, the term algebra being reserved for specific algebraic structures that are vector spaces over a field or modules over a commutative ring. Examples of algebraic structures with a single underlying set include groups, rings and lattices. Examples of algebraic structures with two underlying sets include vector spaces and algebras; the properties of specific algebraic structures are studied in abstract algebra. The general theory of algebraic structures has been formalized in universal algebra; the language of category theory is used to express and study relationships between different classes of algebraic and non-algebraic objects.
This is because it is sometimes possible to find strong connections between some classes of objects, sometimes of different kinds. For example, Galois theory establishes a connection between certain fields and groups: two algebraic structures of different kinds. Addition and multiplication on numbers are the prototypical example of an operation that combines two elements of a set to produce a third; these operations obey several algebraic laws. For example, a + = + examples of the associative law. A + b = b + a, ab = ba, the commutative law. Many systems studied by mathematicians have operations that obey some, but not all, of the laws of ordinary arithmetic. For example, rotations of objects in three-dimensional space can be combined by performing the first rotation and applying the second rotation to the object in its new orientation; this operation on rotations can fail the commutative law. Mathematicians give names to sets with one or more operations that obey a particular collection of laws, study them in the abstract as algebraic structures.
When a new problem can be shown to follow the laws of one of these algebraic structures, all the work, done on that category in the past can be applied to the new problem. In full generality, algebraic structures may involve an arbitrary number of sets and operations that can combine more than two elements, but this article focuses on binary operations on one or two sets; the examples here are by no means a complete list, but they are meant to be a representative list and include the most common structures. Longer lists of algebraic structures may be found in the external links and within Category:Algebraic structures. Structures are listed in approximate order of increasing complexity. Simple structures: no binary operation: Set: a degenerate algebraic structure S having no operations. Pointed set: S has one or more distinguished elements 0, 1, or both. Unary system: S and a single unary operation over S. Pointed unary system: a unary system with S a pointed set. Group-like structures: one binary operation.
The binary operation can be indicated by any symbol, or with no symbol as is done for ordinary multiplication of real numbers. Magma or groupoid: S and a single binary operation over S. Semigroup: an associative magma. Monoid: a semigroup with identity element. Group: a monoid with a unary operation, giving rise to inverse elements. Abelian group: a group whose binary operation is commutative. Semilattice: a semigroup whose operation is idempotent and commutative; the binary operation can be called either join. Quasigroup: a magma obeying the latin square property. A quasigroup may be represented using three binary operations. Loop: a quasigroup with identity. Ring-like structures or Ringoids: two binary operations called addition and multiplication, with multiplication distributing over addition. Semiring: a ringoid such that S is a monoid under each operation. Addition is assumed to be commutative and associative, the monoid product is assumed to distribute over the addition on both sides, the additive identity 0 is an absorbing element in the sense that 0 x = 0 for all x.
Near-ring: a semiring whose additive monoid is a group. Ring: a semiring whose additive monoid is an abelian group. Lie ring: a ringoid whose additive monoid is an abelian group, but whose multiplicative operation satisfies the Jacobi identity rather than associativity. Commutative ring: a ring in which the multiplication operation is commutative. Boolean ring: a commutative ring with idempotent multiplication operation. Field: a commutative ring which contains a multiplicative inverse for every nonzero element. Kleene algebras: a semiring with idempotent addition and a unary operation, the Kleene star, satisfying additional properties. *-algebra: a ring with an additional unary operation satisfying additional properties. Lattice structures: two or more binary operations, including operations called meet and join, connected by the absorption law. Complete lattice: a lattice in which arbitrary meet and joins exist. Bounded lattice: a lattice with a greatest element and least element. Complemented lattice: a bounded lattice with a unary operation, denoted by postfix ⊥.
The join of an element with its complement is the greatest element, the meet of the two elements is the least element. Modular lattice: a lattice whose elements satisfy the additional modular identity. Distributive lattice: a lattice in which
South Goa Lok Sabha constituency is one of two Lok Sabha constituencies in Goa in western India along with North Goa. Presently, South Goa Lok Sabha constituency comprises 20Vidhan Sabha segments; these are: Ponda Shiroda Marcaim Mormugao Vasco-Da-Gama Dabolim Cortalim Nuvem Curtorim Fatorda Margao Benaulim Navelim Cuncolim Velim Quepem Curchorem Sanvordem Sanguem Canacona ^ by poll South Goa district List of Constituencies of the Lok Sabha
Helga Cecilia Forss known as Cissi Forss, is a Swedish actress and comedian. Her breakthrough role was Cindy in the ICA commercials; when she was seven, Forss participated in a segment of Trafikmagasinet on SVT. Her film debut was in Maria Blom's 2004 film Masjävlar. Forss joined Nour El-Refai in the hidden camera show Raj Raj broadcast on TV400, she worked with El-Refai, Johan Matton, Björn Gustafsson, Peter Settman in the TV3 comedy show Hus i helvete. With El-Refai and Maud Lindström, she has written and performed the act "Almost Like Boys" at Riksteatern in 2008, a comedy act about gender. Forss has appeared in Henrik Schyffert's comedy series Sverige pussas och kramas on Kanal5. In summer 2009, she participated in Kanal5 series Balls of Steel. In 2008, she participated in the TV game show Brain Wall, teaming up with El-Refai and Grete Havnesköld. In 2009 Forss participated in the Sveriges Radio comedy show Kungen kommer till Rissne. With Martin Soneby, she presented the show Silent Library on Kanal5.
In 2008 she became known for her role as Cindy in the ICA commercials. In 2010 she starred as Jennifer in the film Simple Simon with Bill Skarsgård, earning her a Guldbagge nomination for supporting actress in a feature film. In August 2011 she was a "Sommarpratare" in Sommar i P1 on Sveriges Radio. Forss was a sidekick to Pär Lernström in Idol 2011 on TV4. Since 2012 she has been a goodwill ambassador for the Child Cancer Foundation. In 2013, she participated in the play De 39 Stegen at Intiman in Stockholm. Media related to Cecilia Forss at Wikimedia Commons
The following 13 films, all from different countries, were submitted for the 34th Academy Awards in the category Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film which took place in 1962. The highlighted titles were the five nominated films, which came from Denmark, Mexico and Sweden. For the second year in a row, the Oscar went to an Ingmar Bergman film from Sweden, this time for Through A Glass Darkly. Argentina and Switzerland submitted films for the first time. France and Italy both failed to be nominated for the first time since the introduction of the competitive award. Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Castle Rock is an affluent home rule municipality, the county seat of Douglas County, United States. The most populous municipality of the county, the community's population was 48,231 at the 2010 United States Census, with an estimated population of 64,827 as of 2018, it is named for the castle tower-shaped butte near the center of town. Located midway between Denver and Colorado Springs, Castle Rock is part of the Denver metropolitan area and the Front Range Urban Corridor; the region in and around Castle Rock was home to the Arapaho and Cheyenne people. They occupied the land between the South Platte Rivers. White settlers were drawn to the area by rumors of gold and by land opened through the Homestead Act of 1862. However, it was the discovery of rhyolite stone, not gold, that led to the settlement of Castle Rock. Castle Rock was founded in 1874 when the eastern Douglas County border was redrawn to its present location. Castle Rock was chosen as the county seat because of its central location.
One of the first homesteaders in the area near today's Castle Rock was Jeremiah Gould. He owned about 160 acres to the south of "The Rock." At that time, the settlement consisted of just a few buildings for prospectors and cowboys. In 1874, Jeremiah Gould donated 120 acres to the new town, now home to the Douglas County government. Six streets named Elbert, Wilcox, Perry and Front were laid out to build the actual town of Castle Rock; the Courthouse Square was defined and about 77 lots, each 50 by 112 feet, were auctioned off for a total profit of US$3,400. A new train depot brought the Rio Grande Railway to the area. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Castle Rock had a active rhyolite quarrying industry. Many immigrants arrived in the area to work in the quarries. In 1936 the town received a donation of land. Men employed by the Works Progress Administration constructed a star atop the butte shortly after Castle Rock received that donation; the star was lit every year between 1936-1941. After World War II began the star was left unlit as a symbol of sacrifice in support of the war effort.
On August 14, 1945, shortly after V-J Day, the star was modified into a V-for-victory symbol. On December 7, 1945, the star was lit for the holiday season, it has been lit every year since around the same time. The town's historic county courthouse, built in 1889-1890, burned down on March 11, 1978; the conflagration was the result of arson. Castle Rock's municipal government experienced significant financial difficulties during the early 1980s. In 1984 the town's voters approved a charter amendment that authorized the creation of a home rule charter commission; the home rule charter was finalized in 1987. The original Douglas County courthouse was one of seven buildings in Castle Rock that have been added to the National Register of Historic Places; the others include the Castle Rock Depot building, Castle Rock Elementary School building, First National Bank of Douglas County building, Samuel Dyer House, Benjamin Hammer House, Keystone Hotel building. A dispute about whether the Castle Rock Police Department was required to enforce a civil restraining order was decided by the U.
S. Supreme Court in 2005; the court held, in Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales, that a municipality cannot be held liable under a federal civil rights statute, 42 U. S. C. § 1983, for failing to enforce civil restraining orders. The case had arisen from a 1999 murder of three young girls by their father outside the Castle Rock Police Department building; the children were abducted by their father, in violation of the restraining order, obtained by their mother, within several hours of being killed. The mother had asked the Castle Rock police to enforce the restraining order, by finding and apprehending the father after he removed the children from her home and before the murders. Castle Rock police officers declined to do so, refusing to contact the Denver Police Department after the mother notified them that the father had taken the children to an amusement park in that city. Castle Rock is located at 39°22′20″N 104°51′22″W at an elevation of 6,224 feet. Located in central Colorado at the junction of Interstate 25 and State Highway 86, Castle Rock is 28 mi south of downtown Denver and 37 mi north of Colorado Springs.
The town lies a few miles east of the Rampart Range of the Rocky Mountains on the western edge of the Great Plains. Castle Rock, the butte, the town's namesake, sits just north of the town center. Other prominent landforms visible from Castle Rock include Dawson Butte, Devils Head, Mount Evans and Pikes Peak. East Plum Creek, a stream within the South Platte River watershed, flows north through Castle Rock. Hangman's Gulch, which runs northwest west around the north side of the town center, drains into East Plum Creek as do multiple unnamed gulches in the southern and western areas of town. McMurdo Gulch and Mitchell Gulch run north northeast through eastern Castle Rock and drain into Cherry Creek east of town. Castle Rock is within the Colorado Foothills Life Zone; the hillsides are covered with large meadows of grass, small plants, scattered juniper trees and open ponderosa pine woodlands. Other trees common in the area include Gambel pinyon pine. Local wildlife includes the American badger, American black bear, coyote, Colorado chipmunk, garter snakes, gray fox, mountain cottontail rabbit, mountain lion, mule deer, pocket gopher, porcupine and tadpoles.