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Pella

Pella is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, best known as the historical capital of the ancient kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great. On the site of the ancient city is the Archaeological Museum of Pella. A common folk etymology is traditionally given for the name Pella, deriving it from the Ancient Greek word pélla, "stone", it appears in some toponyms in Greece like Pallini. With the prefix a - it forms the Doric apella, meaning in enclosure of stone; the word apella meant fold, fence for animals, assembly of people into the limits of the square. Τhe original meaning was "wooden bowl", it meant "stone". R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *πελσα In Antiquity, Pella was a strategic port connected to the Thermaic Gulf by a navigable inlet, but the harbour and gulf have since silted up, leaving the site landlocked. Pella is first mentioned by Herodotus of Halicarnassus in relation to Xerxes' campaign and by Thucydides in relation to Macedonian expansion and the war against Sitalces, the king of the Thracians.

It was built as the capital of the kingdom by Archelaus I, replacing the older palace-city of Aigai although there appears to be some possibility that it may have been created by Amyntas. Archelaus invited the greatest painter of the time, to decorate his palace, he later hosted the poet Timotheus of Miletus and the Athenian playwright Euripides who finished his days there writing and producing Archelaus. Euripides Bacchae was first staged here, about 408 BC. According to Xenophon, in the beginning of the 4th century BC Pella was the largest Macedonian city, it was the birthplace and seats of Philip II, in 382 BC and of Alexander the Great, his son, in 356 BC. It became the largest and richest city in Macedonia and flourished under Cassander's rule; the reign of Antigonus most represented the height of the city's prosperity, as this is the period which has left the most archaeological remains. The famous poet Aratus died in Pella c. 240 BC. Pella is further mentioned by Polybius and Livy as the capital of Philip V and of Perseus during the Macedonian Wars fought against the Roman Republic.

In 168 BC, it was sacked by the Romans, its treasury transported to Rome, Livy reported how the city looked in 167 BC to Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, the Roman who defeated Perseus at the battle of Pydna:... observed that it was not without good reason that it had been chosen as the royal residence. It is situated on the south-west slope of a hill and surrounded by a marsh too deep to be crossed on foot either in summer or winter; the citadel the "Phacus,", close to the city, stands in the marsh itself, projecting like an island, is built on a huge substructure, strong enough to carry a wall and prevent any damage from the infiltration from the water of the lagoon. At a distance it appears to be continuous with the city wall, but it is separated by a channel which flows between the two walls and is connected with the city by a bridge, thus it cuts off all means of access from an external foe, if the king shut anyone up there, there could be no possibility of escape except by the bridge, which could be easily guarded.

Pella was declared capital of the 3rd administrative division of the Roman province of Macedonia, was the seat of the Roman governor. Activity continued to be vigorous until the early 1st century BC and, crossed by the Via Egnatia, Pella remained a significant point on the route between Dyrrachium and Thessalonika. In about 90 BC the city was destroyed by an earthquake. Cicero stayed there in 58 BC, though by the provincial seat had transferred to Thessalonika. Pella was promoted to a Roman Colony sometime between 45 and 30 BC and its currency was marked Colonia Iulia Augusta Pella. Augustus settled peasants there. But, unlike other Macedonian colonies such as Philippi and Cassandreia, it never came under the jurisdiction of ius Italicum or Roman law. Four pairs of colonial magistrates are known for this period; the decline of the city was rapid, in spite of being a Colonia: Dio Chrysostom and Lucian both attest to the ruin of the ancient capital of Philip II and Alexander, though their accounts may be exaggerated.

In fact, the Roman city was somewhat to the west of and distinct from the original capital, which explains some contradictions between coinage and testimonial accounts. Despite its decline, archaeology has shown that the southern part of the city near the lagoon continued to be occupied until the 4th century.. In about 180 AD, Lucian of Samosata could describe it in passing as "now insignificant, with few inhabitants", it bore the name Diocletianopolis. In the Byzantine period, the Roman site was occupied by a fortified village. Excavations there by the Greek Archaeological Service begun in 1957 revealed large, well-built houses with colonnaded courts and rooms with mosaic floors portraying such scenes as a lion hunt and Dionysus riding a panther. In modern times it finds itself as the starting point of the Alexander The Great Marathon, in honour of the city's ancient heritage; the site was explored by 19th-century voyagers including Holand, Beaujour, Cousinéry, Hahn and Struck, based on the

Caribou Island

Caribou Island is an uninhabited island in the eastern end of Lake Superior, 40 kilometres south of Michipicoten Island. It lies within the territorial waters of Canada although only about five kilometres from the international border between Canada and the United States, it is 5.6 kilometres long and 2.4 kilometres wide, 1,600 acres in area. The interior is low scrub and bog with small lakes, Little Italy and Deer Lake among many unnamed ones. Several of the lakes are maintained by beavers and all are several feet above Lake Superior. Caribou Island was considered for an emergency landing airport during World War II but it was never built because of the proximity of the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie and Sault Ste. Marie, only about 80–90 miles SE; however an interior lake, Deer Lake on the center East side of the island, was used as an Amphibian base with a dock and ramp built by the last private owners of the island because of the unpredictable water/wave condition of Lake Superior. A small three room cabin was built on the east shore of Lake Superior adjacent to Deer Lake and the Amphibian base.

The island was held by a group of hunters and stocked with caribou in the late 1800s. It was considered a private hunting preserve through the early 1900s; the caribou were aggressive, treeing the lighthouse keeper for hours on several occasions. It is rumored that the light house keepers poached beaver. One winter, in the 1920s, the caribou just walked off the island; because of the Great Depression, the island was not restocked and the island was more or less abandoned by the 15 owners-in-common. The island was acquired by the Roys A. Ellis family in the 1960s and was transferred to the Melon Conservancy Trust in the early 1980s to never be developed. In 2018 6 caribou were moved to Caribou Island from Michipicoten Island to the north, due to pressure from Michipicoten First Nation. According to the available information, Caribou Island consists of a mixture of glacial sediments and Precambrian sandstone. Caribou Island is part of a large glacial moraine. In addition, exposures of dipping, friable Jacobsville Sandstone, have been reported from Caribou Island.

The Jacobsville Sandstone is the uppermost and youngest layer comprising about 8 kilometers of sandstone and conglomerate that underlies Lake Superior and fills the upper part of the Lake Superior segment of the Midcontinent Rift. These sedimentary strata overlie an additional 22 kilometers of basaltic volcanic strata and mafic intrusions that fill the remainder of the Midcontinental Rift. A dangerous reef known as "Six Fathom Shoal" stretches more than 1 mile north of the north point of the island, is rumored to be the one the SS Edmund Fitzgerald shoaled on prior to sinking. A shallow reef 2.5 miles to the southwest of Caribou Island Lighthouse lies only 11 feet below the lake's surface. The now unmanned lighthouse, owned by the Canadian Coast Guard is located on a tiny adjacent island called Lighthouse Island a few hundred feet across and positioned 1 mile west of the southern tip of the island; when built, it was visible for 16 miles and operated on a 30-second revolving cycle. These reefs are not coral reefs.

Instead they consist of bedrock ridges and interfluves that lie between northerly trending bedrock valleys, which are known as tunnel valleys. These tunnel valleys were excavated by subglacial meltwater at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet along pre-existing fractures and joints that exist within the bedrock floor of Lake Superior. Samples dredged from a shoal northwest of Caribou Island and close to one of these valleys resemble Jacobsville Sandstone; the lateral continuity and consistent and parallel direction of the tunnel valleys indicated that they are carved from friable sandstones that underlies the floor of most of eastern Lake Superior. There are six Caribou islands in Ontario. One of these Caribou Islands lies within Thunder Bay three km from Amethyst Harbour and twelve km from Sleeping Giant Provincial Park at 48°31′34″N 88°50′58″W. Weather conditions on Caribou Island

James Stone (American football)

James Robert Stone is an American football center, a free agent. He played college football at Tennessee, he has been a member of the Atlanta Falcons, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Oakland Raiders. Stone played high school football for the Maplewood High School in Tennessee, he was the Tennessee AA Lineman of the Year and named to the Tennessee Sports Writers All-State first team. He competed in the 2010 Under Armour All-America Game. Stone played from 2010 to 2013 for the Tennessee Volunteers under head coaches Derek Dooley and Butch Jones. Stone was rated the 10th best center in the 2014 NFL Draft by NFLDraftScout.com. Stone signed with the Atlanta Falcons on May 2014 after going undrafted in the 2014 NFL Draft, he made his NFL debut on October 2014 against the New York Giants. In the 2014 season, Stone was in 12 games. On November 30, 2014, Stone's offense recorded 500 total yards versus the Arizona Cardinals. On December 8, 2014, Stone's offense recorded 465 total yards against the Green Bay Packers. Stone blocked for an offense, 8th in the NFL in total offense with 378.2 yards per game.

That same offense was 5th in passing yards per game with 284.6 yards a game. On October 11, 2015, Stone filled in at center for an injured Mike Person, the offense gained a season-high 418 total yards, including 176 yards on the ground against the Washington Redskins. On October 15, 2015, Stone made his first start of the season, the offense gained 413 total yards, including 150 rushing yards against the New Orleans Saints. On December 18, 2015, Stone was placed on injured reserve with a knee injury, he was released by the Falcons with an injury settlement on July 19, 2016. On January 20, 2017, Stone signed a reserve/future contract with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, he was waived on September 2, 2017. On September 4, 2017, Stone was signed to the Oakland Raiders' practice squad, he was promoted to the active roster on December 20, 2017. On September 1, 2018, Stone was released by the Raiders. On September 3, 2018, Stone was signed to the Chicago Bears' practice squad, he was released on November 17, 2018.

Stone was suspended for the first three weeks of the 2019 NFL season, was reinstated from suspension on September 24, 2019. Media related to James Stone at Wikimedia Commons