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Wright Opera House Block

The Wright Opera House Block known as the Alma Opera House Block, is a commercial block located at 101–113 East Superior Street and 408 North State Street in Alma, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. Ammi Willard Wright was born in 1822 in Vermont, he left home in 1843 to learn business in Boston spent several years in the draying business and managing a hotel in Bartonsville, Vermont. In 1848, he married the daughter of his employer; the next year the couple moved to Boston, in 1850 to Detroit. His original business plans were dashed when his business partner died unexpectedly, Wright relocated to the Saginaw Valley and got into the lumber business, he was engaged in lumbering in the 1850s purchased a mill in 1859, in 1871 formed the First National Bank in Saginaw and the Saginaw Barrel Company. He diversified into other business interestes, including banks, manufacturing and timber, ranching properties. In 1875, Wright and his partner James Dawson opened a general store in Alma, the first of his properties in the city.

It was destroyed by fire the next year, but they relocated temporarily, purchased a lot on which to construct a new building. Construction was delayed, soon Wright & Dawson's partnership was dissolved. However, Wright took on new partners, in 1879 work began on what was the second brick building in Alma, the Wright Opera House. In 1879, Harriet Wright began to sicken, the Wrights moved to Saratoga Springs, New York. Ammi Wright commuted for long periods between Saratoga Springs and Michigan, in particular to the Alma area. Harriet died in 1884. Wright began developing businesses and properties in Alma, starting with a store, and, in 1879-80, the Wright Opera House Block, he constructed the Alma Roller Mills in 1881, the Wright House hotel in 1883, the First State Bank of Alma in 1883, the Alma Springs Sanitarium in 1885. Establishments included the Alma Sugar Company plant in 1899, the Alma Manufacturing Company gasoline engine plant in 1903, the Central Michigan Produce Company in 1905. Ammi Willard Wright died in 1912, leaving an estate worth ten million dollars at the time of his death.

Wright had planned to build a smaller store, but by 1879 plans were expanded to accommodate five stores. The foundation was in place by fall 1879, the exterior was finished in January of the next year. Businesses were moving into the structure by May 1880, when it was completed at the cost of $20,000; the first tenants in the building were the Barton & Company general store, the post office, Coates & Ely Hardware, the Turck, Winton & Co. Bank, the opera house; the opera house called "Barton's Hall," occupied the two upper floors of the building. It was used for a number of events in the social life of the town, including dramatic performances, political speeches, musical performances, it was used for a decade fell into disuse was remodeled and reopened by Wright's son-in-law, Henry Lancashire, in 1894. It was remodeled to use as a Masonic Temple; the entire block was renovated in 1897, in 1899 an addition known as the Lancashire Building was constructed directly abutting the Opera House. Both the original Opera House and the Lancashire Building addition housed a series of commercial establishments throughout the 20th and into the 21st century.

However, in 2010 a fire extensively damaged the building. Rehabilitation of the entire complex for mixed residential and commercial use began in 2012, with commercial space on the ground floor and residential units for Alma College students on the upper floors. Renovations were completed in August 2019; the Wright Opera House Block Complex consists of three interconnected buildings: the 1880 Wright Opera House Block, the 1899 Lancashire Building addition, an associated boiler house/store building. The Opera House Block is a three-story Italianate commercial building constructed of cream-colored brick, it covers a footprint of 110 feet by 85 feet. The facade is five bays wide; the upper-story windows in the opera house section were tall one-over-one double-hung wooden windows, set into arched hoods with a prominent keystone and filling much of the two-story height. The windows in the upper stories in the remainder of the block were similar, but shorter and with less detail. There are two stairways to the upper floors: one near the center of the Superior Street facade, one at the back end of the State Street facade.

The Lancashire Building addition is a two-story structure, two bays wide and measuring 152 feet by 86 feet. Three pairs of double-hung wooden windows are set into a facade on the second story; the boiler house is a one-story brick building with bricked-in windows, facing State Street


Ectoslavia was a band formed at the University of Virginia during the mid-1980s. It was composed of pre-Silver Jews, Yo La Tengo, Pavement members David Berman, James McNew, Stephen Malkmus and Bob Nastanovich. UVA alumnus Gate Pratt was a member of the band; the music of Ectoslavia used a great deal of noise and static underneath melodic pop-rock songs, not unlike early Pavement EPs like Perfect Sound Forever and Slay Tracks. Their songs contained samples of classical music directly over sheets of static or noise. In 2015, Nastanovich described Ectoslavia as "unlistenable and, with offensive lyrical’s discardable."Ectoslavia was referred to in the Slow Century DVD and in the book Perfect Sound Forever

Virgil Ferguson

Virgil Stuart Ferguson was an Illinois attorney and Republican politician. He represented Whiteside County in the Illinois State Senate from 1891 to 1895, serving in the 37th and 38th sessions of the General Assembly, he lived for most of his life in Illinois. Virgil Stuart Ferguson was born to Andrew and Zerelda Brock Ferguson on September 18, 1844, in Bedford, Indiana, he was the eldest of eight children. He attended the Mount Carroll Seminary, known today as Shimer College, in the early 1860s, while his family was living in Milledgeville, Illinois. Prior to attending the Seminary, Ferguson had attended the Hazel Green School near Milledgeville, for which he helped to organize a large reunion in 1897. After completing his studies at the Seminary, Ferguson attended the University of Chicago for a time, he joined the Illinois bar on June 23, 1868, following his graduation from Union College of Law, which became the Northwestern University School of Law. In 1868, he married Annie E. Mickle. Ferguson was elected Assistant Supervisor of Sterling Township without opposition.

He resigned upon being elected to the state senate in 1890. He served for at least eighteen years on the school board for the Wallace School, now the Wallace Educational Center, in Sterling. Ferguson was elected in 1890 to a four-year term in the Illinois State Senate, representing the counties of Lee and Whiteside. In 1891, Ferguson was one of two state senators to oppose a bill that required the weekly payment of wages, considering it unconstitutional; the law was subsequently overturned by the Illinois Supreme Court in Bracewell Coal v. People, 147 Ill. 66, for interfering in freedom of contract. In 1893, Ferguson sponsored legislation to reform Illinois law on the restraint and detention of the insane, replacing an 1874 law that had required a public jury trial for all such cases. After leaving the General Assembly in 1895, Ferguson returned to private practice in Sterling. Ferguson was struck and killed by a train while visiting in Rockford, Illinois, on September 23, 1912. A coroner's inquiry found the train to have been speeding.

He was laid to rest in Sterling's Riverside Cemetery. Virgil Ferguson at Find a Grave

Laura, Queensland

Laura is a small town and locality in Cook Shire, Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia. It is on the only road north towards the tip of the peninsula, is the centre for the largest collection of prehistoric rock art in the world, it forms the northern apex of the "Scenic Triangle" between Cooktown and Laura. Some of the world's most extensive and ancient rock painting galleries surround the tiny town of Laura, some of which are available for public viewing. Laura has an Interpretive Centre from which information on the rock art and local Aboriginal culture is available and tours can be arranged. Laura is only a few kilometres from the southern entrance to Lakefield National Park. Aboriginal people have made their home in the Laura River valley for at least 50,000 years. In the wet season, they would camp under rock shelters on the high ground; this is. The area was on the borders of Kokojawa lands. Guugu Yimithirr is an Australian Aboriginal language of the Cooktown area; the language region includes the local government area of the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and the Shire of Cook the localities of Cape Bedford, Battle Camp and sections of the Normanby River and Annan River.

Kuku-Thaypan is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in Hann River and Musgrave River and on Mornington Island, within the local government boundaries of the Cook Shire. Some of the earliest pastoral leases on Cape York Peninsula were taken up in the Laura district. However, the town of Laura did not develop until the discovery of gold on the Palmer River; the town takes its name from the Laura River, which in turn was named in 1873 by explorer and surveyor Archibald Campbell Macmillan after his wife Laura Bower. In 1873 gold was discovered on the Palmer River. Travellers coming from Cooktown to the Palmer Goldfields would cross the Laura River at Laura; this was a violent period, as local aboriginal clans waged a war of resistance against encroachment on and usurpation of their lands. A Native Mounted Police camp was established near the Lower Laura crossing to protect travellers. During the gold boom a railway line was planned between the Palmer gold fields. By 1888 the line had been built to Laura.

Laura Post Office opened on 8 October 1888. Laura State School opened in March 1889 and caters for students from Prep to Year six. An impressive bridge over the Laura River was opened, to great fanfare, in 1891. However, since the Palmer gold fields were in decline, a new Queensland government decided to abandon the project. Only one train crossed the bridge - the train that ran on the day that it opened; the rail line contributed to the growth of Laura. It was used by peninsula cattle properties; the Cooktown to Laura Railway closed in 1961. It was during the 1960s that Quinkan rock art galleries were reported by Percy Trezise, an airline pilot who surveyed the area from the air for sites and walked in to rediscover them. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 225. In the 2011 census, Laura had a population of 80 people. Laura has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Laura to Maytown: Laura to Maytown Coach Road Pike, Glenville. 1979. Queen of the North: A Pictorial History of Cooktown and Cape York Peninsula.

G. Pike. ISBN 0-9598960-5-8. Trezise, P. J. 1969. Quinkan Country: Adventures in Search of Aboriginal Cave Paintings in Cape York. A. H. & A. W. Reed, Sydney. Trezise, P. J. 1993. Dream Road: A Journey of Discovery. Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, Sydney. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-7008-6 Roth, W. E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines. 3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991.

Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development. The Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Laura: A shared history of a river and a town. Cook Shire pamphlet. Quinkan and Regional Cultural Centre

Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa Upaniṣad

The Kali-Santarana Upanishad called Kalisantaraṇopaniṣad, is a Sanskrit text. It is a minor Upanishad of Hinduism; the Upanishad was composed before about 500 CE. According to tradition in gaudiya vaishnavism, this text's central mantra was given in the 16th century to Chaitanya at his initiation in Gaya; this mantra, presented in two lines, is called the Maha-mantra, containing the words Hare and Krishna. The word Hare, or "O Harā", is repeated eight times, while the other two names are Hindu gods and are each repeated four times; the text asserts that audible chanting of this mantra is a means to wash away all the tribulations of the current era.'Kali-Santarana Upanishad' means to'approach or set about crossing over quarrel and strife':'Kali' means'quarrel','contention','discord' or'strife'. Kali Yuga is the least-dharmic of the four cyclical yugas in Hindu cosmology.'Santarana' means "conveying over or across".'Upanishad' means'approach' or'set about'. The text is one of the Vaishnava Upanishads, completed before about 1500 CE, comprises two verses called the Maha-mantra.

The modern era Kali-Santarana Upanishad is the earliest known Hindu text where this known mantra appears. It was popularized by one of the Bhakti movement leaders Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the 16th century; the Maha-mantra enunciated in this Upanishad is world-famous through the Hare Krishna movement. In Vaishnava etymology the word Hare refers to Hara, personifying goddess Radha, the Shakti of Krishna and remembers her as the one who stole the mind of Krishna; the word Hare, or Radha, is repeated eight times in the Kali-Santaraṇa mantra and is a reminder of her love for the divine Krishna. Popular in Gaudiya Vaishnavism denomination of Hinduism, its devotees assert that the effect of reciting this mantra in Kali-Santaraṇa text is to imbue the pleasure principle emanating from the innermost part of one's being, feel transcendental ecstasy and revive deep consciousness, remembering the love of God, to getting rid of the harmful influence of the Kali Yuga; the Gaudiya Vaishnava have traditionally asserted that this mantra should be recited audibly because the sound liberates the reciter and the listener.

In the anthology of 108 Upanishads of the Muktika canon, narrated by Rama to Hanuman, the Kali-Santarana Upanishad is listed at number 103. The Upanishad is not in the anthology of 52 popular Upanishads in north India by Colebrooke, nor is it found in the Bibliotheca Indica anthology of popular Upanishads in south India by Narayana. At the end of the Dvapara Yuga, sage Narada approached Brahma and requested him to enlighten him on the path he should follow to alleviate the detrimental effects of Kali Yuga. Brahma said that by way of taking the name of the supreme Lord Narayana, all the tribulations of Kali yuga will be washed away; these sixteen names to be chanted are as: Chanting of the sixteen words mantra is asserted by the text to be done by sage Narada, who with his musical instrument tanpura has been doing it for ages. Apart from this Upanishad, chanting of this mantra has been prescribed in Puranas such as Brahmananda Purana, the Agni Purana and so forth. In modern times, Lord Chaitanya, believed to be the incarnation of Lord Krishna preached chanting of this mantra with a change so that it can reach the mass public, putting Hare Krishna first and when chanted in a repeat mode, it has Krishna and Rama as starting node.

The Upanishad states that in the Kali Yuga Narada was the creator or Kali-Karaka of all conflicts or undesirable acts. However, Narada, the arbitrator of the laws of karma he himself approaches Brahma seeking redress to all the ills of this epoch, it is stated in the Upanishad that Narada roamed around the world holding a lute in his hand to adjust the laws of harmony as a result of a curse by Daksha. The sixteen mantras that Narada was advised to recite by Brahma relate to jiva the immortal soul which has sixteen kalas. There are no regulations to chant this maha-mantra, it should be chanted always irrespective of whether one is in a impure condition. The text has been influential on the Gaudiya Vaishnavism tradition, that grew in Gauda region of India in and near modern West Bengal, after it became the seat of Muslim power and Krishna devotees were forced into the service of Muslim officials. From 16th-century onwards, in Gaudiya Vaishnavism, great importance has been given to public, vocal audible chanting or singing of the maha-mantra with the divine names of Hindu gods Krishna and goddess Radha.

However, some other groups hold the view that chanting should be done silently or muttered in low-volume and would be effective. It was the view of Chaitanya and his disciples that chanting the name God's name loudly would be most effective to obtain salvation and such a practice results in purifying the heart of both reciter and the listener, results in receiving the "love of God"; this at least is the interpretation given in Rupa Goswami's Prathama Chaitanyaashtaka which states that Chaitanya himself had chanted this maha-mantra in a loud voice. For the Gaudiya Vaishnavas including ISKCON, the Hare Krishna maha-mantra represents "transcendental sound" as the nature of the mantra is overwhelmingly qualified by Kr