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Pelopidas

For the genus of grass skipper butterflies, see Pelopidas. Pelopidas was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece, instrumental in establishing the mid-fourth century Theban hegemony. Pelopidas was a member of a distinguished family, possessed great wealth, which he expended on his friends and on public service, while content to lead the rough life of an athlete. In 384 BC he served in a Theban contingent sent to the support of the Spartans during the Siege of Mantinea, where he was saved, when dangerously wounded by the Arcadians, by Epaminondas and Agesipolis. Pelopidas, after receiving seven wounds in front, sank down upon a great heap of friends and enemies who lay dead together, and now he too was in a sorry plight, having been wounded in the breast with a spear and in the arm with a sword, when Agesipolis the Spartan king came to his aid from the other wing, when all hope was lost, saved them both. Plutarch says that this incident cemented their friendship, Pelopidas would be Epaminondas's partner in politics for the next twenty years.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pelopidas, he lessened his inherited estate by showing constant care for the deserving poor of Thebes, taking pleasure in simple clothing, a sparse diet, the constant hardships of military life. People said that he was ashamed to spend more on himself than the lowest of the Thebans spent on himself. Once, when friends argued that he needed to care for his finances since he had a wife and children, that money was a necessary thing, Pelopidas pointed to a blind, crippled pauper named Nicodemus and said, "Yes, necessary for Nicodemus."Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the Spartans, he fled to Athens and took the lead in a conspiracy to liberate Thebes. Spartans had kingship in their home and were supportive of oligarchic governments in other cities in pursuit of the Spartan hegemony:. In 379 BC his party surprised and killed their chief political opponents in Thebes, roused the people against the Spartan garrison, which surrendered to an army gathered by Pelopidas.

In this and 12 subsequent years he was elected boeotarch, or warleader, about 375 BC he routed a much larger Spartan force at the battle of Tegyra. This victory he owed to the valour of the Sacred Band, an elite corps of 300 seasoned soldiers. At the battle of Leuctra he contributed to the success of Epaminondas's new tactics by the rapidity with which he made the Sacred Band close with the Spartans. At Leuctra Epaminondas, a brilliant and intuitive and general, used the oblique order for the first time. After the battle at Leuctra, Thebes began to replace Sparta as the leading city of Greece. In 370 BC he accompanied his close friend Epaminondas as boeotarch into the Peloponnese, where by re-founding as an independent city Messene Sparta’s former dependency, they were able to consolidate their success, permanently deprive Sparta of its hegemonic power. On their return, both generals were accused, unsuccessfully, of having retained their command beyond the legal term. In fact, the democrats and some aristocrats of Thebes acknowledged that Pelopidas and Epaminondas were the two most capable and important personalities of their city.

Both were trying to establish a state that would unite Greece under the Theban hegemony – what Xenophon called a policy “continuously direct towards securing supremacy in Greece”. In 367 BC Pelopidas went on an embassy to the Persian king Artaxerxes II. Backed by the prestige of his Leuctra victory, Pelopidas was able to induce the king to prescribe a settlement of Greece according to the wishes of the Thebans, with particular reference to the continuing independence of Messene; the 360s saw Pelopidas leading a military/diplomatic advance by Theban power into Central and Northern Greece. In 369 BC, in response to a petition of the Thessalians, Pelopidas was sent with an army against Alexander of Pherae. After driving Alexander out, he passed into Macedon and arbitrated between two claimants to the throne. In order to secure the influence of Thebes in Macedon, he brought home hostages, including the king's brother Philip II, a young man who would one day become king himself. In Thebes Philip learned about the military politics of the Greeks.

Next year Pelopidas was again called upon to interfere in Macedonia, being deserted by his mercenaries, was compelled to make an agreement with Ptolemy of Aloros. On his return through Thessaly he was seized by Alexander of Pherae, two expeditions from Thebes were needed to secure his release. In 364 BC he received another appeal from the Thessalian towns against Alexander of Pherae. Though an eclipse of the sun prevented his bringing with him more than a handful of troops, he overthrew the tyrant's far superior force on the ridge of Cynoscephalae. However, wishing to slay Alexander with his own hand, he rushed forward too eagerly and was cut down by the tyrant’s guards. Plutarch considered him as a prime example of a leader who threw away his life through recklessness and anger. Diodorus Siculus Hegemony Helots This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pelopidas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Pelopidas

Deputy Governor of Rivers State

The Deputy Governor of Rivers State is the second highest-ranking official in the executive branch of Rivers State, after the Governor. The Constitution of 1999 requires that the gubernatorial nominee of a party select his or her deputy governor running mate after the primary; the Deputy Governor's duties include assisting the Governor and replacing him or her in the case of death, removal, absence or incapacity due to illness. Since 1999, individuals who have held this office have been members of the PDP. On 11 April 2015, former SSG Ipalibo Banigo was elected the 6th and 1st female Deputy Governor of Rivers State; as in the case of the Governor, in order to be qualified to be elected as Deputy Governor, a person must: be at least thirty-five years of age. The Deputy Governor is elected through popular vote on a ticket with the Governor for a term of four years, they may not serve for more than two consecutive terms. Governor of Rivers State List of Governors of Rivers State Official website

Heinz-Ulrich Walther

Heinz-Ulrich Walther is a German former pair skater who represented East Germany and the United Team of Germany in competition. With Heidemarie Steiner, he is the 1970 World bronze medalist and a three-time European bronze medalist. Walther competed at two Winter Olympics, placing 11th in 1964 with Brigitte Wokoeck and fourth with Steiner in 1968. Heinz-Ulrich Walther teamed up Brigitte Wokoeck by around 1959 and represented the club SC Dynamo Berlin; the pair won the 1963 Blue Swords and two East German national titles, in 1962 and 1964. Representing the United Team of Germany, they placed 11th at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, it was their final competition together. Walther formed a partnership with Heidemarie Steiner by around 1965. Coached by Heinz-Friedrich Lindner, they represented SC Dynamo Berlin; the pair won the bronze medal at the 1967 European Championships in Ljubljana and repeated the following year at the 1968 European Championships in Västerås. They were selected to represent East Germany at the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble and placed fourth.

After obtaining their third European bronze medal at the 1970 European Championships in Leningrad, the pair concluded their competitive career with a World bronze medal, at the 1970 World Championships in Ljubljana. Walther has worked as an international figure skating judge and ISU technical controller for pair skating. Walther married Heidemarie Steiner in 1969, he worked at the Charité in Berlin. He was an academic employee in the orthopaedics department at the Center for Complementary Medicine Research – CCM. Evans, Hilary. "Heinz-Ulrich Walther". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Personal interview

Rosa 'Bewitched'

Rosa'Bewitched' is a medium pink Hybrid tea rose cultivar, bred by Dr. Walter Lammerts in 1967; the rose was introduced into the United States by the Germain Seed & Plant Company under the marketing name,'Bewitched'. The cultivar was named an All-America Rose Selections in 1967; the stock parents of this rose are the Hybrid tea rose cultivars,'Queen Elizabeth' and'Tawny Gold'.'Bewitched' is a medium-tall bushy shrub, up to 5 ft in height. Blooms are 5 in or more with 27 to 40 petals; the rose. The large, high-centered petals are borne singly on long stems; the petals are bright pink in color, with darker backs, hold their color. Flowers grow largest in the cool weather; the shrub is a repeat bloomer, is in continuous bloom in warm climates. The foliage resembles holly leaves, is large and medium green in color. All-America Rose Selections winner, USA, Portland Gold Medal Winner, Garden roses Rose Hall of Fame List of Award of Garden Merit roses Quest-Ritson, Brigid. Encyclopedia of Roses. DK. P. 131.

ISBN 978-0756688684

Music by...

Music by... is an album by American jazz bassist Barre Phillips recorded in 1980 and released on the ECM label. All compositions by Barre Phillips except as indicated "Twitter" - 6:18 "Angleswaite" - 8:49 "Pirthrite" - 5:29 "Longview" - 7:35 "Entai" - 3:00 "Double Treble" - 3:02 "Elvid Kursong" - 6:47 Barre Phillips — bass Aina Kemanis, Claudia Phillips — voice John Surmansoprano saxophone, baritone saxophone, bass clarinet Hervé Bourde — alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, flutes Pierre Favredrums, percussion

Well-ordering principle

In mathematics, the well-ordering principle states that every non-empty set of positive integers contains a least element. In other words, the set of positive integers is well-ordered by its "natural" or "magnitude" order in which x precedes y if and only if y is either x or the sum of x and some positive integer; the phrase "well-ordering principle" is sometimes taken to be synonymous with the "well-ordering theorem". On other occasions it is understood to be the proposition that the set of integers contains a well-ordered subset, called the natural numbers, in which every nonempty subset contains a least element. Depending on the framework in which the natural numbers are introduced, this property of the set of natural numbers is either an axiom or a provable theorem. For example: In Peano arithmetic, second-order arithmetic and related systems, indeed in most mathematical treatments of the well-ordering principle, the principle is derived from the principle of mathematical induction, itself taken as basic.

Considering the natural numbers as a subset of the real numbers, assuming that we know that the real numbers are complete, i.e. every bounded set has an infimum also every set A of natural numbers has an infimum, say a ∗. We can now find an integer n ∗ such that a ∗ lies in the half-open interval ( n ∗ − 1, n ∗ ], can show that we must have a ∗ = n ∗, n ∗ in A. In axiomatic set theory, the natural numbers are defined as the smallest inductive set. One can show that the set of all natural numbers n such that " is well-ordered" is inductive, must therefore contain all natural numbers. In the second sense, this phrase is used when that proposition is relied on for the purpose of justifying proofs that take the following form: to prove that every natural number belongs to a specified set S, assume the contrary, which implies that the set of counterexamples is non-empty and thus contains a smallest counterexample. Show that for any counterexample there is a still smaller counterexample, producing a contradiction.

This mode of argument is the contrapositive of proof by complete induction. It is known light-heartedly as the "minimal criminal" method and is similar in its nature to Fermat's method of "infinite descent". Garrett Birkhoff and Saunders Mac Lane wrote in A Survey of Modern Algebra that this property, like the least upper bound axiom for real numbers, is non-algebraic.