Henry Oldenburg FRS was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review. He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau. At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence, as the first Secretary. Born in Bremen, Germany, he trained in theology and received his degree on 2 November 1639, his movements during the 1640s are unclear, but he is thought to have worked as a tutor in England for much of the decade. In 1648 he travelled, returning in the end to Bremen, he went to London in 1653, as a diplomat, settled in England of the Interregnum. He forged a strong relationship with his lifelong patron Robert Boyle, was tutor to Boyle's nephew, the politician Richard Jones. Oldenburg married Dora Katherina Dury, the daughter of John Dury. Either through John Milton, whom he met early in his mission, or through Lady Ranelagh, sister to Boyle and the mother of Richard Jones, Oldenburg gained entry to an important intellectual circle, including Samuel Hartlib, whose extensive web of correspondents Oldenburg was to take over, John Dury who became his father-in-law, others such as the economist William Petty.
Among Oldenburg's correspondents at this time was Baruch Spinoza, whom he was introduced to on a trip to the Netherlands, to whom he presented a volume of writings on scientific topics by Boyle. After the Restoration he became an early member of the Royal Society, served as its first secretary along with John Wilkins, maintaining an extensive network of scientific contacts through Europe, he became the founding editor of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Oldenburg began the practice of sending submitted manuscripts to experts who could judge their quality before publication; this was the practice of peer review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society continues today and is the longest running scientific journal in the world, he was imprisoned in the Tower as a suspected spy in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Oldenburg's correspondence was linked to support from the politician Sir Joseph Williamson. Oldenburg enjoyed good health in his lifetime, but he fell ill on 3 September 1677, he died two days thereafter at his Pall Mall, London home.
He was interred on 7 September at St Mary the Virgin, Bexley. His widow died ten days later. Rasmus Bartholin. René François Walter de Sluse. Adrien Auzout, Henri Justel, Pierre Petit, Ismaël Bullialdus. Sir William Curtius, Johann Hevelius, Gottfried Leibniz, Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenheimb, Johann Daniel Major, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, Martin Vogel. Paolo Boccone, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Marcello Malpighi. Reinier de Graaf, Christiaan Huygens and his father, Constantijn Huygens, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Willem Ten Rhijne, Benedictus/Baruch Spinoza, Peter Serrarius, Jan Swammerdam, Isaac Vossius. Peer review Jean-Pierre Vittu, "Henry Oldenburg'Grand intermédiaire'", in "Les grands intermédiaires culturels de la République des Lettres", pub. by Christiane Berkvens-Stevelinck, Hans Bots and Jens Häseler, Honoré Champion, 2005, pp. 184–209 Douglas Mc Kie: The arrest and imprisonment of Henry Oldenburg. In: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 6, 1948/49, p. 28–47 Thomas Elsmann: Im Schatten des Kaufmanns – Bremische Gelehrte 1600–1900, Bremen: Schünemann 2012, S. 80–99 Works by Henry Oldenburg at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Oldenburg at Internet Archive The Correspondence of Henry Oldenburg in EMLO
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant research university in Gainesville, United States. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida; the university traces its origins to 1853 and has operated continuously on its Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida is one of sixty-two elected member institutions of the Association of American Universities, the association of preeminent North American research universities, the only AAU member university in Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. After the Florida state legislature's creation of performance standards in 2013, the Florida Board of Governors designated the University of Florida as one of the three "preeminent universities" among the twelve universities of the State University System of Florida. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida as the eighth best public university in the United States.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. It is the third largest Florida university by student population, is the eighth largest single-campus university in the United States with 54,906 students enrolled for the fall 2018 semester; the University of Florida is home to sixteen academic colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. It offers multiple graduate professional programs—including business administration, law, medicine and veterinary medicine—on one contiguous campus, administers 123 master's degree programs and seventy-six doctoral degree programs in eighty-seven schools and departments; the university's seal is the seal of the state of Florida, on the state flag. The University of Florida's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida Gators" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. In their 111-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 41 national team championships, 36 of which are NCAA titles, Florida athletes have won 275 individual national championships.
In addition, University of Florida students and alumni have won 126 Olympic medals including 60 gold medals. The University of Florida traces its origins to 1853, when the East Florida Seminary, the oldest of the University of Florida's four predecessor institutions, was founded in Ocala, Florida. On January 6, 1853, Governor Thomas Brown signed a bill that provided public support for higher education in Florida. Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to take advantage of the legislation, established the East Florida Seminary, which operated until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861; the East Florida Seminary was Florida's first state-supported institution of higher learning. James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a state senator from Alachua County, had opened a school in Gainesville, the Gainesville Academy, in 1858. In 1866, Roper offered his land and school to the State of Florida in exchange for the East Florida Seminary's relocation to Gainesville; the second major precursor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City by Jordan Probst in 1884.
Florida Agricultural College became the state's first land-grant college under the Morrill Act. In 1903, the Florida Legislature, desiring to expand the school's outlook and curriculum beyond its agricultural and engineering origins, changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida," a name the school would hold for only two years. In 1905, the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which consolidated the state's publicly supported higher education institutions; the member of the legislature who wrote the act, Henry Holland Buckman became the namesake of Buckman Hall, one of the first buildings constructed on the new university's campus. The Buckman Act organized the State University System of Florida and created the Florida Board of Control to govern the system, it abolished the six pre-existing state-supported institutions of higher education, consolidated the assets and academic programs of four of them to form the new "University of the State of Florida."
The four predecessor institutions consolidated to form the new university included the University of Florida at Lake City in Lake City, the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School in St. Petersburg, the South Florida Military College in Bartow; the Buckman Act consolidated the colleges and schools into three institutions segregated by race and gender—the University of the State of Florida for white men, the Florida Female College for white women, the State Normal School for Colored Students for African-American men and women. The City of Gainesville, led by its Mayor William Reuben Thomas, campaigned to be home to the new university. On July 6, 1905, the Board of Control selected Gainesville for the new university campus. Andrew Sledd, president of the pre-existing University of Florida at Lake City, was selected to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida; the 1905-1906 academic year was a year of transition. Architect William A. Edwards designed the first official campus buildings in the Collegiate Gothic style.
Classes began on the new Gainesville campus with 102 students enrolled. In 1909, the school's name
In philosophy, ideas are taken as mental representational images of some object. Ideas can be abstract concepts that do not present as mental images. Many philosophers have considered ideas to be a fundamental ontological category of being; the capacity to create and understand the meaning of ideas is considered to be an essential and defining feature of human beings. In a popular sense, an idea arises in a reflexive, spontaneous manner without thinking or serious reflection, for example, when we talk about the idea of a person or a place. A new or original idea can lead to innovation; the word idea comes from Greek ἰδέα idea "form, pattern," from the root of ἰδεῖν idein, "to see." One view on the nature of ideas is that there exist some ideas which are so general and abstract that they could not have arisen as a representation of an object of our perception but rather were in some sense always present. These are distinguished from adventitious ideas which are images or concepts which are accompanied by the judgment that they are caused or occasioned by an external object.
Another view holds that we only discover ideas in the same way that we discover the real world, from personal experiences. The view that humans acquire all or all their behavioral traits from nurture is known as tabula rasa. Most of the confusions in the way ideas arise is at least in part due to the use of the term "idea" to cover both the representation perceptics and the object of conceptual thought; this can be always illustrated in terms of the scientific doctrines of innate ideas, "concrete ideas versus abstract ideas", as well as "simple ideas versus complex ideas". Plato in Ancient Greece was one of the earliest philosophers to provide a detailed discussion of ideas and of the thinking process. Plato argued in dialogues such as the Phaedo, Symposium and Timaeus that there is a realm of ideas or forms, which exist independently of anyone who may have thoughts on these ideas, it is the ideas which distinguish mere opinion from knowledge, for unlike material things which are transient and liable to contrary properties, ideas are unchanging and nothing but just what they are.
Plato seems to assert forcefully that material things can only be the objects of opinion. Furthermore, ideas for Plato appear to serve as universals. "Yes, so we do." "And we assert that there is a fair itself, a good itself, so on for all things that we set down as many. Now, again, we refer to them as one idea of each. "That's so." "And, moreover, we say that the former are seen, but not intellected, while the ideas are intellected but not seen." Descartes wrote of the meaning of idea as an image or representation but not "in the mind", well known in the vernacular. Despite that Descartes is credited with the invention of the non-Platonic use of the term, he at first followed this vernacular use.b In his Meditations on First Philosophy he says, "Some of my thoughts are like images of things, it is to these alone that the name'idea' properly belongs." He sometimes maintained that ideas were innate and uses of the term idea diverge from the original primary scholastic use. He provides multiple non-equivalent definitions of the term, uses it to refer to as many as six distinct kinds of entities, divides ideas inconsistently into various genetic categories.
For him knowledge took the form of ideas and philosophical investigation is the deep consideration of these entities. In striking contrast to Plato's use of idea is that of John Locke. In his Introduction to An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke defines idea as "that term which, I think, serves best to stand for whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks, I have used it to express whatever is meant by phantasm, species, or whatever it is which the mind can be employed about in thinking, he said he regarded the book necessary to examine our own abilities and see what objects our understandings were, or were not, fitted to deal with. In his philosophy other outstanding figures followed in his footsteps — Hume and Kant in the 18th century, Arthur Schopenhauer in the 19th century, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper in the 20th century. Locke always believed in good sense — not pushing things to extremes and on taking into account the plain facts of the matter.
He considered his common-sense ideas "good-tempered and down-to-earth." As John Locke studied humans in his work “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” he continually referenced Descartes for ideas as he asked this fundamental question: “When we are concerned with something about which we have no certain knowledge, what rules or standards should guide how confident we allow ourselves to be that our opinions are right?” A simpler way of putting it is how do humans know ideas, what are the different types of ideas. An idea to Locke “can mean some sort of brute experience.” He shows that there are “No innate principles in the mind.”. Thus, he concludes that “our ideas are all experiential in nature.” An experience can either be a sensation or a reflection: “consider whether there are any innate ideas in the mind before any are brought in by the impression from sensation or reflection.” Therefore
The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the subject as valid and trustworthy as possible, to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. Begun in order to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval theology, scholasticism is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which places emphasis on dialectical reasoning; the primary purpose of scholasticism is to find the answer to a question or to resolve a contradiction. It was once well known for its application in medieval theology but was applied to classical philosophy and many other fields of study.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and to write history. The question of the nature, indeed the possibility, of sound historical method is raised in the philosophy of history, as a question of epistemology. History guidelines used by historians in their work require external criticism, internal criticism, synthesis; the empirical method is taken to mean the collection of data on which to base a hypothesis or derive a conclusion in science. It is part of the scientific method, but is mistakenly assumed to be synonymous with other methods; the empirical method is not defined and is contrasted with the precision of experiments, where data is derived from the systematic manipulation of variables. The experimental method investigates causal relationships among variables. An experiment is a cornerstone of the empirical approach to acquiring data about the world and is used in both natural sciences and social sciences.
An experiment can be used to help solve practical problems and to support or negate theoretical assumptions. The scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, the formulation and testing of hypotheses
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest general medical journals. Called the British Medical Journal, the title was shortened to BMJ in 1988, changed to The BMJ in 2014; the journal is published by the global knowledge provider BMJ, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association. The editor in chief of The BMJ is Fiona Godlee, appointed in February 2005; the journal began publishing on 3 October 1840 as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal and attracted the attention of physicians around the world through its publication of high-impact original research articles and unique case reports. The BMJ's first editors were P. Hennis Green, lecturer on the diseases of children at the Hunterian School of Medicine, its founder and Robert Streeten of Worcester, a member of the PMSA council; the first issue of the British Medical Journal was 16 pages long and contained three simple woodcut illustrations. The longest items were the editors' introductory editorial and a report of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association's Eastern Branch.
Other pages included a condensed version of Henry Warburton's medical reform bill, book reviews, clinical papers, case notes. There were 2 1⁄2 columns of advertisements. Inclusive of stamp duty it cost 7d, a price which remained until 1844. In their main article and Streeten noted that they had "received as many advertisements for our first number, as the most popular Medical Journal, after seventeen years of existence."In their introductory editorial and statements and Streeten defined "the main objects of promotion of which the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal is established". Summarised, there were two clear main objectives: the advancement of the profession in the provinces and the dissemination of medical knowledge. Green and Streeten expressed interest in promoting public well-being as well as maintaining'medical practitioners, as a class in that rank of society which, by their intellectual acquirements, by their general moral character, by the importance of the duties entrusted to them, they are justly entitled to hold'.
The BMJ published the first centrally randomised controlled trial. The journal carried the seminal papers on the causal effects of smoking on health and lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking. For a long time, the journal's sole competitor was The Lancet based in the UK, but with increasing globalisation, The BMJ has faced tough competition from other medical journals The New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association; the BMJ is an advocate of evidence-based medicine. It publishes research as well as clinical reviews, recent medical advances, editorial perspectives, among others. A special "Christmas Edition" is published annually on the Friday before Christmas; this edition is known for research articles which apply a serious academic approach to investigating less serious medical questions. The results are humorous and reported by the mainstream media; the BMJ has an open peer review system. About half the original articles are rejected after review in-house.
Manuscripts chosen for peer review are first reviewed by external experts, who comment on the importance and suitability for publication, before the final decision on a manuscript is made by the editorial committee. The acceptance rate is less than 7% for original research articles; the BMJ is included in the major indexes PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, the Science Citation Index. The journal has long criticised the misuse of the impact factor to award grants and recruit researchers by academic institutions; the five journals that as of 2008 have cited The BMJ most are The BMJ, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Lancet, BMC Public Health, BMC Health Services Research. As of 2008, the five journals that have been cited most by articles published in The BMJ are The BMJ, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In the 2018 Journal Citation Reports, The BMJ's impact factor was 23.295 in 2017, ranking it fourth among general medical journals.
According to the Web of Science, the following articles have been cited the most often: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. "Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey". BMJ. 320: 1240–3. Doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240. PMC 27365. PMID 10797032. "Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, stroke in high risk patients". BMJ. 324: 71–86. January 2002. Doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7329.71. PMC 64503. PMID 11786451. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, Hadden D, Turner RC, Holman RR. "Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: prospective observational study". BMJ. 321: 405–12. Doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405. PMC 27454. PMID 10938048; as of 2014, the most viewed article on The BMJ website is: Schultz WW, van Andel P, Sabelis I, Mooyaart E. "Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal".
BMJ. 319: 1596–600. Doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7225.1596. PMC 28302. PMID 10600954. In 1974, Dr. Elaine Murphy submitted a brief case report under her husband's name John which suggested a condition known as Cello Scrotum, a fictional condition which affected male ce
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R