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Pee Wee Russell

Charles Ellsworth "Pee Wee" Russell, was a jazz musician. Early in his career he played clarinet and saxophones, but he focused on clarinet. With a individualistic and spontaneous clarinet style that "defied classification", Russell began his career playing Dixieland jazz, but throughout his career incorporated elements of newer developments such as swing and free jazz. In the words of the poet Philip Larkin, "No one familiar with the characteristic excitement of his solos, their lurid, asthmatic voicelessness, notes leant on till they split, sudden passionate intensities, could deny the uniqueness of his contribution to jazz." Pee Wee Russell was born in Maplewood and grew up in Muskogee, Oklahoma. As a child, he first studied violin, but "couldn't get along with it" piano, disliking the scales and chord exercises, drums – including all the associated special effects, his father sneaked young Ellsworth into a dance at the local Elks Club to a four- or five-piece band led by New Orleans jazz clarinetist Alcide "Yellow" Nunez.

Russell was amazed by Nunez's improvisations: " played the melody got hot and played jazz. That was something. How did he know where he was or where he was going?" Pee Wee now decided that his primary instrument would be the clarinet, the type of music he would play would be jazz. He approached the clarinettist in the pit band at the local theatre for lessons, bought an Albert-system instrument, his teacher was named Charlie Merrill, used to pop out for shots of corn whiskey during lessons. His family moved to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1920, that September Russell was enrolled in the Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois, he remained enrolled there until October the following year, though he spent most of his time playing clarinet with various dance and jazz bands. He began touring professionally in 1922, travelled with tent shows and on river boats. Russell's recording debut was in 1924 with Herb Berger's Band in St. Louis he moved to Chicago, where he began playing with such notables as Frankie Trumbauer and Bix Beiderbecke.

From his earliest career, Russell's style was distinctive. The notes he played were somewhat unorthodox when compared to his contemporaries, he was sometimes accused of playing out of tune. In 1926 he joined Jean Goldkette's band, the following year he left for New York City to join Red Nichols. While with Nichols's band, Russell did frequent freelance recording studio work, on clarinet, soprano and tenor sax, bass clarinet, he worked with various bandleaders before beginning a series of residences at the famous jazz club "Nick's" in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, in 1937. He played with Bobby Hackett's big band, began playing with Eddie Condon, with whom he would continue to work, off and on, for much of the rest of his life – though he complained, "Those guys made a joke, of me, a clown, I let myself be treated that way because I was afraid. I didn't know where else to go, where to take refuge". From the 1940s onwards, Russell's health was poor, exacerbated by alcoholism – "I lived on brandy milkshakes and scrambled-egg sandwiches.

And on whiskey... I had to drink half a pint of whiskey in the morning before I could get out of bed" – which led to a major medical breakdown in 1951, he had periods. Some people considered that his style was different after his breakdown: Larkin characterized it as "a hollow feathery tone framing phrases of an Chinese introspection with a tendency to inconclusive garrulity that would have been unheard of in the days when Pee Wee could pack more into a middle eight than any other thirties pick-up player", he played with Art Hodes, Muggsy Spanier and bands under his own name in addition to Condon. In his last decade, Russell played at jazz festivals and international tours organized by George Wein, including an appearance with Thelonious Monk at the 1963 Newport Festival, a meeting which has a mixed reputation. Russell formed a quartet with valve trombone player Marshall Brown, included John Coltrane and Ornette Coleman tunes in his repertoire. Though labeled a Dixieland musician by virtue of the company he kept, he tended to reject any label.

Russell's unique and sometimes derided approach was praised as ahead of its time, cited by some as an early example of free jazz. At the time of their 1961 recording Jazz Reunion, Coleman Hawkins observed that'"For thirty years, I’ve been listening to him play those funny notes, he used to think they were wrong. He’s always been way out, but they didn't have a name for it then." George Wein's Newport All-Stars album includes a slow blues called "Pee Wee Russell's Unique Sound". By this time, encouraged by Mary, his wife, Russell had taken up painting abstract art as a hobby. Mary's death in the spring of 1967 had a severe effect on him, his last gig was with Wein at the inaugural ball for President Richard Nixon on January 21, 1969. Russell died in a hospital in Alexandria, less than three weeks later. On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Pee Wee Russell among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. In 1987, Pee Wee Russell was inducted into the Big Jazz Hall of Fame.

1952: Clarinet Strut 1952: The Individualism of Pee Wee Russell 1952: Pee Wee Russell All Stars 1953: Salute To Newport 1953: We're In the Money 1955: Jazz at Storyville, Vol. 1 and 2 with Ruby


Casuistry is a process of reasoning that seeks to resolve moral problems by extracting or extending theoretical rules from a particular case, reapplying those rules to new instances. This method occurs in applied ethics and jurisprudence; the term is commonly used as a pejorative to criticize the use of clever but unsound reasoning in relation to moral questions. The word casuistry derives from the Latin noun casus; the Oxford English Dictionary says, quoting Viscount Bolingbroke, that the word "ften applied to a quibbling or evasive way of dealing with difficult cases of duty." Its textual references, except for certain technical usages, are pejorative. Casuistry is the "tudy of cases of conscience and a method of solving conflicts of obligations by applying general principles of ethics and moral theology to particular and concrete cases of human conduct; this demands an extensive knowledge of natural law and equity, civil law, ecclesiastical precepts, an exceptional skill in interpreting these various norms of conduct."

It remains a common tool for applied ethics. Casuistry dates from Aristotle, yet the zenith of casuistry was from 1550 to 1650, when the Society of Jesus used case-based reasoning in administering the Sacrament of Penance; the term casuistry or Jesuitism became pejorative with Blaise Pascal's attack on the misuse of casuistry. Some Jesuit theologians, in view of promoting personal responsibility and the respect of freedom of conscience, stressed the importance of the'case by case' approach to personal moral decisions and developed and accepted a casuistry where at the time of decision, individual inclinations were more important than the moral law itself. In Provincial Letters the French mathematician, religious philosopher and Jansenist sympathiser, Blaise Pascal vigorously attacked the moral laxism of such Jesuits scolded the Jesuits for using casuistic reasoning in confession to placate wealthy Church donors, while punishing poor penitents. Pascal charged that aristocratic penitents could confess their sins one day, re-commit the sin the next day, generously donate the following day return to re-confess their sins and only receive the lightest punishment.

A British encyclopedia of 1900 claimed that it was "popularly regarded as an attempt to achieve holy ends by unholy means."It was not until publication of The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning, by Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin, that a revival of casuistry occurred. They argue. Properly used, casuistry is powerful reasoning. Jonsen and Toulmin offer casuistry in dissolving the contradictory tenets of moral absolutism and the common secular moral relativism: "the form of reasoning constitutive of classical casuistry is rhetorical reasoning". Moreover, the ethical philosophies of Utilitarianism and Pragmatism are identified as employing casuistic reasoning; the casuistic method was popular among Catholic thinkers in the early modern period, not only among the Jesuits, as it is thought. Famous casuistic authors include Antonio Escobar y Mendoza, whose Summula casuum conscientiae enjoyed a great success, Thomas Sanchez, Vincenzo Filliucci, Antonino Diana, Paul Laymann, John Azor, Etienne Bauny, Louis Cellot, Valerius Reginaldus, Hermann Busembaum, etc.

One of the main theses of casuists was the necessity to adapt the rigorous morals of the Early Fathers of Christianity to modern morals, which led in some extreme cases to justify what Innocent XI called "laxist moral". The progress of casuistry was interrupted toward the middle of the 17th century by the controversy which arose concerning the doctrine of probabilism, which stipulated that one could choose to follow a "probable opinion", that is, supported by a theologian or another if it contradicted a more probable opinion or a quotation from one of the Fathers of the Church; the controversy divided Catholic theologians into two camps and Laxists. Certain kinds of casuistry were criticized by early Protestant theologians, because it was used in order to justify many of the abuses that they sought to reform, it was famously attacked by the Catholic and Jansenist philosopher Pascal, during the formulary controversy against the Jesuits, in his Provincial Letters as the use of rhetorics to justify moral laxity, which became identified by the public with Jesuitism.

By the mid-18th century, "casuistry" had become a synonym for specious moral reasoning. However, Puritans were known for their own development of casuistry. In 1679 Pope Innocent XI publicly condemned sixty-five of the more radical propositions, taken chiefly from the writings of Escobar and other casuists as propositiones laxorum moralistarum and forbade anyone to teach them under penalty of excommunication. Despite this papal condemnation, both Catholicism and Protestantism permit the use of ambiguous and equ

Stan Twitter

Stan Twitter is a community of Twitter users that post opinions related to music, celebrities, TV shows and social media. The community has been noted for its particular shared terminology; the origin of the term stan is credited to the 2000 song "Stan" by American rapper Eminem. The term was used as a noun, but over time evolved and began to be used as a verb as well. Stan Twitter has been noted by The Atlantic as one of the "tribes" of Twitter. Polygon has described Stan Twitter as "an overarching collection of various fandoms", additionally as a community that " individuals congregated around certain, specific interests ranging from queer identity to K-pop groups, added that "Stan Twitter is synonymous with fandom twitter." The Daily Dot wrote that "Stan Twitter is a community of Extremely Online like-minded individuals who discuss their various fandoms and what they'stan.'" Stan Twitter has been noted for its common overlap with LGBT Twitter communities. The Guardian noted, for example, that stanning female pop stars, such as Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift, Katy Perry, Ariana Grande, Selena Gomez, Beyoncé, Nicki Minaj, Cardi B, Miley Cyrus, can be a valuable part of a gay man's online identity.

Mat Whitehead of HuffPost described stans as "volcanic", added that they are "organised, dedicated and—at times—completely unhinged." Whitehead went on to describe stans of recording artists, writing "stans aren't just superfans, they're a community of like-minded souls coming together, unified under the banner of wanting to see their chosen celebrity flourish. Friendships are made, bonding over a shared love of an artist, their work, their achievements." Stan Twitter has been noted for behavior. Vanity Fair highlighted American pop singers Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Nicki Minaj, Miley Cyrus, Cardi B and Taylor Swift as music artists who have "extremely fanatic fanbases"; the publication credited those fanbases and "stan culture and its associated engines" with helping propel the popularity of music videos for those artists. Stan Twitter has been highlighted for sharing memes within respective communities and utilizing a particular vernacular and terminology. A common activity that those in the Stan Twitter community engage in is sharing memes with each other and onto their Twitter accounts.

Polygon wrote about how those in Stan Twitter share memes with the belief that the memes have an insular quality to them. One meme, "Stan Twitter, do you know this song?" was noted by media outlets as popular among Stan Twitter, being able to intersect more specific communities. Polygon described that the meme "seems silly at first glance," as it is "expressed through an overly obnoxious all-caps exclamation, pairs the sentence with theme songs from early'90s TV shows, random YouTube videos, anime tracks, High School Musical remixes and random one hit wonders." Polygon further noted that the meme was "designed around nostalgia-baiting people who love to bring up beloved childhood memories. The terminology used by the Stan Twitter community has been the subject of discussion. Much of the community's slang is derived from African-American Vernacular English; the terms tea and wig have been attributed to African-American LGBTQ communities. The Daily Dot and Billboard cited American singer Katy Perry's usage of the term on American Idol as helping propel its popularity online.

The popular Internet meme of Kermit the Frog sipping tea has been paired with the tea term. The term stan itself is used as both a noun and verb with many variants, including " stan", a phrase used for one to express a liking of, as well as praise or support of, any person or artistic work. Aside from the term stan itself, common words and phrases used in the community include: bop – used in reference to a song, deemed good. Other terms include "banger", "grit" or saying that a song "slaps" cancelled or over – Stan Twitter partakes in cancel culture: if a celebrity does something controversial, fans may call for a boycott of them and in a majority of cases, attempting to trend a hashtag celebrating such a boycott. Chile – Southern eye dialect spelling of the word "child"; the term originates from the black community. The term further gained popularity after a live stream of Nicki Minaj where she said "um chile anyways so". Cultural reset - A way for stans to say that the work of a specific artist has provoked inspiration for artists and the general public.

Drag – a term used when an individual brutally attacks and humiliates another. Ended – used to describe when someone is believed to have done something more talented or better than another person. Fancam – a fan-recorded or brief sample of a video, frequently attached to a Twitter user's posts with the intention of promoting an artist and/or their music or accomplishments. Originating within the K-pop fanbase, the trend spread to fans of mainstream pop artists; this trend has come under severe criticism and scrutiny by the general public due to incessant spamming of such tweets. Fav or fave -- used to denote one's favorite artist. Flop – a term used to criticize an artist or a song's commercial underperformance or quality; this term

Anton Armstrong

Anton Eugene Armstrong is the conductor of the St. Olaf Choir as well as the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Professor of Music at St. Olaf College of Northfield, Minnesota in the United States. Armstrong became the fourth director of the St. Olaf Choir in 1990, continuing the tradition begun by the choir's founder F. Melius Christiansen in 1911, sustained and developed by his son, Olaf Christiansen, strengthened and enhanced by Kenneth Jennings. Armstrong teaches conducting in the Sacred Music department at Luther Seminary, he conducts some pieces in "Northfield Youth Choirs". Anton was born in New York City on April 26, 1956 to William Benfield Armstrong and Esther Louise Holder. William was born in Antigua, Esther was born in New York City to Herbert Henry Holder and Leander Hassell, both from St Thomas. Armstrong grew up on Long Island where he and his mother were active singers in a local church choir. Armstrong joined the American Boychoir, based in New Jersey. According to Armstrong, "That experience lit my fire for choral singing."Anton Armstrong was first made aware of the St. Olaf Choir when his pastor took him to a performance at Avery Fisher Hall despite the fact that Armstrong had tickets to see the Moody Blues at Madison Square Garden.

His mother made the decision for him to attend the St. Olaf Choir concert. Anton is the youngest of three brothers. Oldest brother Garry was a reporter for WHDH-TV, Channel 7 in Boston and next older brother William is a printing professional on Long Island, New York. Armstrong earned his bachelor's degree at St. Olaf College, graduating in 1978, he was a member of the St. Olaf Choir from 1976–1978, under the leadership of Kenneth Jennings. Jennings became a mentor to Armstrong and 12 years after graduating from St. Olaf, Armstrong replaced Jennings as director of the St. Olaf Choir. After graduating from St. Olaf, Armstrong attended the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign where he earned a Masters of Music degree and Michigan State University where he completed a Doctorate of Musical Arts, his doctoral thesis was Celebrating 75 Years of Musical Excellence: the Evolution of the St. Olaf Choir. Upon completion of his masters, Armstrong worked for 10 years at Calvin College and conducted the Capella of Calvin, the Campus Choir, the Grand Rapids Symphony Chorus and the Calvin Alumni Choir.

He completed his doctorate during his years at Calvin College. He conducted the St. Cecilia Youth Chorale from 1981 until his departure for St. Olaf in 1990. In 1990, Armstrong assumed the duties of Director of Choral Activities at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, he is director of the St. Olaf Choir and Collegiate Chorale and teaches advanced choral conducting and vocal pedagogy classes that focus on child and adolescent voice, he serves as the artistic director of the St. Olaf Christmas Festival. Armstrong is the summer music director of the Youth Choral Academy of the Oregon Bach Festival; the 12-day choral festival is based in Oregon. He is co-editor of Augsburg Fortress Publishers. With Augsburg Fortress he is editing the revised St. Olaf Choral Series, which contains literature, composed by F. Melius Christiansen and Kenneth Jennings, among others. Past achievements include co-conductor of the World Youth Choir organized by the International Federation of Choral Music, he has been part of the summer faculty for the American Boychoir for the more than 20 years.

Armstrong was the director of the New Jersey 2004 All-State Choir and 2008 National Youth Choir, the clinician of the TMEA 2007 Texas All-State Choir and Regional ACDA clinician, the director of the 2008 Festival of Gold Honor Choir in Chicago, IL. He conducted the Florida All-State Concert Choir of 2009 in Tampa, he is scheduled as the conductor of the 2009 Georgia Music Educators Association Senior Mixed All State Choir. Armstrong was invited to conduct the Masterwork Festival Chorus's performance of Robert Ray's Gospel Mass at Carnegie Hall on March 18, 2019. Armstrong will be canonized upon retirement from St. Olaf, his favorite sweater vest will be hung in Christiansen Hall of Music in his honor. St. Olaf Choir the conductor. 2005. Updated n.d.<> December 10, 2005. Youth Choral Academy Oregon Bach Festival. 2001. Updated n.d. <> December 10, 2005. American Public Media. 2005. The legacy of the Saint Olaf Choir. Updated n.d. <> December 10, 2005. Ashmore, Nancy J. 2004. Spirit voices. St. Olaf Magazine, September, 29. Tpt. 2005. A St. Olaf Christmas in Norway. Updated n.d. <>

December 10, 2005. Https:// Oregon Bach Festival Youth Choral Academy Official Website St. Olaf College St. Olaf Choir Biography page

Turks in Azerbaijan

Turks in Azerbaijan are Turkish people who live in Azerbaijan Republic. The community is made of Ottoman Turkish descendants, Meskhetian Turks and recent immigrants from Turkey. Ottoman Turks began to settle in Azerbaijan when the region came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire between 1578 and 1603 and again in the second Ottoman conquest of 1724 until the end of World War I in 1918; the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 8,570 Ottoman Turks living in the Soviet Union. The Ottoman Turks are no longer listed separately in the census. 19,000 descendants of the Ottoman Turks are estimated to be living in Azerbaijan. The Meskhetian Turks first arrived in Azerbaijan at the end of the nineteenth century, more followed in 1918-1920. However, migration to Azerbaijan increased after World War II when the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey. Vyacheslav Molotov Minister of Foreign Affairs, demanded to the surrender of three Anatolian provinces.

Thus, in 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from the Meskheti region in Georgia and accused of smuggling and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border. Nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong". Joseph Stalin deported the Meskhetian Turks to Central Asia, thousands dying en route in cattle-trucks, were not permitted by the Georgian government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia to return to their homeland. Between the late 1950s and 1970s, about 25,000 to 30,000 Meskhetian Turks settled in Azerbaijan. Most of the first wave of Meskhetian Turkish refugees from the Ferghana Valley settled in the Saatli and Sabirabad region and the regions of Khachmaz and Baku; some 5,000 Meskhetian Turks have arrived to Azerbaijan from Russia during the 1990s, a few hundred arrived from Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan proper during the 1991-1994 war. Azerbaijan has witnessed increasing numbers of immigrants from Turkey.

By 2009, 17,577 Turkish citizens were living in Azerbaijan. The Meskhetian Turks are settled in rural areas and in the cities of Baku, Khachmaz and Sabirabad; those living in urban areas tend to be better off than those in agricultural areas. According to the 2009 Azerbaijani population census there were 38,000 Turks living in Azerbaijan. However, official data regarding the Turkish community in Azerbaijan is unlikely to provide a true indication of the population as much of the community is registered as "Azerbaijani". Furthermore, no distinction is made in the census between Meskhetian Turks and Turks from Turkey who have become Azerbaijani citizens, both groups are classified in the official census as "Turks" or "Azerbaijani". 19,000 descendants of Ottoman Turkish migrants are still living in Azerbaijan and practice Sunni Islam. However, since the twentieth century a new wave of Turkish migrants arrived from Turkey. In the late 1950s and 1970s 25,000 to 30,000 Meskhetian Turks settled in Azerbaijan and a further 50,000 Meskhetian Turkish refugees arrived from Uzbekistan in 1989.

According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 100,000 Meskhetian Turks were living in Azerbaijan in 1999 Academic estimates have suggested that the Meskhetian Turkish community of Azerbaijan numbers 90,000 to 110,000. In addition, as of 2009, there were 17,577 Turkish citizens living in Azerbaijan. Shafiga Afandizadeh, journalist Devran Ayhan, football player Omar Faig Nemanzadeh, journalist Emin Nouri, football player Ahmed bey Pepinov, politician Mehmet Akif Pirim, sports wrestler Azerbaijan–Turkey relations Azerbaijanis in Turkey Battle of Baku Turks in the former Soviet Union

Flowing Township, Clay County, Minnesota

Flowing Township is a township in Clay County, United States. The population was 97 at the 2000 census. According to Warren Upham, the origin of the name Flowing is obscure "unless it refers to artesian or flowing wells". According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.9 square miles, of which, 35.9 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 97 people, 33 households, 26 families residing in the township; the population density was 2.7 people per square mile. There were 34 housing units at an average density of 0.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 1.03 % Native American. There were 33 households out of which 45.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.7% were married couples living together, 3.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.2% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.42. In the township the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $66,875, the median income for a family was $66,875. Males had a median income of $59,375 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $24,326. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line