Democratic National Convention
The Democratic National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions held every four years since 1832 by the United States Democratic Party. They have been administered by the Democratic National Committee since the 1852 national convention; the primary goal of the Democratic National Convention is to nominate and confirm a candidate for president and vice president, adopt a comprehensive party platform and unify the party. Pledged delegates from all fifty U. S. states and from American dependencies and territories such as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, superdelegates which are unpledged delegates representing the Democratic establishment, attend the convention and cast their votes to choose the Party's presidential candidate. Like the Republican National Convention, the Democratic National Convention marks the formal end of the primary election period and the start of the general election season; the party's presidential nominee is chosen in a series of individual state caucuses and primary elections.
Superdelegates, delegates whose votes are not bound to the outcome of a state's caucus or primary, may influence the nomination. To secure the nomination for the Democratic party in 2016, a candidate must secure 2,383 delegates; this number includes both pledged superdelegates. Prior to 1936, nomination for president was required, not by a majority, but by two-thirds of the total number of delegates. Unless there was a popular incumbent, something that only happened three times between the Civil War and World War II, getting that many votes on the first ballot was implausible; the choice was an contentious debate that riled the passions of party leaders. Delegates were forced to vote for a nominee until someone could capture a minimum number of delegates needed. In 1912, 1920 and most notoriously in 1924, the voting went on for dozens of ballots. Backroom deals by party bosses were normal and resulted in compromise nominees that became known as dark horse candidates. Dark horse candidates were people who never imagined they would run for president until the last moments of the convention.
Dark horse candidates were chosen in order to break deadlocks between more popular and powerful prospective nominees that blocked each other from gaining enough delegates to be nominated. One of the most famous dark horse candidates nominated at a Democratic National Convention was James K. Polk, chosen to become the candidate for president only after being added to the eighth and ninth delegate ballot; the rules were changed to a simple majority in 1936. Since only one multi-ballot convention has taken place. Before about 1970, the party's choice of the vice-presidential nominee was not known until the last evening of the convention; this was because the presidential nominee had little to do with the process and in many cases was not known at the start of the convention. In 1944 and 1956, the nominee let the convention choose the running mate without a recommendation, leading to multiballot voting, other times, successful attempts to sabotage the nominee by scattering delegate votes for someone else besides his choice, as in 1972 and 1980, led to disruptions.
In order to prevent such things from happening in the future, the presumptive nominee has, since 1984, announced his choice before the convention opened, he has been ratified by voice vote. By 1824, the congressional nominating caucus had fallen into disrepute and collapsed as a method of nominating presidential and vice presidential candidates. A national convention idea had been nothing occurred until the next decade. State conventions and state legislatures emerged as the nomination apparatus until they were supplanted by the national convention method of nominating candidates. President Andrew Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet" carried out the plan for the first Democratic National Convention; the first national convention of the Democratic Party began in Baltimore on May 21, 1832. In that year the 2/3 rule was created, requiring a 2/3 vote to nominate a candidate, in order to show the party's unanimous support of Martin Van Buren for vice president. Although this rule was waived in the 1836 and 1840 conventions, in 1844 it was revived by opponents of former President Van Buren, who had the support of a majority, but not two-thirds, of the delegates, in order to prevent him from receiving the nomination.
The rule remained in place for the next hundred years, led to Democratic National Conventions which dragged on endlessly, most famously at the 1860 convention, when the convention adjourned in Charleston without making a choice and reconvening in separate groups a short time and the 1924 convention, when "Wets" and "Drys" deadlocked between preferred candidates Alfred E. Smith and William G. McAdoo for 103 ballots before agreeing on John W. Davis as a compromise candidate. At the 1912 convention, Champ Clark was the first person to receive a majority of the votes who did not go on to achieve a two-thirds vote and the nomination; the 2/3 rule was abolished in 1936, when the unanimity in favor of the renomination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt allowed it to be put to rest. In the years that followed only one convention went beyond a single ballot. During the time the rule was in force, it assured that no candidate not supported by the South could be nominated; the elimination of the two-thirds rule made it possible for liberal Northern Democrats to gain greater influence in party affairs, leading to the disenfranchisement of Southern Democrats, defection of many of the latter to the
Julie Blaha is an American teacher and politician, serving as the 19th State Auditor of Minnesota. Blaha earned her Bachelor of Science from St. Cloud State University and her Master of Arts in education from Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, she worked as a middle school math teacher and secretary-treasurer of the Minnesota AFL-CIO. In the 2018 elections, Blaha ran for Minnesota State Auditor, defeated Pam Myhra in the general election, she was sworn into office on January 7, 2019. Blaha and her husband, live in Ramsey, Minnesota. Profile at Vote Smart
Paul David Wellstone was an American academic and politician who represented Minnesota in the United States Senate from 1991 until he was killed in a plane crash in Eveleth, Minnesota, in 2002. A member of the Democratic Farmer-Labor Party, Wellstone was a leader of the progressive wing of the national Democratic Party. Born in Washington D. C. Wellstone graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a B. A. and Ph. D. in Political Science. He was a professor at Carleton College in Northfield, a community organizer in Rice County prior to entering public office. In 1982, he ran an unsuccessful campaign for State Auditor against Republican Arne Carlson. Wellstone gained national attention after his upset victory over Republican incumbent Rudy Boschwitz in the 1990 US Senate election. Considered an underdog and outspent by a 7-to-1 margin, he was the only Democratic candidate to defeat a Republican senator in the 1990 election season. In his 1996 reelection campaign, he defeated Boschwitz in a rematch.
He won both Senate elections with a majority of the popular vote. In 1999, Wellstone formed an exploratory committee to run for President of the United States in the 2000 election. After campaigning in the early primary states, he announced he would not seek the presidency because of sustained physical limitations from a college wrestling injury, his condition was diagnosed as multiple sclerosis. As Senator, Wellstone authored the Wellstone Amendment for the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, his efforts toward campaign finance reform were posthumously overturned in 2010 by the U. S. Supreme Court in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. In 2002, he was the only Senator facing reelection to vote against the congressional authorization for the Iraq War. Eleven days before the 2002 U. S. Senate election, Wellstone died in a plane crash in Minnesota, his wife and daughter, Marcia died on board. Wellstone's sons and Mark, were not on the flight, now co-chair the Wellstone Action nonprofit organization in honor of their parents.
Wellstone was born in Washington, D. C. the second son of Ukrainian Jewish immigrants Leon and Minnie Wellstone. His father changed the family name from Wexelstein after encountering antisemitism during the 1930s. Raised in Arlington, Wellstone attended Wakefield public schools and Yorktown High School, graduating in 1962. Wellstone attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill on a wrestling scholarship. In college he was an undefeated Atlantic Coast Conference wrestling champion. After his freshman year, he married Sheila Ison Wellstone, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1965, was elected Phi Beta Kappa. In May 1969, Wellstone earned a Ph. D. in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His doctoral dissertation on the roots of black militancy was titled "Black Militants in the Ghetto: Why They Believe in Violence". In August 1969, Wellstone accepted a tenure-track position at Carleton College in Northfield, where he taught political science until his election to the Senate in 1990.
During the 1970s and 1980s, he began community organizing, working with the working poor and other politically disenfranchised communities. He founded the Organization for a Better Rice County, a group consisting of single parents on welfare; the organization advocated for public housing, affordable health care, improved public education, free school lunches, a publicly funded day care center. In 1978, he published his first book, How the Rural Poor Got Power: Narrative of a Grassroots Organizer, chronicling his work with the organization. Wellstone was twice arrested during this period for civil disobedience; the Federal Bureau of Investigation began a case file on him after his arrest in May 1970 for protesting against the Vietnam War at the Federal Office Building in Minneapolis. In 1984 Wellstone was arrested again, for trespassing during a foreclosure protest at a bank. Wellstone extended his activism to the Minnesota labor movement. In the summer of 1985, he walked the picket line with striking P-9ers during a labor dispute at the Hormel Meat Packing plant in Austin, Minnesota.
The Minnesota National Guard was called in during the strike to ensure that Hormel could hire permanent replacement workers. The trustees of Carleton College fired Wellstone in the late 1970s for his activism and lack of academic publications. After his students held a sit-in, the trustees agreed to provide him with tenure. Wellstone remains the youngest tenured faculty member in Carleton's history. Wellstone first sought public office in 1982, he received the Democratic nomination for Minnesota State Auditor after an impassioned speech at the state convention. In the general election he garnered 45% of the vote, losing to Republican incumbent, future Minnesota Governor, Arne Carlson. Wellstone remained active in Democratic politics in the mid-1980s, he served as an elected committeeman for the Democratic National Committee in 1984, in 1986 began a second campaign for State Auditor before dropping out to tend his mother's failing health. In 1988, Wellstone chaired Jesse Jackson's campaign for the presidency in Minnesota.
After the primary, he co-chaired Michael Dukakis's campaign in the state. In 1990, Wellstone ran for the U. S. Senate against incumbent Rudy Boschwitz, beginning the race as a serious underdog, he narrowly won the election despite being outspent by a 7-to-1 margin. Wellstone played off his underdog image with quirky, humorous ads created by political consultant Bill Hillsman, including "Fast Paul" and "Looking for Rudy", a pastiche of the 1989 Michael Moore documentary Roger & Me. Boschwitz was hurt by a letter his su
Ryan Patrick Winkler is a Minnesota politician and majority leader of the Minnesota House of Representatives. A member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, he represents District 46A, which includes portions of the cities of Golden Valley, St. Louis Park in Hennepin County. In February 2018, Winkler announced his intentions to run for the legislative office he held in District 46A, he was re-elected. DFL legislators elected Winkler to serve as Majority Leader in November 2018, he took office in January 2019. Winkler graduated with a B. A. in history from Harvard University in 1998 and J. D. from the University of Minnesota Law School in 2001. He was first elected in 2006, was re-elected in 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014. On May 21, 2015, Winker announced he would resign effective July 1, 2015, his wife at the time Jenny, accepted a job as an executive with the Rezidor Hotel Group, headquartered in Brussels and his family is moving there to support her. Following the United States Supreme Court's decision in Shelby County v. Holder, Winkler took to Twitter to write, "VRA majority is four accomplices to race discrimination and one Uncle Thomas" referring to Justice Clarence Thomas, an African American.
"Uncle Tom" is a derogatory used against blacks who are perceived as being apologetic for their race. Winkler deleted the tweet and posted, "Deleted Tweet causing offense regarding Justice Thomas. I apologize for it, but believe VRA decision does abet racism."On Twitter, he added that he did not understand "Uncle Tom" as a racist term. Ryan Winkler at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Ryan Winkler on Twitter Ryan Winkler on Facebook
Teen Vogue is a US magazine launched in 2003 as a sister publication to Vogue, targeted at teenage girls. Like Vogue, it includes stories about fashion and celebrities. Since 2015, following a steep decline in sales, the magazine cut back on its print distribution in favor of online content, which has grown significantly; the magazine has expanded its focus from fashion and beauty to include politics and current affairs. In November 2017, it was announced Teen Vogue would cease its print edition and continue as an online-only publication as part of a new round of cost cuts; the final print issue featured Hillary Clinton on the cover and was on newsstands on December 5, 2017. Teen Vogue was established in 2003 as a spinoff of Vogue and led by former Vogue beauty director Amy Astley under the guidance of Anna Wintour with Gina Sanders as founding publisher; the magazine is published in a smaller 6¾"x9" format to afford it more visibility on shelves and some flexibility getting into a digest size slot at checkout stands.
Teen Vogue's original price was $1.50 --"about as much as a Chap Stick" media critic David Carr noted--and about half the price of contemporaneous magazines aimed at a similar demographic, like Seventeen and YM. At launch, founding editor-in-chief Astley said that topically, Teen Vogue would focus on doing "what we do well, fashion and style." Teen Vogue was the first teen-focused addition to the Condé Nast portfolio focused on adult audiences. The publication began with four test issues published six issues in 2003 and ten in 2004. In May 2016, Elaine Welteroth was appointed as editor, replacing Astley when she departed to become editor-in-chief of Architectural Digest. Welteroth's appointment at 29 saw her become the youngest editor in Condé Nast's history, the second African-American, her appointment came as part of a new leadership team in which she would work with digital editorial director Phillip Picardi and creative director Marie Suter. Teen Vogue suffered from the same sales decline that hit all teen fashion magazines in the new millennium.
Its single-copy sales dropped 50 percent in the first six months of 2016. Beginning with the December/January 2017 issue, Teen Vogue began publishing quarterly, cutting back from ten issues per year to four issues per year; the first quarterly issue focused on "young love."On April 29, 2017, Elaine Welteroth was named editor-in-chief of Teen Vogue. On November 2, 2017 it was announced Teen Vogue would cease its print edition and continue as an online-only publication as part of a new round of cost cuts. In January 2018, Welteroth left the magazine, Picardi was named chief content officer. On February 5, 2018, Samhita Mukhopadhyay joined the masthead as executive editor. In March, Marie Suter left Condé Nast, she was the creative director in a team with Picardi. She was replaced as creative director by Erin Hover in April 2018. In August, it was announced that Picardi was leaving the magazine and Condé Nast. In October 2018, it was announced that Lindsay Peoples Wagner would serve as the new Editor in Chief of Teen Vogue.
Since 2016, Teen Vogue has grown in traffic through its website. This has been attributed to leadership of digital editorial director Picardi, who joined the team in April 2015, as well as the interest of the whole leadership team--with Suter and Welteroth--in broadening the topics covered; the group has made a shift in the magazine to increase its focus on social issues and politics causing a corresponding growth in web traffic. The politics section has surpassed the entertainment section as the site's most-read section. Teen Vogue's initial content focused on fashion, aimed at a teen audience. In December 2016, the magazine published an opinion article by Lauren Duca, the magazine’s weekend editor, entitled "Donald Trump Is Gaslighting America." Within weeks, the essay had been viewed 1.2 million times, on NPR's All Things Considered, David Folkenflik described the essay as signaling a shift in the magazine's emphasis toward more political and social engagement. According to The New York Times, many media observers were "surprised to see a magazine for teenagers making such a strong political statement," although Folkenflik acknowledged he drew criticism for expressing this surprise and at Slate, Mark Joseph Stern argued the essay was consistent with the magazine's record, since the appointment of Welteroth and Picardi, as a "teen glossy with good political coverage and legal analysis, an outlet for teenagers who—shockingly!—are able to think about fashion and current events simultaneously."
At The Atlantic, Sophie Gilbert noted, "The pivot in editorial strategy has drawn praise on social media, with some writers commenting that Teen Vogue is doing a better job of covering important stories in 2016 than legacy news publications." Sexuality has been a topic in Teen Vogue's expanded focus. On July 7, 2017, the magazine published a column titled, "Anal Sex: What You Need to Know" which author Gigi Engle described as "anal 101, for teens and all inquisitive folk." The column drew criticism from some parents for what they viewed as content inappropriate to the target audience of teenage girls. In The Independent, J J Barnes criticized the column as "bizarre" for focusing on male reproductive anatomy rather than female. Teen Vogue's digital editorial director Phillip Picardi defended the column, saying that backlash was "rooted in homophobia."In the February 21, 2019 edit
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Rosebud Indian Reservation
The Rosebud Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in South Dakota, United States. It is the home of the federally recognized Sicangu Oyate – known as Sicangu Lakota, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe, a branch of the Lakota people; the Lakota name Sicangu Oyate translates into English as "Burnt Thigh Nation". The Rosebud Indian Reservation was established in 1889 after the United States' partition of the Great Sioux Reservation. Created in 1868 by the Treaty of Fort Laramie, the Great Sioux Reservation covered all of West River, South Dakota, as well as part of northern Nebraska and eastern Montana; the reservation includes all of Todd County, South Dakota, communities and lands in the four adjacent counties. The RIR is located in south central South Dakota, presently includes within its recognized border all of Todd County, an unincorporated county of South Dakota. However, the Oyate has communities and extensive lands and populations in the four adjacent counties, which were once within the Rosebud Sioux Tribe boundaries: Tripp, Lyman and Gregory counties, all in South Dakota.
Mellette County has extensive off-reservation trust land, comprising 33.35 percent of its land area, where 40.23 percent of the Sicangu Oyate population lives. The total land area of the reservation and its trust lands is 1,970.362 sq mi with a population of 10,469 in the 2000 census. The main reservation has a land area of 1,388.124 sq mi and a population of 9,050. The RIR is bounded on the south by Cherry County, Nebraska, on the west by the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, on the north by the White River, on the east by the Missouri River; the Oyate capital is the unincorporated town of Rosebud, established when the Spotted Tail Indian Agency to the banks of Rosebud Creek near its confluence with the Little White River. It was located in northwestern Nebraska; the largest town on the reservation is Mission, served by the intersections of US Highways 18 and 83. Mission's near neighbor of Antelope is one of the many tribal band communities established in the late 1870s, it has grown since then.
Other major towns in the reservation are Saint Francis, located southwest of Rosebud. It is the home of Saint Francis Indian School, a private Catholic institution first established as a mission school. Saint Francis, with a current population of about 2000, is the largest incorporated town in South Dakota without a state highway for access. Located on the Great Plains, just north of the Nebraska Sandhills, Rosebud Indian Reservation has large areas of Ponderosa Pine forest scattered in its grasslands. Deep valleys are defined by steep hills and ravines with lakes dotting the deeper valleys; the RST owns and operates Rosebud Casino, located on U. S. Route 83 just north of the Nebraska border. Nearby is a fuel plaza, featuring truck parking and a convenience store. Power for the casino is furnished in part by one of the nation's first tribally owned electricity-generating wind turbines. In the early 21st century, the tribe built a new residential development, Sicangu Village, along Highway 83 near the casino and the state line.
Like numerous other Native American tribes, the Rosebud government decided to legalize alcohol sales on the reservation. This enables it to use sales taxes and other revenues generated for the welfare and health of the tribe, it directly regulates the use of alcohol in an effort to reduce abuses. The RST population is estimated at 25,000, it is served by agencies. In addition, the tribe is served by the BIA Rosebud Agency, Todd County School District, Saint Francis Indian School, Saint Joseph's Indian School in Chamberlain, South Dakota, it has developed Sinte Gleska University on the reservation. The tribal university is named after the 19th-century Sioux war chief and statesman, whose name in English was Spotted Tail; the tribe has suffered from terrible conditions at the IHS hospital. Because the IHS did not maintain standards, in November 2015 the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services said it would no longer reimburse for services at the ER, as conditions were so poor; the ER was closed.
For seven months, citizens on the reservation had no access to ER services. Five babies were born in ambulances en route to the nearest hospitals -50 miles away- and nine people died during emergency transport to other health facilities. CMS announced on July 2016 that the emergency department would re-open the next day. Representative Kristi Noem, R-South Dakota, has authored legislation to improve conditions and staff at IHS facilities, she has testified before Congress to gain support for the legislation. The Tribe owns QCredit, an online financial services company; the Tribe works with financial technology vendor Think Finance for assistance with compliance management, risk management, loan services. Land Area: 882,416 acres Tribal headquarters: Rosebud, South Dakota Time zone: Central Enrolled members living on reservation: 21,245 Major employers: Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Todd County School District Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the federally recognized Rosebud Sioux Tribe re-established self-government.
It adopted a constitution and bylaws, to take back many responsibilities for internal management from the BIA. It followed the model of elected government: president, vice-president, representative council, adopted by many Native American nations. At the time and since m