Szczecin Lagoon, Stettin Lagoon, Bay of Szczecin, or Stettin Bay Oder lagoon, is a lagoon in the Oder estuary, shared by Germany and Poland. It is separated from the Pomeranian Bay of the Baltic Sea by the islands of Wolin; the lagoon is subdivided into the Wielki Zalew in the East. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which exclusively referred to the Vistula Lagoon. From the South, the lagoon is fed by several arms of the Oder river and smaller rivers like Ziese, Zarow and Ina. In the North, the lagoon is connected to the Baltic Sea's Bay of Pomerania with the three straits Peenestrom, Świna and Dziwna, which divide the mainland and the islands of Usedom and Wolin; the lagoon covers an area of 687 km², its natural depth is an average 3.8 metres, 8.5 metres at maximum. The depth of shipping channels however can exceed 10.5 metres. Thus, the lagoon holds about 2.58 km3 of water. The annual average water temperature is 11 °C.94% of the water loads discharged into the lagoon are from the Oder river and its confluences, amounting to an average annual 17 km3 or 540 m3 per second.
All other confluences contribute a combined annual 1 km3. Since no reliable data for an inflow from the Baltic Sea exist, the combined inflow is an estimated 18 km3 from a catchment area of 129,000 km2, residing in the lagoon for an average 55 days before being discharged into the Pomeranian Bay; the nutrients thereby transported into the lagoon have made it hypertrophic to eutrophic. The straits Peenestrom, Świna and Dziwna are responsible for 17%, 69%, 14% of the discharge, respectively; the average salinity is between 0.5 and 2 psu, yet at times more salt water penetrates through the Świna locally raising the salinity to 6 psu. Szczecin Świnoujście Police Ueckermünde Wolin Usedom Nowe Warpno In 1880, the Kaiserfahrt channel on Usedom was opened, a water route with a depth of 10 metres connecting the lagoon with the Baltic Sea by bypassing the eastern part of the Swine, allowing large ships to enter the lagoon and the seaport of Stettin quicker and safer; the canal 12 km long and 10 metres deep, was dug by the German Empire between 1874 and 1880, during the reign of the first Kaiser Wilhelm after whom it was named.
The work resulted in a new island named Kaseburg being cut off from Usedom. After 1945, the areas east of Oder Neisse line became part of Poland, including the former German seaport cities of Stettin and Swinemünde on the western bank of the river Oder; the Kaiserfahrt was renamed Piast Canal, after the Polish Piast dynasty. The German-Polish border divides the bight called Neuwarper See near Rieth, Luckow; the lagoon has served as an important fishing grounds for centuries, as a major transportation pathway since the 18th century, as a tourist destination since the 20th century. Today the lagoon offers a selection of passenger ship tours, a wide range of water sports and some notable beaches. Tourists can discover winegrowing, the narrow-gauge railway, castles, many hiking and cycling routes and a small village reviving the life of the former Slavic settlements; the lagoon suffers from heavy pollution from the Oder river, resulting in eutrophication. High concentrations of aluminium and iron sediments have been found in the river causing rapid algae growth inside the lagoon.
However, long-term nutrient concentrations show a high inter-annual variability and have declined during recent years. The southern shore of the lagoon belongs to the Am Stettiner Haff Nature Park, its northern shore and the island of Usedom to the Usedom Island Nature Park. To the west is the Anklamer Stadtbruch Nature Reserve and, within it, the Anklamer Torfmoor, a protected wetland, renaturalising after being used for peat extraction. Curonian Lagoon Vistula Lagoon Glasby GP, Szefer P, Geldon J, Warzocha J. "Heavy-metal pollution of sediments from Szczecin Lagoon and the Gdansk Basin, Poland". Sci. Total Environ. 330: 249–69. Doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.004. PMID 15325172
Anklam known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the banks of the Peene river, just 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, the western part of the Stettin Lagoon. Anklam was the capital of the former Ostvorpommern district. Since September 2011, it has been part of the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald. In the early Middle Ages, there was an important Scandinavian and Wendish settlement in the area near the present town now known as Altes Lager Menzlin. Anklam proper began as an associated Wendish fortress. In the Middle Ages the town was a part of the Duchy of Pomerania. During the German expansion eastwards, the abandoned fortress was developed into a settlement named Tanglim after its new founder; the site possesses importance as the head of navigation on the Peene. It was elevated to town status in 1244 and became a member of the Hanseatic League the same year or in 1483; the town remained small and non-influential, but achieved a measure of wealth and prosperity with its membership.
As a town of considerable military importance, it suffered during the Thirty Years' War when Swedish and Imperial troops battled over it across a twenty-year span. Amid this and subsequent wars, it endured repeated outbreaks of fire and plague, it was occupied by imperial forces from 1627 to 1630, thereafter by Swedish forces. After the war, Anklam became part of Swedish Pomerania in 1648. In 1676, it was captured by Frederick William of Brandenburg. In 1713, Anklam was looted by soldiers of the Russian Empire; that it was not burned to the ground, as ordered by Peter the Great, was in large part due to the resistance of Christian Thomesen Carl, after whom a street is named in remembrance. The southern parts of the town were ceded to Prussia by the 1720 Treaty of Stockholm, while a smaller section north of the Peene remained Swedish, it was damaged again during the Seven Years' War in the 1750s and'60s, with its fortifications being dismantled in 1762. Sweden yielded its remaining part of the town in 1815, when all of Western Pomerania became part of the Prussian province of Pomerania.
In the 19th century, Anklam was connected with Berlin and Stettin by rail and developed its manufacture of linen and woolen goods, leather and soap. Its 1871 population was 10,739. By the time of the First World War, it possessed a military school and developed iron foundries and sugar factories. In 1939 the Wehrmacht took over the military school and constructed a military prison on the grounds. Anklam was nearly destroyed by several bombing raids of the U. S. Air Force in 1943 and 1944 and in the last days of World War II, when the advancing Soviets burned and leveled most of the town. After Prussia and its Pomeranian province were dissolved and most of Pomerania was allocated to Poland under the terms of the Potsdam Conference, Anklam became part of the East German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; that was soon to be dissolved and Anklam was within the district of Neubrandenburg. The town was rebuilt in the rather uniform socialist style. After the 1990 reunification of Germany, Anklam became part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, re-created at that time.
Anklam was a prosperous medieval city but suffered during the Thirty Years' War, the Seven Years' War, the Second World War, as well as from periodic fires. Nonetheless, Anklam has some significant buildings remaining; the 12th-century church of St Mary was rebuilt in the 15th century, had a modern spire added in the 19th, was repaired in 1947. Museum im Steintor Otto-Lilienthal-Museum Anklam is connected with the Autobahn 20 coastal highway. Anklam railway station is served by national and local services to Angermünde, Dresden, Frankfurt, Münich and Stralsund. Early timesJohann Franz Buddeus, theologian, professor in Halle and Jena Paschen von Cossel, imperial vicar, canon of the cathedral chapter Hamburger Friedrich Albrecht Karl Herrmann, Reichsgraf von Wylich und Lottum Prussian officer Carl August Wilhelm Berends, head of the Charité19th CLudwig von Henk, Vice Admiral of the Imperial Navy, member of Reichstag Otto Lilienthal, aviation pioneer Gustav Lilienthal architect and social reformer Johanna Gadski, opera singer Julius Urgiss, German-Jewish screenwriter and critic for Kinematograph Heinrich Sahm a German lawyer, mayor of the Free City of Danzig Ulrich von Hassell, German diplomat and anti-Nazi Kurt von Briesen, a German officer, most General of Infantry in WWII Alice Hechy, a German stage and film actress20th CGünter Schabowski, politician Peter Hein a German rower, competed at the 1968 Summer Olympics Dixon house and techno DJ, producer and label manager Matthias Schweighöfer, a German actor, voice actor, film director and producer.
Sandro Stallbaum a retired German footballer, played for Werder Bremen Anklam is twinned with: Swedish Pomerania Baynes, T. S. ed. "Anklam", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 59 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Anklam", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, Cambridge University Press, p. 58 Gottfried Heinrich Gengler: Regesten und Urkunden zur Verfassungs- und Rechtsgeschichte der deutschen Städte im Mittelalter, Erlangen 1863, p. 47, see pp. 962-966. Gustav Kratz: Die Städte der Provinz Pommern: Abriß ihrer Geschichte, zumeist nach Urk
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
For people with the surname, see Wolgast. Wolgast is a town in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, it is situated on the bank of the river Peenestrom, vis-a-vis the island of Usedom on the Baltic coast that can be accessed by road and railway via a movable bascule bridge. In December 2004, the town had a population of 12,725; the precursor of present-day Wolgast was a Slavic Wendish stronghold located on an island within the Peenestrom sound. Contemporary sources called it Hologost, Woligost, Wologost, Wolegust, Walogost, Waløgost, Walagust, Walægust, Wolgast, Valagust, Wołogoszcz or Valegust. Wilhelm Ferdinand Gadebusch traces the name through Wendish to mean a "large grove", it is unclear which of the tribes documented in the area the population belonged to, the Veleti/Lutici or Rani. In 1123/24, prince Henry of the Obodrites used the stronghold as a stepping stone in his campaign against the Rani. In 1128, after the Pomeranian duke Wartislaw I had subdued the area, the Wends were baptized by Otto of Bamberg on his second Pomeranian mission, while Wartislaw was present in the stronghold.
In this context, Wolgast was described as a opulentissima civitas by the chronicler Ebo, it is however unclear whether this should be read as meaning opulent or mighty "castle" or "town". Otto destroyed a local temple devoted to Gerowit, a god of war, replaced it with a church; the thesis that this first church was a predecessor of today's St. Peter's church has not yet been confirmed. Wolgast was made the seat of a Pomeranian castellany, played an important role in the 12th-century warfare between Pomeranians and the Danes. In 1162, Wolgast was targeted by an allied Danish-Rani fleet, temporarily had to accept Danish suzerainty. In 1164, in the context of the battle of Verchen, a Danish force took control of Wolgast, left it to a mixed Rani-Pomeranian-Obrodite garrison after peace was restored. Yet, the Rani were soon expelled by the Pomeranians, the Obodrites left the scene; the Danes attacked Wolgast again in the summer of 1167, again either in late 1167 or in 1168, devastated the area. In 1177, another Danish assault on Wolgast failed, but a campaign in 1179 was successful, though the Danish fleet accepted money instead of a surrender.
In 1184, Wolgast was unsuccessfully besieged by the Danes, but came under Danish control in 1185 when the Pomeranian duke accepted Danish suzerainty. While t Danes lost control over most of Pomerania in 1227, Wolgast remained a Danish bridgehead until either 1241/43 or 1250. On the mainland opposite to island with the castle, a new planned town was built in the course of the Ostsiedlung, it is not known when this city of Wolgast was granted German town law, though its existence is confirmed by a letter written in or before 1259. The original charter was issued by both Pomeranian dukes of the time, Wartislaw III and Barnim I, a confirmation of the Lübeck law was issued in 1282 by duke Bogislaw IV. Wolgast was residence of the Pomeranian dukes from 1285 until the ruling House of Pomerania became extinct in 1637. Capital of Pomerania-Wolgast, a longtime inner partition of the duchy, Wolgast Castle was built as a residential palace in Renaissance style on an island hence called Castle Island; the ducal line of Pomerania-Wolgast became extinct.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish Empire occupied Wolgast in 1630 and kept it as a part of Swedish Pomerania until 1815. The former ducal palace decayed, the town was burned down in 1713 by Russian forces during the Great Northern War, in retaliation for Swedish arson in Altona. Only the church, four chapels and four more buildings were spared by the fire. Most houses of the Old Town therefore date back to the 18th and 19th centuries, the townhall was renewed after the fire in baroque style. After the Swedish withdrawal from Pomerania in 1815, the city was integrated into the Prussian Province of Pomerania. Last remnants of the palace were removed in 1849. Wolgast prospered throughout the 19th century as a port for grain trade. Wolgast lost its status as a Kreis capital on June 12, 1994, when Kreis Wolgast was merged into Kreis Ostvorpommern, which became part of Vorpommern-Greifswald in 2011; the town's history is presented in the Stadtgeschichtliches Museum in a building at the market place nicknamed Kaffeemühle.
The former house of painter Philipp Otto Runge is a museum by now. Barnim VII, Duke of Pomerania Duke of Pomerania Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania duke of Pomerania Barnim X, Duke of Pomerania a duke of Pomerania Casimir VI, Duke of Pomerania a non-reigning duke of Pomerania Philipp Julius, Duke of Pomerania duke of Pomerania Johann Philipp Palthen a Western Pomeranian historian and philologist Philipp Otto Runge a Romantic German painter and draughtsman Karl Gustav Homeyer a German jurist Adolf Friedrich Stenzler a German Indologist Theodor Marsson a German pharmacist and botanist Willy Stöwer a German artist and author Hans-Ulrich Grapenthin a German former footballer who played 308 games for FC Carl Zeiss Jena Axel Kruse a former German association footballer and American football player. Franka Dietzsch a former German discus thrower Johannes Sellin a German handball player Dubilski, Petra. Die Ostseeküste: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. DuMont. ISBN 3-7701-5926-8. Wolgast, Eike. Hochstift und Reformation: Studien zur
Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen, it is situated north of the Szczecin Lagoon estuary of the River Oder. About 80% of the island belongs to the German district of Vorpommern-Greifswald in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the eastern part and the largest city on the island, Świnoujście, are part of the Polish West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The island's total area is 445 square kilometres (the German part 373 square kilometres, its population is 76,500. With an annual average of 1906 sunshine hours, Usedom is the sunniest region of both Germany and Poland, it is one of the sunniest islands in the Baltic Sea, hence its nickname "Sun Island"; the island has been a tourist destination since the Gründerzeit in the 19th century, features resort architecture. Seaside resorts include Zinnowitz and the Amber Spas in the west, the Kaiserbad and Świnoujście in the east; the island is separated from the neighbouring island of Wolin to the east by the Strait of Świna, the main route connecting Szczecin Bay with the Pomeranian Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea.
The strait between the island and the mainland is called the Peenestrom. The island is flat covered by marshes. Geographical features include a number of lakes: The largest town on the island is Świnoujście, which has a population of 41,500. Another town, gives its name to the island; the largest town in the German part is Heringsdorf. There are many seaside resorts on the Baltic Sea coast, including Zinnowitz and Koserow in the west – and the three Imperial Spas Ahlbeck and Bansin forming a town, as well as neighbouring Świnoujście in the east of Usedom; the hinterland is called referring to the Achterwasser lagoon. It is characterized by unspoilt forests, lagoon landscapes, hills, as well as calm villages such as Loddin and Balmer See with its golf course. Main economic activities include tourism and life sciences, agriculture, animal husbandry, food processing, timber production. Settled since the Stone Age, the area was inhabited by Germanic Rugians, before the Polabian Slavs moved in during the fifth and seventh centuries.
Around the island, Wendish/Scandinavian trade centres such as Vineta/Jomsborg and Menzlin were established. In 1128 the Slavic Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw I was converted to Christianity through the efforts of Otto of Bamberg. In 1155 the Premonstratensians established a monastery in Grobe known as Usedom Abbey, which in 1309 was moved to the village of Pudagla. In the meantime, a Cistercian nunnery was founded in Krummin and soon the whole island was in the possession of one or the other of the ecclesiastical orders. During the Reformation, ownership passed to the Slavic dukes of Pomerania. During the Thirty Years' War, on June 26, 1630, the Swedish Army under King Gustavus Adolphus landed in the village of Peenemünde, located on the Peenestrom strait. Usedom was annexed by Sweden after the war for a century, until in 1720 it was sold for 2 million thalers to Prussian King Frederick William I. In 1740 Frederick the Great of Prussia developed a seaport in Swinemünde; the small village of Peenemünde came to prominence again during World War II.
The Luftwaffe tested rockets, including the V-1 and V-2 nearby. Germany used thousands of slave laborers on Usedom during World War II. In 1945 the eastern part of the island, together with the city and port of Swinemünde, was assigned to Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, the surviving German inhabitants of the town were expelled to the west; the territory was repopulated with Poles, most of whom had been expelled by the Soviets from what had been eastern Poland. The Isle of Usedom is one of Germany's major holiday and recreation areas due to its beaches, its natural environment, seaside towns such as Zinnowitz and Heringsdorf, which have been frequented by the German and international nobility as well as the general public. St. Peter Church in Benz is featured in the works of several artists, including the German-American painter Lyonel Feininger who spent summer vacations on the island from 1909 to 1921. Hotels and bed and breakfast establishments are available on both sides of the German-Polish border.
In addition to the coastline, the hinterland features nature reserves, castles and historic villages. Points of interest include: Usedom Botanical Gardens, Mellenthin, a botanical garden Karnin Lift Bridge, a technical monument to the former bridge over the Peenestrom. Dannenfeldt Mausoleum List of divided islands Armia Krajowa and V-1 and V-2 Usedom travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Usedom at Wikimedia Commons Usedom.de: Official Usedom webpage Visitusedom.com: Official Island of Usedom tourism website
Trebel is a municipality in the district Lüchow-Dannenberg, in Lower Saxony, Germany
The Peene Valley is a landscape in West Pomerania in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It covers the area on either side of the river Peene in the districts of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Vorpommern-Greifswald as the river makes its way from Lake Kummerow past the towns of Dargun, Loitz, Jarmen, Gützkow and Anklam to its mouth on the Peenestrom; the landscape of the Peene Valley has been little impacted by industry and other human activities and has a large variety of animal and plant species. It is therefore a nature area of statewide importance and much of the region is subject to nature and landscape conservation measures, it has a core zone of about 20,000 hectares and a total area of about 45,000 hectares and is thus the largest contiguous fen region of Europe. Thanks to its wilderness and intact nature, the river Peene and its valley is referred to as "the Amazon of the North". Mike Stegemann, Frank Hennicke: Errichtung und Sicherung schutzwürdiger Teile von Natur und Landschaft mit gesamtstaatlich repräsentativer Bedeutung.
Projekt: Peenetal/ Peene-Haff-Moor, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In: Natur und Landschaft. Issue 7/8, 1991. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, p. 287–294, ISSN 0028-0615. Barbara Havenstein, Frank Hennicke, Mike Stegemann, Jens Kulbe, Zweckverband „Peenetal-Landschaft“ Anklam: Natur- und Wanderführer Peenetal. Hoffmann-Druck GmbH, Wolgast 1998. Erich Hoyer: Naturführer Insel Usedom. Mit Haffküste, Ueckermünder Heide und unterem Peenetal. Verlag Erich Hoyer, Galenbeck 2001, ISBN 3-929192-13-6. Frieder Jelen: Ein Nationalpark im Peenetal. Wird eine Vision Wirklichkeit? In: Nationalpark. Wildnis - Mensch - Landschaft. 1/2006. Verein der Freunde des Ersten Deutschen Nationalparks Bayerischer Wald e. V, p. 4–7. Peene Valley landscape major nature conservation project BfN: Peenetal Information by the Federal Nature Conservation Office Förderverein „Naturschutz im Peenetal“ Official website of the preservation society