A pegmatite is an igneous rock, formed underground, with interlocking crystals larger than 2.5 cm in size. Most pegmatites are found in sheets of rock near large masses of igneous rocks called batholiths; the word pegmatite derives from Homeric Greek, πήγνυμι, which means “to bind together”, in reference to the intertwined crystals of quartz and feldspar in the texture known as graphic granite. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz and mica, having a similar silicic composition as granite. Rarer intermediate composition and mafic pegmatites containing amphibole, Ca-plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene and other unusual minerals are known, found in recrystallised zones and apophyses associated with large layered intrusions. Crystal size is the most striking feature of pegmatites, with crystals over 5 cm in size. Individual crystals over 10 metres long have been found, many of the world's largest crystals were found within pegmatites; these include spodumene, microcline and tourmaline. Crystal texture and form within pegmatitic rock may be taken to extreme size and perfection.
Feldspar within a pegmatite may display exaggerated and perfect twinning, exsolution lamellae, when affected by hydrous crystallization, macroscale graphic texture is known, with feldspar and quartz intergrown. Perthite feldspar within a pegmatite shows gigantic perthitic texture visible to the naked eye; the product of pegmatite decomposition is euclase. The single feature, diagnostic to all pegmatites is their large size crystal components. Pegmatite bodies are of minor size compared to typical intrusive rock bodies. Pegmatite body size is on the order of magnitude of one to a few hundred meters. Compared to typical igneous rocks they are rather inhomogeneous and may show zones with different mineral assemblages. Crystal size and mineral assemblages are oriented parallel to the wall rock or concentric for pegmatite lenses; the number of crystal nuclei in pegmatites must be low and the ability of the necessary chemical components needed for crystal growth to migrate to the crystal surfaces must be enhanced to allow gigantic crystals to grow in pegmatites.
Thus, the possible growth mechanisms in a wide variety of known pegmatites may involve a combination of the following processes. The mineralogy of a pegmatite is in most cases dominated by some form of feldspar with mica and with quartz, being altogether "granitic" in character. Beyond that, pegmatite may include most minerals associated with granite and granite-associated hydrothermal systems, granite-associated mineralisation styles, for example greisens, somewhat with skarn associated mineralisation, it is however impossible to quantify the mineralogy of pegmatite in simple terms because of their varied mineralogy and difficulty in estimating the modal abundance of mineral species which are of only a trace amount. This is because of the difficulty in counting and sampling mineral grains in a rock which may have crystals from centimeters to meters across. Garnet almandine or spessartine, is a common mineral within pegmatites intruding mafic and carbonate-bearing sequences. Pegmatites associated with granitic domes within the Archaean Yilgarn Craton intruding ultramafic and mafic rocks contain red and brown almandine garnet.
Tantalum and niobium minerals are found in association with spodumene, tourmaline, cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia, considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite Syenite pegmatites are quartz depleted and contain large feldspathoid crystals instead. Pegmatite is difficult to sample representatively due to the large size of the constituent mineral crystals. Bulk samples of some 50–60 kg of rock must be crushed to obtain a meaningful and repeatable result. Hence, pegmatite is characterised by sampling the individual minerals that compose the pegmatite, comparisons are made according to mineral chemistry. Geochemically, pegmatites have major element compositions approximating "granite", when found in association with granitic plutons it is that a pegmatite dike will have a different trace element composition with greater enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, beryllium, aluminium and lithium, thorium, cesium, et cetera.
Enrichment in the unusual trace elements will result in crystallisation of unusual and rare minerals such as beryl, columbite, zinnwaldite and so forth. In most cases, there is no particular genetic significance to the presence of rare mineralogy within a pegmatite, however it is possible to see some causative and genetic links between, tourmaline-bearing granite dikes and tourmaline-bearing pegmatite
Tiara Yachts is a boat manufacturer based in Holland, Michigan. Its models include both cruising boats ranging from 31 -- 53 feet; the company is most famous for coining the term "open" to describe its Tiara 3100. Tiara has a sister company, known as Pursuit, that produces models from 25–39 feet with outboard engines. Tiara Yachts is known for building mid-sized luxury yachts; the company’s founder, Leon Slikkers and operated another yacht building company before he founded his second company, S2 Yachts. Before that, Slikkers worked at Chris Craft. Slikkers' next move in his career was owning and operating Slickcraft, which focused on building motor powered boats. In the late 1960s many large public yacht companies were looking to buy smaller companies in the interest of drawing new stock holders and diversifying their stock. A company based in New York, called American Machine and Foundry, gained interest in Slickcraft. In September 1969, Slikkers sold the company. After a few years with this new company, Slikkers left claiming that they were not committed to the same level of excellence as he was.
Slikkers proceeded to leave AMF and Slickcraft behind to create a new company with his sons, which his family stills owns and operates today, S2 Yachts and all of its ‘child’ companies such as Tiara Yachts. On February 18, 1974, S2 Yachts was founded. Shortly after S2 Yachts was founded, Slikkers’ two older sons finished college and joined their father at the company. S2 began rolling sailboats off the lot right away, however, a few more years down the line Leon began to feel the same pressures as before. Fortunate for him, he had a larger company this time, more capital than before, both his sons on his side. All these factors allowed S2 to gain momentum in this competitive industry, still able to remain a private company. In 1976, Leon decided; these changes lead S2 Yachts to building motor yachts. As a result of the high sales of this new line of yachts, it was decided to create a new division in the company that would focus on motor yachts only. Tiara Yachts was incorporated. Tiara offers five series of yachts, the Q Series, Tiara Series, Convertible Series, Flybridge Series, the Coupe Series.
The Q Series is available in a single model, the Q 44. The Q Series is marketed as an "adventure yacht" for day boating; the Tiara Series is available in four models, the 31, 36, 39, the 43. The Tiara Series is designed as an open coupe for day boating; the Convertible Series is available in two models, the 39 Convertible, the 48 Convertible. The Convertible Series is designed as a sport fishing/cruising yacht; the Flybridge Series is available in two models, the F 44 and the F 53. The Flybridge Series is the flybridge version of the Coupe Series; the Coupe Series is available in three models, the C 39, C 44, the C 53. The Coupe Series is designed as a cruising yacht. Official website
The English Software Company shortened to English Software, was a software developer and publisher that operated from 1982 until 1987. It was based in Manchester, UK; the company was set up in 1982 by Philip Morris, owner of Gemini Electronics computer store in Manchester, to release video games for the Atari 8-bit family. By the end of 1983, English Software was the largest producer of Atari 8-bit software in the UK and Morris closed Gemini Electronics to concentrate on English; the company continued to concentrate on the Atari 8-bit market but released games for other home computers including Commodore 64, BBC Micro, Acorn Electron, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum, Atari ST, Amiga. Popular games include platformers Jet-Boot Jack and Henry's House, racer Elektra Glide, the multi-event Knight Games and shoot'em up Leviathan. English had licensing deals that saw some of their games released internationally e.g. through Dynamics Marketing in Germany and Datamost in the US. A number of English's games were sold at budget price by Mastertronic in the US, which included exclusive ports such as the Atari version of Henry's House and the IBM PC compatible version of Knight Games.
Philip Morris said in 2013 he did not license the Atari version to Mastertronic UK though English Software had the option to do this. Airstrike Time Warp Xenon Raid Airstrike II Batty Builders Bombastic! Aka Bomb Blast It! Captain Sticky's Gold Jet-Boot Jack Krazy Kopter Neptune's Daughter Steeple Jack Spaceman Sid Stranded, ports of the BBC/Electron game first published by Superior Software Henry's House, ported to the Atari 8-bit by Mastertronic Kissin' Kousins Legend of the Knucker-Hole Colossus Chess 3.0 Hijack! Topper the Copper Chop Suey Elektra Glide Mediator Knight Games, ported to PC by Mastertronic Q-Ball Leviathan Octapolis Knight Games 2: Space Trilogy
Governor Grover was a sternwheel steamboat that ran on the Willamette River during the 1870s. Because of the completion of the Willamette Locks in late 1872, it was possible for vessels such as Governor Grover to be built in Portland and readily navigate the Willamette above Willamette Falls. Governor Grover was built in 1873 for the Willamette River Navigation Company, formed to compete with the monopoly on the river, held by the People's Transportation Company, which by 1873 had come under the control of steamboat and stagecoach magnate Ben Holladay. Among the backers of the Willamette River Navigation Company were the important businessman Bernard Goldsmith and the steamboat men Jacob Kamm and Joseph Kellogg, with the latter supervising construction of the Grover. Grover was named after La Fayette Grover fourth governor of the state of Oregon. Other vessels built by the Willamette River Navigation Company included the sternwheelers Vancouver and Willamette Chief. Grover was launched on January 28, 1873, made her first trip on March 16, 1873.
Officers at first were Charles Holman, George Marshall, chief engineer, A. Vickers and Charles Kellogg, pilots. Shortly after construction Governor Grover passed into the ownership of the Willamette Falls Locks and Canal Company. Governor Grover worked on the Willamette River and, on March 18, 1873, was the first large vessel to go as far upriver as Harrisburg. Grover achieved some success in driving down rates, became popular among the farmers of the Willamette Valley. In 1874 Capt. Holman was succeeded in command by Capt. James Wilson, who remained with the vessel for several years; the Willamette Falls Locks and Canal Company sold Grover to the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which worked the vessel on all routes running out of Portland, Oregon. In 1880, Governor Grover was dismantled at Oregon. Affleck, Edward L. A Century of Paddlewheelers in the Pacific Northwest, the Yukon, Alaska, Alexander Nicolls Press, Vancouver, BC 2000 ISBN 0-920034-08-X Corning, Howard McKinley, Willamette Landings—Ghost Towns of the River, Oregon Historical Society, Oregon ISBN 0-87595-042-6 Mills, Randall V. Sternwheelers up the Columbia—A Century of Steamboating in the Oregon Country, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE ISBN 0-8032-5874-7 Wright, E.
W. ed. Lewis & Dryden's Marine History of the Northwest, Lewis & Dryden Printing Co. Portland, OR 1895, available on-line at the Washington Secretary of State Historical Section Faber, Steamer's Wake—Voyaging down the old marine highways of Puget Sound, British Columbia, the Columbia River, Enetai Press, Seattle, WA 1985 ISBN 0-9615811-0-7 Newell, Gordon R. and Williamson, Pacific Steamboats Bonanza Press, New York, NY 1958 Timmen, Blow for the Landing—A Hundred Years of Steam Navigation on the Waters of the West, Caxton Press, Caldwell, ID 1973 ISBN 0-87004-221-1
Jeff Ballard is an American jazz drummer from Santa Cruz, California. He has played with Ray Charles and Pat Metheny and plays periodically with Chick Corea in many groups such as Origin and the Chick Corea New Trio, he played with many New York-based jazz musicians such as Reid Anderson, Brad Mehldau, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Mark Turner, Miguel Zenon and Eli Degibri. He has played with the Joshua Redman Elastic Band, he is a member of the Brad Mehldau Trio and co-leader of Fly, a collective trio with Mark Turner and Larry Grenadier and leads Jeff Ballard Trio and Jeff Ballard Fairgrounds. Jeff Ballard was born 17 September 1963 in southern California but grew up and studied in Santa Cruz, California, he began playing drums at the age of 14, attended Cabrillo College where he studied music theory, toured with many bands, all the time absorbing influences and developing his own approach to drumming. He met Larry Grenadier in 1982, with whom he plays in Brad Mehldau Trio. At the age of 24 he went on the road with Ray Charles for eight months every year 1988-1990 playing in Charles' Big Band.
He moved to New York in 1990, where he started collaborating with Ben Monder, Kurt Rosenwinkel, Mark Turner and Ben Allison. On in New York he started to play with Avishai Cohen and Chick Corea. Ballard started the band Fly with Larry Grenadier and Mark Turner around the time Ballard was working with Corea. Brad Mehldau invited Ballard to play in his trio in 2005, with whom he has played since, he formed the Jeff Ballard Trio with Lionel Loueke and Miguel Zenon, releasing Time’s Tales as the recording debut for Ballard as leader in 2014. His second album as leader is Fairgrounds released January 2019 with Lionel Loueke, Kevin Hays and Reid Anderson with guest appearances from Mark Turner and Chris Cheek. Best Debut Album, 2014, NPR Music Jazz Critics Poll, Time's Tales Best Instrumentalist / International Drums/Percussion, ECHO Jazz Awards 2015 Time's Tales Fairgrounds With Jeff Ballard Trio including Lionel Loueke & Miguel Zenón Time's Tales With Fly including Mark Turner & Larry Grenadier Fly Sky & Country Year of the Snake With Avishai Cohen Adama Devotion Colors With Chick Corea Change Concerto Originations Past, Present & Future Rendezvous in New York 5trios – 3.
Chillin' in Chelan With Brad Mehldau Day Is Done Metheny/Mehldau Metheny Mehldau Quartet Brad Mehldau Trio Live Highway Rider Ode Where Do You Start Blues and Ballads Seymour Reads the Constitution! With Pat Metheny Metheny/Mehldau Metheny Mehldau Quartet With Ted Nash Sidewalk Meeting With Joshua Redman Momentum With Kurt Rosenwinkel The Enemies of Energy The Next Step Heartcore Deep Song Official website AllAboutJazz
Willy Grondin is a French former professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. Grondin's years with FC Nantes were his longest spent with any club. Through 1998 to 2004 he helped his club stay in the French First Division while winning two national cups in 1999 and 2000 and one championship in 2001. Internationally, he played his 2000–2002 seasons in the Division 1, took part in the UEFA Champions League for FC Nantes. Grondin was loaned to the Le Mans UC72 and played for a full season with them, catching the attention of the Valenciennes FC, who purchased him the next year. Grondin played for Valenciennes FC and helped them to win the French Second Division, hence earning Valenciennes entrance to the French First Division, which they had been denied from for more than a decade. In the 2006–07 season, Grondin was moved to second choice goalkeeper, replaced by Nicolas Penneteau. After terminating his contract with Valenciennes on 9 July 2009, the goalkeeper signed a one-year deal with Paris Saint-Germain F.
C. Willy Grondin at L'Équipe Football