Pedro I of Brazil

Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned over Portugal, where he became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, thus a member of the House of Braganza; when the country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent, he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.

On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast. A secessionist rebellion in the southern province of Cisplatina in early 1825, the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to annex it, led the Empire into the Cisplatine War. In March 1826, Pedro I became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II; the situation worsened in 1828. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother; the Emperor's concurrent and scandalous sexual affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831.

Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, sailed for Europe. Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Faced at first with what seemed a national civil war, he soon became involved in a wider conflict that enveloped the Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of liberalism and those seeking a return to absolutism. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he and the liberals had emerged victorious, he was hailed by both contemporaries and posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move from absolutist regimes to representative forms of government. Pedro was born at 08:00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Portugal, he was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim.

He was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth. Through his father, Prince Dom João, Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza and a grandson of King Dom Pedro III and Queen Dona Maria I of Portugal, who were uncle and niece as well as husband and wife, his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedro's parents had an unhappy marriage. Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spain's interests to the detriment of Portugal's. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles; as the second eldest son, Pedro became his father's heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, after she was declared incurably insane in 1792. By 1802, Pedro's parents were estranged. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, whom they saw only during state occasions at Queluz.

In late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon. Pedro and his family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, in March 1808. During the voyage, Pedro read Virgil's Aeneid and conversed with the ship's crew, picking up navigational skills. In Brazil, after a brief stay in the City Palace, Pedro settled with his younger brother Miguel and their father in the Palace of São Cristóvão. Although never on intimate terms with his father, Pedro loved him and resented the constant humiliation his father suffered at the hands of Carlota Joaquina due to her extramarital affairs; as an adult, Pedro would call his mother, for whom he held only feelings of contempt, a "bitch". The early experiences of betrayal and neglect had a great impact on the formation of Pedro's character. A modicum of stability during his childhood was provided by his aia, Maria Genoveva do Rêgo e Matos, whom he loved as a mother, by his aio friar António de Arrábida, who became his mentor.

Both attempted to furnish him with a suitable education. His instruction encompassed a broad array of subjects that included mathematics, political economy, logic and geography, he learned to speak and write not only in Portu


Strike Fighter Squadron 136 known as the "Knighthawks" is a United States Navy strike fighter squadron based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. The "Knighthawks" are an operational fleet squadron flying the F/A-18E Super Hornet, they are homeported at NAS Lemoore. Their tailcode AB and their radio callsign is Gunstar; the squadron's "Knighthawk" insignia and nickname were approved by Chief of Naval Operations on 23 May 1985 and have remained unchanged. Strike Fighter Squadron One Three Six was established on 1 July 1985 at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California under the instruction of VFA-125; the squadron received their first F/A-18A Hornet on 7 January 1986, a month they moved to their new homeport of Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida. VFA-136 first deployed in September 1987 with Carrier Air Wing Thirteen on board USS Coral Sea. One year they joined Carrier Air Wing Seven on USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. During USS Dwight D. Eisenhower's "Centennial Cruise" in 1990, the squadron participated in exercises with French, British and Tunisian forces.

The cruise took a serious turn after Iraq invaded Kuwait on 2 August 1990. In support of Operation Desert Shield, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower was on station in the Red Sea within 36 hours, becoming the first carrier to conduct sustained operations in the area. After returning from deployment in November 1990, the squadron upgraded to the new Lot 13 Night Attack F/A-18C; the squadron became the first operational night strike Hornet squadron in the Navy. In October 1991, the squadron and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower were back in the Persian Gulf enforcing the peace accords set after Operation Desert Storm. Upon completion of those operations, the team transitioned to the North Atlantic to participate in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Exercise "TEAMWORK'92"; this would be the largest NATO exercise in over three years. The squadron next deployed aboard the Navy's newest aircraft carrier, USS George Washington for her maiden cruise in May 1994. USS George Washington was the flagship for the celebration of the 50th Anniversary of D-Day, hosting President Bill Clinton.

During the cruise, the squadron participated in NATO Operations Deny Flight, Southern Watch and Vigilant Warrior. In addition to supporting NATO, the squadron participated in exercises in England, Sicily, Tunisia and Oman; the squadron returned from deployment in November 1994. The squadron deployed again aboard USS George Washington in January 1996 in support of Operation Decisive Endeavor over Bosnia-Herzegovina and Operation Southern Watch. In February 1998, VFA-136 embarked on the maiden deployment of USS John C. Stennis; this "world cruise" included a tour of duty in the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Southern Watch and culminated in the arrival of USS John C. Stennis in their new homeport of San Diego, California. Following this deployment, the squadron relocated to Naval Air Station Oceana in December 1998 as mandated by the Base Realignment and Closure decision. In February 2000, the squadron embarked aboard USS Dwight D. Eisenhower to the Mediterranean. In March 2000, the squadron flew in support of the Dayton Accords governing the peace between the former warring factions in Bosnia and other parts of the Balkans.

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower proceeded to the Persian Gulf, in support of Operation Southern Watch, returning to Norfolk on 18 August 2000. In August 2010 the squadron won the Strike Fighter Weapons School Atlantic Bombing Derby trophy for the first time in the squadron's history; the squadron won the 2010 CVW-1 Top Hook Award. In January 2011, the squadron embarked on a deployment to the Mediterranean Sea, the North Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf aboard USS Enterprise. While deployed, the squadron flew combat sorties in the skies over Afghanistan in support Operation Enduring Freedom and over Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn while supporting anti-piracy operations and special forces in multiple theaters; the squadron won their tenth straight CVW-1 Top Hook Award posting a 3.706 with a 96% boarding rate for the duration of cruise. Following deployment the squadron were awarded their second straight Strike Fighter Weapons School Atlantic Bombing Derby trophy. In 2011 the squadron won the Battle Effectiveness Award for the first time in the squadron's twenty-six year history.

In the summer of 2016, the squadron was moved from NAS Oceana to NAS Lemoore. List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons Naval aviation Modern US Navy carrier air operations List of Inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons Official VFA-136 Knighthawks web site

William Way

The Venerable William Way was an English Catholic priest and martyr executed under Elizabeth I after the Protestant Reformation. He is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church. Wiliam Way was born in the Diocese of Exeter about c. 1560. Bishop Richard Challoner said he was born in Cornwall, earlier authorities say in Devonshire. Since the Protestant Reformation had closed Catholic seminaries in England, Way went to France to study. On 31 March 1584, he received his first tonsure in the Cathedral of Reims from the Cardinal of Guise. On 22 March he was ordained subdeacon, on 5 April deacon, priest on 18 September 1586, at Laon by Bishop Valentine Douglas, O. S. B. Way departed for England on 9 December 1586, by June 1587, was imprisoned, he was indicted at Newgate for being a Roman Catholic priest. He declined to be tried by whereupon the Bishop of London was sent for. Way, refusing to acknowledge him as a bishop or Elizabeth I as head of the Church, was condemned as a traitor and to death, he was austere.

When called to trial at the Sessions in August, "he had so much joy that he seemed past himself". On 23 September 1588, Way was "hung and quartered" at Kingston upon Thames. Richard Flower