Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell
Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell, PC, PC, FRS, was a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and, with William Ewart Gladstone's support, the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms; the goal was to centralise the power of the War Office, abolish purchase of officers' commissions, to create reserve forces stationed in Britain by establishing short terms of service for enlisted men. Cardwell was the son of John Henry Cardwell, of Liverpool, a merchant, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Birley, he was educated at Winchester and Balliol College, from where he took a degree in 1835. He was called to the bar, Inner Temple, in 1838. Cardwell was employed in the Colonial Office in the late 1830s, directly involved in drafting written instructions to Captain William Hobson RN, as to how to'treat with the natives' of New Zealand. Cardwell was elected Member of Parliament for Clitheroe in Lancashire in 1842.
He became a follower and confidant of Sir Robert Peel, the Prime Minister, held his first office under him as Financial Secretary to the Treasury between 1845 and 1846. When Peel split the Conservative Party in 1846 over the issue of repealing the Corn Laws, Cardwell followed Peel, became a member of the Peelite faction; when the Peelites came to power in 1852, Cardwell was sworn of the Privy Council and made President of the Board of Trade by Lord Aberdeen, a position he held until 1855. In 1854 he passed the Cardwell Railway Act which stopped the cut-throat competition between Railway Companies, acting to their and the railusers' disadvantage. During these years, Cardwell moved from seat to seat in Parliament. In 1847, he was elected as MP for Liverpool. In 1852, he won a seat at Oxford. In 1857, he was defeated for the Oxford seat, but a second election for the seat was held shortly after, which he won; the Peelite faction disintegrated in the late 1850s, Cardwell became a Liberal in 1859, joining Lord Palmerston's cabinet as Chief Secretary for Ireland.
Unhappy in that position, he moved two years to another cabinet post, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. A second move within the cabinet came in 1864, when Cardwell became the Secretary of State for the Colonies, a position he kept until the Liberals were turned out of office in 1866; when the Liberals returned to power under William Ewart Gladstone in the 1868 election, Cardwell reached the peak of his career, as Gladstone's Secretary of State for War. During his six years in the post, in what became known as "Cardwell reforms", Cardwell reorganised the British army, introduced professional standards for officers, formed a home reserve force. After Gladstone's defeat in the 1874 election, Cardwell was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell, of Ellerbeck in the County Palatine of Lancaster, his ennoblement ended his active political career. Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone paid little attention to military affairs but he was keen on efficiency. In 1870 he pushed through Parliament major changes in Army organisation.
Germany's stunning triumph over France proved that the Prussian system of professional soldiers with up-to-date weapons was far superior to the traditional system of gentlemen-soldiers that Britain used. The reforms were not radical—they had been brewing for years and Gladstone seized the moment to enact them; the goal was to centralise the power of the War Office, abolish purchase of officers' commissions, to create reserve forces stationed in Britain by establishing short terms of service for enlisted men. Cardwell as Secretary of State for War designed the reforms that Gladstone supported in the name of efficiency and democracy. In 1868 he abolished raising the private soldier status to more like an honourable career. In 1870 Cardwell abolished "bounty money" for recruits, discharged known bad characters from the ranks, he pulled 20,000 soldiers out of self-governing colonies like Canada, which learned they had to help defend themselves. The most radical change, one that required Gladstone's political muscle, was to abolish the system of officers obtaining commissions and promotions by purchase, rather than by merit.
The system meant that the rich landholding families controlled all the middle and senior ranks in the army. Promotion depended on the family's wealth, not the officer's talents, the middle class was shut out completely. British officers were expected to be sportsmen. From the Tory perspective it was essential to keep the officer corps the domain of gentlemen, not a trade for professional experts, they warned the latter might threaten a military coup. The rise of Bismarck's new Germany made this anti authoritarian policy too dangerous for a great empire to risk; the bill, which would have compensated current owners for their cash investments, passed Commons in 1871 but was blocked by the House of Lords. Gladstone moved to drop the system without any reimbursements, forcing the Lords to backtrack and approve the original bill. Liberals rallied to Gladstone's anti-elitism, pointing to the case of Lord Cardigan, who spent £40,000 for his commission and proved utterly incompetent in t
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and twice as Home Secretary. He is regarded as the father of modern British policing, owing to his founding of the Metropolitian Police Service. Peel was one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party; the son of a wealthy textile-manufacturer and politician, Peel was the first prime minister from an industrial business background. He earned a double first in mathematics from Christ Church, Oxford, he entered the House of Commons in 1809. Peel entered the Cabinet as Home Secretary, where he reformed and liberalised the criminal law and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". After a brief period out of office he returned as Home Secretary under his political mentor the Duke of Wellington serving as Leader of the House of Commons. A supporter of continued legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel reversed himself and supported the repeal of the Test Act and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".
After being in the Opposition 1830-34, he became Prime Minister in November 1834. Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto, laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based, his first ministry was a minority government, dependent on Whig support and with Peel serving as his own Chancellor of the Exchequer. After only four months, his government collapsed and he served as Leader of the Opposition during Melbourne's second government. Peel became Prime Minister again after the 1841 general election, his second government ruled for five years. He cut tariffs to stimulate trade, he set up a modern banking system. His government's major legislation included the Mines and Collieries Act 1842, the Income Tax Act 1842, the Factories Act 1844 and the Railway Regulation Act 1844. Peel's government was weakened by anti-Catholic sentiment following the controversial increase in the Maynooth Grant of 1845. After the outbreak of the Great Irish Famine, his decision to join with Whigs and Radicals to repeal the Corn Laws led to his resignation as Prime Minister in 1846.
Peel remained an influential MP and leader of the Peelite faction until his death in 1850. Peel started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure reversed his stance and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation; this happened with the Test Act, Catholic Emancipation, the Reform Act, income tax and, most notably, the repeal of the Corn Laws. Historian A. J. P. Taylor says: "Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesmen, he carried Catholic Emancipation. Peel was born at Chamber Hall, Lancashire, to the industrialist and parliamentarian Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet, his wife Ellen Yates, his father was one of the richest textile manufacturers of the early Industrial Revolution. Peel was educated at Bury Grammar School, at Hipperholme Grammar School at Harrow School and Christ Church, where he became the first person to take a double first in Classics and Mathematics, he was a law student at Lincoln's Inn in 1809 before entering Parliament. Peel saw part-time military service as a captain in the Manchester Regiment of Militia in 1808, as lieutenant in the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry in 1820.
Peel entered politics in 1809 at the age of 21, as MP for the Irish rotten borough of Cashel, Tipperary. With a scant 24 electors on the rolls, he was elected unopposed, his sponsor for the election was the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, with whom Peel's political career would be entwined for the next 25 years. Peel made his maiden speech at the start of the 1810 session, when he was chosen by Prime Minister Spencer Perceval to second the reply to the king's speech, his speech was a sensation, famously described by the Speaker, Charles Abbot, as "the best first speech since that of William Pitt."As chief secretary in Dublin in 1813, he proposed the setting up of a specialist police force called "peelers". In 1814, the Royal Irish Constabulary was founded under Peel. For the next decade, he occupied a series of minor positions in the Tory governments: Undersecretary for War, Chief Secretary for Ireland, chairman of the Bullion Committee, he changed constituency twice, first picking up another constituency, Chippenham becoming MP for Oxford University in 1817.
He became an MP for Tamworth from 1830 until his death. His home of Drayton Manor has since been demolished. Peel was considered one of the rising stars of the Tory party, first entering the cabinet in 1822 as Home Secretary; as Home Secretary, he introduced a number of important reforms of British criminal law. He reduced the number of crimes punishable by death, simplified it by repealing a large number of criminal statutes and consolidating their provisions into what are known as Peel's Acts, he reformed the gaol system. He resigned as home secretary after the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool became incapacitated and was replaced by George Canning, he helped in the repeal of the Test and Corporation Ac
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British statesman and landowner, successively a Tory and Peelite politician, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was unable to control and direct. Despite his trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics. Aberdeen's career was dominated by foreign policy, but his experience did not prevent the slide towards the Crimean War, his personal life was marked by the loss of both parents by the time he was eleven, of his first wife after only seven years of a happy marriage. His daughters died young, his relations with his sons were difficult. Before his marriage he travelled extensively in Europe, including Greece, he had a serious interest in the classical civilisations and their archaeology.
On his return to Britain in 1805 he devoted much time and energy to improving conditions on his Scottish estates. After the death of his wife in 1812 he became a diplomat immediately being given the important embassy to Vienna while still in his twenties, his rise in politics was rapid and lucky, "two accidents—Canning's death and Wellington's impulsive acceptance of the Canningite resignations" led to his becoming Foreign Secretary to the Duke of Wellington in 1828 despite "an ludicrous lack of official experience". After holding the position for two years, followed by another cabinet role, by 1841 his experience led to his appointment as Foreign Secretary again under Robert Peel for a longer term; this was despite his being a "notoriously bad speaker", which mattered far less in the House of Lords, having a "dour, awkward sarcastic exterior". Nonetheless his Peelite colleague himself Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, said of him that he was "the man in public life of all others whom I have loved.
I say emphatically loved. I have loved others, but never like him". Born in Edinburgh on 28 January 1784, he was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord Haddo, son of George Gordon, 3rd Earl of Aberdeen, his mother was Charlotte, youngest daughter of William Baird of Newbyth. He lost his father on the 18 of october 1791 and his mother in 1795 and was brought up by Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville and William Pitt the Younger, he was educated at Harrow, St John's College, where he graduated with a Master of Arts in 1804. Before this, however, he had become Earl of Aberdeen on his grandfather's death in 1801, had travelled all over Europe. On his return to England, he founded the Athenian Society. In 1805, he married daughter of John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn. In December 1805 Lord Aberdeen took his seat as a Tory Scottish representative peer in the House of Lords. In 1808, he was created a Knight of the Thistle. Following the death of his wife from tuberculosis in 1812 he joined the Foreign Service.
He was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Austria, signed the Treaty of Töplitz between Britain and Austria in Vienna in October 1813. In the company of the Austrian Emperor, Francis II he was an observer at the decisive Coalition victory of the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, he became one of the central diplomatic figures in European diplomacy at this time, he was one of the British representatives at the Congress of Châtillon in February 1814, at the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Paris in May of that year. Aberdeen was affected by the aftermath of war which he witnessed at first hand, he wrote home: The near approach of war and its effects are horrible beyond what you can conceive. The whole road from Prague to was covered with waggons full of wounded and dying; the shock and disgust and pity produced by such scenes are beyond what I could have supposed possible...the scenes of distress and misery have sunk deeper in my mind. I have been quite haunted by them.
Returning home he was created a peer of the United Kingdom as Viscount Gordon, of Aberdeen in the County of Aberdeen, made a member of the Privy Council. In July 1815 he married his former sister-in-law Harriet, daughter of John Douglas, widow of James Hamilton, Viscount Hamilton. During the ensuing thirteen years Aberdeen took a less prominent part in public affairs. Lord Aberdeen served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster between January and June 1828 and subsequently as Foreign Secretary until 1830 under the Duke of Wellington, he resigned with Wellington over the Reform Bill of 1832. He was Secretary of State for War and the Colonies between 1834 and 1835, again Foreign Secretary between 1841 and 1846 under Sir Robert Peel, it was during his second stint as Foreign Secretary that he had the harbor settlement of'Little Hong Kong', on the south side of Hong Kong Island named after him. It was the most productive period of his career, that he settled two disagreements with the US—the Northeast Boundary dispute by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, the Oregon dispute by the Oregon Treaty of 1846.
He worked to improve relationships with France, where Guizot had become a personal friend. He enjoyed the trust of Queen Victoria, still important for a Foreign Secretary, he again resigned with Peel over the issue of the Corn Laws. After Peel's death in 1850 he became the recognised le
Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle
Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne KG, PC, styled Earl of Lincoln before 1851, was a British politician. Newcastle was the son of Henry Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, by his wife Georgina Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Miller-Mundy, he was educated at Eton and Christ Church, where he took his B. A. degree in 1832, was created a D. C. L. in 1863. Newcastle was returned to Parliament for South Nottinghamshire in 1832, a seat he held until 1846, represented Falkirk Burghs until 1851, when he succeeded his father in the dukedom. A Tory, he served under Sir Robert Peel as First Commissioner of Works from 1841 to 1846 and as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1846, as the effects of the Great Irish Famine began to take hold, he was admitted to the British Privy Council in 1841, to the Irish Privy Council on 14 February 1846. Newcastle joined the Peelites in 1846, held office in Lord Aberdeen's coalition government as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies between 1852 and 1852, as Secretary of State for War and Secretary at War between 12 June 1854 and 1 February 1855, when he resigned over the Crimean War.
From 18 June 1859 to April 1864, he served as Secretary of State for the Colonies in Lord Palmerston's Liberal administration. In 1860, while holding this office, he went to Canada and the United States, in company with the Prince of Wales. Apart from his political career he held the honorary posts of Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1857 to 1864 and Lord Warden of the Stannaries from 1862 to 1864, he was made a Knight of the Garter on 17 December 1860. Lord Lincoln was a member of the Canterbury Association from 27 March 1848. Upon succeeding to the dukedom, he joined the association's management committee on 29 January 1851. In 1849, the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, named the future town of Lincoln in New Zealand after him; the town's university was in turn named after Lord Lincoln. Newcastle married Lady Susan Hamilton, daughter of Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton, on 27 November 1832, they had five children: Henry Pelham-Clinton, 6th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, who married Henrietta Adela Hope on 11 February 1861 and had five children.
Lord Edward William Pelham-Clinton, who married Matilda Jane Cradock-Hartopp on 22 August 1865. Lady Susan Charlotte Catherine Pelham-Clinton, who married Lord Adolphus Vane-Tempest on 23 April 1860, she was a mistress of Edward VII of England. Lord Arthur Pelham-Clinton who died by suicide, after being charged in the Boulton and Park case. Lord Albert Sidney Pelham-Clinton, who married Mrs Frances Evelyn Stotherd on 17 November 1870; the marriage was unhappy and the Duke and Duchess were divorced in 1850, after a considerable scandal in which the Duchess eloped with Horatio Walpole, Lord Walpole, had an illegitimate child by him. Newcastle died in October 1864, aged 53, was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest son, Henry, his papers are now held at The University of Nottingham. Earl of Lincoln Earl of Lincoln, MP The Rt. Hon. Earl of Lincoln, PC, MP His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, PC His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC Clinton, British Columbia Clinton, South Australia Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Boase, George Clement.
"Clinton, Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 98–99. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Newcastle Biography of the 5th Duke, with links to online catalogues, from Manuscripts and Special Collections at The University of Nottingham "Archival material relating to Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle". UK National Archives. Pictures of the Duke of Newcastle at the National Portrait Gallery Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea
Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea, PC was a British statesman and a close ally and confidant of Florence Nightingale. He was the younger son of George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke, his mother being the Russian noblewoman Countess Catherine Woronzow, daughter of the Russian ambassador to St James's, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov; the Woronzow Road in St John's Wood, London, is named after the family. Educated at Harrow and Oriel College, Oxford, he made a reputation at the Oxford Union as a speaker. Herbert entered the House of Commons as Conservative member of Parliament for a division of Wiltshire in 1832. Under Peel he held minor offices, in 1845 was included in the cabinet as Secretary at War, again held this office from 1852 to 1855, being responsible for the War Office during the Crimean War, again in 1859. Herbert was a member of the Canterbury Association from 20 March 1848. Herbert ran the Pembroke family estates, centered at Wilton House, for most of his adult life, his elder half-brother, Robert Herbert, 12th Earl of Pembroke, had chosen to live in exile in Paris after a disastrous marriage in 1814 to a Sicilian princess, Ottavia Spinelli, widow of Prince Ercole Branciforte di Butera, daughter of the Duke of Laurino, a subsequent liaison with Alexina Gallot, which resulted in four illegitimate children.
It was Sidney Herbert who sent Florence Nightingale out to Scutari, with Nightingale led the movement for Army Health and War Office reform after the war. The hard work entailed caused a breakdown in his health, so that in July 1861, having been created a baron in the peerage of the United Kingdom, he had to resign office, he died from Bright's disease on 2 August 1861. His statue by Foley was placed in front of the War Office in Pall Mall and after that building's demolition placed next to A. G. Walker's statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, adjacent to the Crimean Monument. In the early 1840s, Herbert is thought to have had an affair with the noted society beauty and author Caroline Norton, unable to get a divorce from an abusive husband, so that the relationship ended in 1846. In 1846 Sidney Herbert married Elizabeth, only daughter of Lt.-Gen. Charles Ash is niece of William à Court, 1st Baron Heytesbury, she was a philanthropist and translator, a friend of Benjamin Disraeli, Cardinal Manning and Cardinal Vaughan.
After her husband's death, Lady Herbert became an "ardent ultramontane" Roman Catholic, along with their eldest daughter, Mary. Sidney and Elizabeth Herbert lived at 49 Belgrave Square and had seven children: Mary Catherine, who m. 1873 the great modernist theologian, Baron Friedrich von Hügel. George Robert Charles Herbert, who succeeded in the title and became the 13th Earl of Pembroke, the barony is now merged in that earldom. Elizabeth Maud, who m. 1872 the composer, Sir Charles Hubert Parry, 1st Baronet, of Highnam Court, near Gloucester. Sidney Herbert a Member of Parliament, who succeeded his brother as the 14th Earl of Pembroke. William Reginald Herbert, lost at sea aboard HMS Captain, aged 16. Michael Henry Herbert, after whom the town of Herbert in Saskatchewan, Canada, is named, was a diplomat who ended his career as British Ambassador to the US in Washington DC in succession to Lord Pauncefote, he m. 1888 Lelia "Belle", daughter of Richard Thornton Wilson, a New York banker and cotton broker, had Sir Sidney Herbert, 1st Baronet.
Constance Gwladys, who m. 1st 1878 St George Henry Lowther, 4th Earl of Lonsdale and m. 2ndly 1885 Frederick Oliver Robinson, the Earl de Grey 2nd and last Marquess of Ripon. Sidney Herbert is buried in the churchyard at Wilton, rebuilt by his father in neo-Romanesque style, with inside the church a marble monumental effigy of him beside Elizabeth, his wife. Herbert Sound in the Antarctic and Pembroke, Ontario in Canada are named after Sidney Herbert. Mount Herbert, the highest peak on Banks Peninsula, was named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, in 1849. Crimean War Memorial Mount Merrion Royal Herbert Hospital Sir Tresham Lever, The Herberts of Wilton Burke's Peerage, 107th edition Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale; the Woman and Her Legend Works by or about Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Herbert of Lea