Sebastian is a city in Indian River County, United States. In 2010, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 21,929. Sebastian is a principal city of the Sebastian−Vero Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Indian River County. In 1715, several Spanish ships loaded with treasure encountered a storm off the shores of the Treasure Coast and were lost, it is estimated. The value placed on the treasure lost from the 1715 fleet has been estimated at over $500 million USD; the town of Sebastian was a fishing village as early as the 1870s. In the early 1880s David Peter Gibson, Thomas New settled in the area. New filed to start a post office under the name New Haven. However, New was removed. Sebastian was founded in 1882 and named St. Sebastian, after Saint Sebastian. “St.” was removed from the name of the town, but not from the river. Sebastian was incorporated as a city in 1923. Nearby Pelican Island was declared the United States’ first National Wildlife refuge in 1903.
At the 2010 census, there were 21,921 people, 9,508 households and 6.462 families residing within the city in 10,815 housing units. The racial make-up of the city was 90.5% White, 5.3% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 1.2% from other races, 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.00% of the population. 21.5% of households had children under the age of 16 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present. 32.00 % consisted of unrelated individuals. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 85 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.75. 52.4 % of the population were 47.6 % male. 15.8% were under the age of 16, 6.0% from 15 to 19, 3.7% from 20 to 24, 3.8% from 25 to 29, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50.1 years. The per capita income for the city was $24,959 in 2010.
About 4.8% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over. The Government of the City of Sebastian follows a council-manager government model with a five-member city council as the elected governing body and a city manager as the chief operating officer. Members of the city council serve two-year terms with staggered elections; the School District of Indian River County operates public schools. There are two middle schools and one high school in the city. Located to the west of the city center on County Road 512, the North County Public Library is part of the Indian River County Library System; the GoLine Bus system operates the #9, #10, #11, #12 buses out of the North County Transit Hub at 90th Avenue & Sebastian Blvd to various parts of Indian River County. Bryan Augenstein, pitcher in Major League Baseball, plays for the Tampa Bay Rays. Paul Kroegel, American conservationist Ais people Alvaro Mexia Andrew Canova Bartram Trail Robert A. Hardee City of Sebastian Florida Portal style website, Business, Library and more City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Sebastian ePodunk
West Palm Beach, Florida
West Palm Beach is a city in and the county seat of Palm Beach County, United States. It is located to the west of the adjacent Palm Beach, situated on a barrier island across the Lake Worth Lagoon; the population was 99,919 at the 2010 census. West Palm Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017, it is the oldest incorporated municipality in Greater Miami, having been incorporated as a city two years before Miami in November 1894. West Palm Beach is located 68 miles north of Downtown Miami; the beginning of the historic period in south Florida is marked by Juan Ponce de León's first contact with native people in 1513. Europeans found a thriving native population, which they categorized into separate tribes: the Mayaimi in the Lake Okeechobee Basin and the Jaega and Ais people in the East Okeechobee area and on the east coast north of the Tequesta; when the Spanish arrived, there were about 20,000 Native Americans in south Florida. By 1763, when the English gained control of Florida, the native peoples had all but been wiped out through war, enslavement, or European diseases.
Other native peoples from Alabama and Georgia moved into Florida in the early 18th century. They were of varied ancestry, but Europeans called them all "Creeks." In Florida, they were known as the Miccosukee Indians. The Seminoles clashed with American settlers over land and over escaped slaves who found refuge among them, they resisted the government's efforts to move them to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi. Between 1818 and 1858, three wars were fought between the United States government. By 1858, there were few Seminoles remaining in Florida; the area, to become West Palm Beach was settled in the late 1870s and 1880s by a few hundred settlers who called the vicinity "Lake Worth Country." These settlers were a diverse community from different parts of the world. They included founding families such at the Potters and the Lainharts, who would go on to become leading members of the business community in the fledgling city; the first white settlers in Palm Beach County lived around Lake Worth an enclosed freshwater lake, named for Colonel William Jenkins Worth, who had fought in the Second Seminole War in Florida in 1842.
Most settlers engaged in the growing of tropical fruits and vegetables for shipment the north via Lake Worth and the Indian River. By 1890, the U. S. Census counted over 200 people settled along Lake Worth in the vicinity of what would become West Palm Beach; the area at this time boasted a hotel, the "Cocoanut House", a church, a post office. The city was platted by Henry Flagler as a community to house the servants working in the two grand hotels on the neighboring island of Palm Beach, across Lake Worth in 1893, coinciding with the arrival of the Florida East Coast railroad. Flagler paid two area settlers, Captain Porter and Louie Hillhouse, a combined sum of $45,000 for the original town site, stretching from Clear Lake to Lake Worth. On November 5, 1894, 78 people met at the "Calaboose" and passed the motion to incorporate the Town of West Palm Beach in what was Dade County; this made West Palm Beach the first incorporated municipality in South Florida. The town council addressed the building codes and the tents and shanties were replaced by brick, brick veneer, stone buildings.
The city grew during the 1890s and the first two decades of the 20th century, most residents were engaged in the tourist industry and related services or winter vegetable market and tropical fruit trade. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed by the Florida State Legislature and West Palm Beach became the county seat. In 1916, a new neo-classical courthouse was opened, painstakingly restored back to its original condition, is now used as the local history museum; the city grew in the 1920s as part of the Florida land boom. The population of West Palm Beach quadrupled from 1920 to 1927, all kinds of businesses and public services grew along with it. Many of the city's landmark structures and preserved neighborhoods were constructed during this period. Flagler intended for his Florida East Coast Railway to have its terminus in West Palm, but after the area experienced a deep freeze, he chose to extend the railroad to Miami instead; the land boom was faltering when city was devastated by the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.
The Depression years of the 1930s were a quiet time for the area, which saw slight population growth and property values lower than during the 1920s. The city only recovered with the onset of World War II, which saw the construction of Palm Beach Air Force Base, which brought thousands of military personnel to the city; the base was vital to the allied war effort, as it provided an excellent training facility and had unparalleled access to North Africa for a North American city. During World War II, German U-Boats sank dozens of merchant ships and oil tankers just off the coast of West Palm Beach. Nearby Palm Beach was under black out conditions to minimize night visibility to German U-boats; the 1950s saw another boom in population due to the return of many soldiers and airmen who had served in the vicinity during the war. The advent of air conditioning encouraged growth, as year-round living in a tropical climate became more acceptable to northerners. West Palm Beach became the one of the nation's fastest growing metropolitan areas during the 1950s.
However, many of the city's residents
German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey; the group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia. Immigration continued in large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.
S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, others for the chance to start fresh in the New World; the arrivals before 1850 were farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities. German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America; the great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye.
German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio, St. Louis; the Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing cultural values. Lutherans and Catholics opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs, they opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; the first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer.
He was followed in 1608 by three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683. Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination, they migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, military conscription. Immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia attracted Germans. Most were German Reformed. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812. In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of poverty, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped; the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus.
Many immigrants children, died before reaching America in June 1710. The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles long along both sides of the Mohawk River; the soil was excellent. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats", they kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm owner
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, like mercury, it has a lower melting point than the transition metals in groups 3 through 11. Cadmium and its congeners in group 12 are not considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states; the average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.5 parts per million. It was discovered in 1817 by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium is a byproduct of zinc production. Cadmium was used for a long time as a corrosion-resistant plating on steel, cadmium compounds are used as red and yellow pigments, to color glass, to stabilize plastic. Cadmium use is decreasing because it is toxic and nickel-cadmium batteries have been replaced with nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries.
One of its few new uses is cadmium telluride solar panels. Although cadmium has no known biological function in higher organisms, a cadmium-dependent carbonic anhydrase has been found in marine diatoms. Cadmium is a soft, ductile, bluish-white divalent metal, it forms complex compounds. Unlike most other metals, cadmium is resistant to corrosion and is used as a protective plate on other metals; as a bulk metal, cadmium is not flammable. Although cadmium has an oxidation state of +2, it exists in the +1 state. Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. Cadmium burns in air to form brown amorphous cadmium oxide. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, or cadmium nitrate; the oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming the Cd22+ cation, similar to the Hg22+ cation in mercury chloride.
Cd + CdCl2 + 2 AlCl3 → Cd22The structures of many cadmium complexes with nucleobases, amino acids, vitamins have been determined. Occurring cadmium is composed of 8 isotopes. Two of them are radioactive, three are expected to decay but have not done so under laboratory conditions; the two natural radioactive isotopes are 116Cd. The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd, 114Cd. At least three isotopes – 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd – are stable. Among the isotopes that do not occur the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 2.5 hours, the majority have half-lives of less than 5 minutes. Cadmium has 8 known meta states, with the most stable being 113mCd, 115mCd, 117mCd; the known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u to 131.946 u. For isotopes lighter than 112 u, the primary decay mode is electron capture and the dominant decay product is element 47. Heavier isotopes decay through beta emission producing element 49.
One isotope of cadmium, 113Cd, absorbs neutrons with high selectivity: With high probability, neutrons with energy below the cadmium cut-off will be absorbed. The cadmium cut-off is about 0.5 eV, neutrons below that level are deemed slow neutrons, distinct from intermediate and fast neutrons. Cadmium is created via the s-process in low- to medium-mass stars with masses of 0.6 to 10 solar masses, over thousands of years. In that process, a silver atom captures a neutron and undergoes beta decay. Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer and Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Stromeyer found the new element as an impurity in zinc carbonate, for 100 years, Germany remained the only important producer of the metal; the metal was named after the Latin word for calamine. Stromeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine changed color when heated but pure calamine did not, he was persistent in studying these results and isolated cadmium metal by roasting and reducing the sulfide.
The potential for cadmium yellow as pigment was recognized in the 1840s, but the lack of cadmium limited this application. Though cadmium and its compounds are toxic in certain forms and concentrations, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medication to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, chilblains". In 1907, the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström in terms of a red cadmium spectral line. This
Last Glacial Period
The Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, in the mid-Cenozoic; the term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent. 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began.
The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat. From the point of view of human archaeology, the last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods; when the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover; the last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles.
Glacials are colder phases within an ice age. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, about 11,700 years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles; the last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere, they have different names developed and depending on their geographic distributions: Fraser, Wisconsinan or Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Mérida, Weichselian or Vistulian, Valdai in Russia and Zyryanka in Siberia, Llanquihue in Chile, Otira in New Zealand. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial and the preceding penultimate interglacial period.
Canada was nearly covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. In Britain, mainland Europe, northwestern Asia, the Scandinavian ice sheet once again reached the northern parts of the British Isles, Germany and Russia, extending as far east as the Taymyr Peninsula in western Siberia; the maximum extent of western Siberian glaciation was reached by 16,000–15,000 BC and thus than in Europe. Northeastern Siberia was not covered by a continental-scale ice sheet. Instead, but restricted, icefield complexes covered mountain ranges within northeast Siberia, including the Kamchatka-Koryak Mountains; the Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today was only covered by shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets.
According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must have been times of seasonally open waters. Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the highest mountains of the Alps−Himalaya mountain chain. In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland; the [, the highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets. In the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers advanced particularly between 45,000 and 25,000 BC, but these datings are controversial; the formation of a contiguous ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau is controversial. Other areas of the Northern Hemisphere did not bear extensive ice sheets, but local glaciers in high areas. Parts of Taiwan, for example, were glaciated between 42,250 and 8,680 BCE as well as the Japanese Alps
American Museum of Natural History
The American Museum of Natural History, located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest natural history museums in the world. Located in Theodore Roosevelt Park across the street from Central Park, the museum complex comprises 28 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls, in addition to a planetarium and a library; the museum collections contain over 33 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, human cultural artifacts, of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time, occupies more than 2 million square feet. The museum has a full-time scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year, averages about five million visits annually; the one mission statement of the American Museum of Natural History is: "To discover and disseminate—through scientific research and education—knowledge about human cultures, the natural world, the universe." Before construction of the present complex, the museum was housed in the Arsenal building in Central Park.
Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. the father of the 26th U. S. President, was one of the founders along with John David Wolfe, William T. Blodgett, Robert L. Stuart, Andrew H. Green, Robert Colgate, Morris K. Jesup, Benjamin H. Field, D. Jackson Steward, Richard M. Blatchford, J. P. Morgan, Adrian Iselin, Moses H. Grinnell, Benjamin B. Sherman, A. G. Phelps Dodge, William A. Haines, Charles A. Dana, Joseph H. Choate, Henry G. Stebbins, Henry Parish, Howard Potter; the founding of the museum realized the dream of naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore. Bickmore, a one-time student of zoologist Louis Agassiz, lobbied tirelessly for years for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York, his proposal, backed by his powerful sponsors, won the support of the Governor of New York, John Thompson Hoffman, who signed a bill creating the American Museum of Natural History on April 6, 1869. In 1874, the cornerstone was laid for the museum's first building, now hidden from view by the many buildings in the complex that today occupy most of Manhattan Square.
The original Victorian Gothic building, opened in 1877, was designed by Calvert Vaux and J. Wrey Mould, both closely identified with the architecture of Central Park; the original building was soon eclipsed by the south range of the museum, designed by J. Cleaveland Cady, an exercise in rusticated brownstone neo-Romanesque, influenced by H. H. Richardson, it extends 700 feet with corner towers 150 feet tall. Its pink brownstone and granite, similar to that found at Grindstone Island in the St. Lawrence River, came from quarries at Picton Island, New York; the entrance on Central Park West, the New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt, completed by John Russell Pope in 1936, is an overscaled Beaux-Arts monument. It leads to a vast Roman basilica, where visitors are greeted with a cast of a skeleton of a rearing Barosaurus defending her young from an Allosaurus; the museum is accessible through its 77th street foyer, renamed the "Grand Gallery" and featuring a suspended Haida canoe. The hall leads into the oldest extant exhibit in the hall of Northwest Coast Indians.
Since 1930, little has been added to the exterior of the original building. The architect Kevin Roche and his firm Roche-Dinkeloo have been responsible for the master planning of the museum since the 1990s. Various renovations to both the interior and exterior have been carried out. Renovations to the Dinosaur Hall were undertaken starting in 1991, the museum restored the mural in Roosevelt Memorial Hall in 2010. In 1992 the Roche-Dinkeloo firm designed the eight-story AMNH Library. However, the entirety of the master plan was not realized, by 2015, the museum consisted of 25 separate buildings that were poorly connected; the museum's south façade, spanning 77th Street from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue was cleaned, repaired and re-emerged in 2009. Steven Reichl, a spokesman for the museum, said that work would include restoring 650 black-cherry window frames and stone repairs; the museum's consultant on the latest renovation is Wiss, Elstner Associates, Inc. an architectural and engineering firm with headquarters in Northbrook, Illinois.
In 2014, the museum published plans for a $325 million, 195,000-square-foot annex, the Richard Gilder Center for Science and Innovation, on the Columbus Avenue side. Designed by Studio Gang, Higgins Quasebarth & Partners and landscape architects Reed Hilderbrand, the new building's pink Milford granite facade will have a textural, curvilinear design inspired by natural topographical elements showcased in the museum, including "geological strata, glacier-gouged caves, curving canyons, blocks of glacial ice," as a striking contrast to the museum's predominance of High Victorian Gothic, Richardson Romanesque and Beaux Arts architectural styles; the interior itself would contain a new entrance from Columbus Avenue north of 79th Street. This expansion was supposed to be located to the south of the existing museum, occupying parts of Theodore Roosevelt Park; the expansion was relocated to the west side of the existing museum, its footprint was reduced in size, due to opposition to construction in the park.
The annex would instead replace three existing buildings along Columbus Avenue's east side, with more than 30 connections to the existing museum, it would be six stories high, the same height as the existing buildings. The plans for the expansion wer
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund