In a road bicycle race, the peloton is the main group or pack of riders. Riders in a group save energy by riding close to other riders; the reduction in drag is dramatic. Exploitation of this potential energy saving leads to complex cooperative and competitive interactions between riders and teams in race tactics; the term is used to refer to the community of professional cyclists in general, as in'the professional peloton.' The peloton travels as an integrated unit with each rider making slight adjustments in response to their adjacent riders. Riders at the front are exposed to wind resistance, hence experience much higher fatigue loads. After a period of time at the front, they will manoeuvre farther back in the peloton to recover. With sufficient room to manoeuvre, the peloton appears in time lapse as a fluid cloud, with an endless stream of riders pushing from the back through to the leading edge falling away; the shape or formation of the peloton changes according to many factors. When two or more groups of riders have reason to contest control of the peloton, several lines may form, each seeking to impose debilitating fatigue on the other teams.
Fatigue is a decisive factor in the outcome of every race. A strong headwind or a hard effort tends to spread out or string out the riders into a long narrow formation, sometimes single file. A slow pace or brisk tailwind relieves the fatigue penalty for riding in a formation that fills the road from one side to the other, in these situations riders ride side by side. While the riders at the front encounter the greatest air resistance, those behind the first few riders near the front enjoy critical advantages. Being close to the front means that the rider can see and react to attacks from competitors, changes in position, with far less effort. Gaps sometimes form in the peloton, being close to the front reduces the risk of getting caught in the rear group if a break occurs in the peloton, for example, after a crash. Riders near the front are much less to have delays due to involvement in crashes. There is increasing risk of delays or injury from involvement in crashes as one falls farther back in the peloton.
In addition, riders are affected by the accordion effect in which a change in speed becomes amplified as it propagates to the back of the peloton. The riders following must brake early to avoid collisions when the peloton slows. Touching wheels for a moment results in a crash, which spreads across the field in chain reaction as the densely packed riders cannot avoid hitting downed riders and bikes; the entire peloton behind the crash may be stopped. Being close to the front is critical in strong crosswind conditions. Cross winds create a significant fatigue penalty for everyone, unless riders form moving groups called echelons in which riders collaborate to form a'paceline' in a racetrack pattern angled across the road, with the leading rider on the upwind side of the road. Riders for a paceline, such as an echelon, sequentially change positions at short intervals so that no one rider must long accumulate excessive fatigue from facing maximum wind resistance at the leading edge. Echelons are limited in size by the roadway's width.
When a large peloton is exposed to a significant crosswind on a narrow road, the peloton cannot avoid breaking into a number of small echelons. Teams aware of wind conditions ahead, strong enough to move to the front, well experienced in echelon riding, can gain an important time advantage in these circumstances, it is critical for riders in contention to win a race to remain near the front of the peloton when approaching sharp turns that require braking. Resuming pace after a sharp turn causes division in a peloton. Once a division occurs, if the will and collective strength of those wisely placed at the front is greater than those behind, the gap between the groups will remain to the end of the race, because the extra air resistance for a single rider attempting to move forward to reach the front group imposes an extravagant fatigue penalty, as compared to those who remained aerodynamically protected in the peloton; this is true at high speed on flat roads. When a team maneuvers to the front of the peloton, it has placed itself in position to dictate the tempo of the race.
Teams of riders may prefer a slower tempo depending on the team's tactics. Being near or at the front of the peloton is critical when initiating a breakaway. A few strong riders will always attempt to break away from the main peloton, attempting to build such a commanding lead early in the race that the peloton cannot catch up before the finish. Breakaways may succeed when break riders are strong if none of the riders in the break is a danger man, if they all pull together as a team; the rider who are in the lead and have successfully broken away from the peloton are referred to as Tête de la Course. The peloton will not allow a break with a danger man to get far ahead. Strong teams who want to bring their sprinter into contention for the win come to the front of the peloton and dictate a harsh pace, imposing fatigue on rivals, meanwhile breakaway riders (who individually must spend much more time exposed
Evan Pateshall was a Conservative Party politician. Pateshall was born as Evan Thomas in December 1817 to David Thomas of Radnorshire, he was educated at King's College London. He married Anne Elizabeth Pateshall, only child of William Pateshall, in 1842 and changed his surname to Pateshall in 1855, he lived at Allensmore Court in Herefordshire. Pateshall was Mayor of Hereford in 1863, before being elected Conservative MP for Hereford constituency in 1874, he resigned after four years in 1878. During his life, Pateshall was a Justice of the Peace, a Deputy Lieutenant for each of Herefordshire and Radnor, commanded one of the companies of the Hereford Rifle Volunteers. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Evan Pateshall
In molecular biology the fructosamine kinase family is a family of enzymes. This family includes eukaryotic fructosamine-3-kinase enzymes which may initiate a process leading to the deglycation of fructoselysine and of glycated proteins and in the phosphorylation of 1-deoxy-1-morpholinofructose, fructoseglycine and glycated lysozyme; the family includes ketosamine-3-kinases. Ketosamines derive from a non-enzymatic reaction between a protein. Ketosamine-3-kinases catalyse the phosphorylation of the ketosamine moiety of glycated proteins; the instability of a phosphorylated ketosamine leads to its degradation, KT3K is thus thought to be involved in protein repair. The function of the prokaryotic members of this group has not been established. However, several lines of evidence indicate. First, they are similar to characterised FN3K from human. Second, the Escherichia coli members are found in close proximity on the genome to fructose-6-phosphate kinase. Last, FN3K activity has been found in the blue-green algae Anacystis montana indicating such activity-directly demonstrated in eukaryotes-is nonetheless not confined to eukaryotes
Johannes A. Jehle is a German scientist for insect virology, plant protection; the focus of his research is the use of microorganisms and viruses for biological control of insect pests and the development of sustainable methods for plant protection. He heads the Institute for Biological Plant Control of the Julius Kühn-Institut in Darmstadt and is an adjunct Professor at the Technical University Darmstadt, he was President of the Society of Invertebrate Pathology in 2016/2018. Jehle attended secondary school Kolleg der Schulbrueder in Illertissen, from where he graduated in 1980. After studying biology at universities in Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and Goettingen University with an emphasis on botany and statistics he undertook a six-month field study on indigenous medicinal plants and healing methods in West Africa. From 1989 to 1993, he completed postgraduate studies in plant protection at Goettingen University and worked on his thesis "Safety Aspects of geneic Engineering: the Relationships and Variability of the Genomes of Cryptophlebia leucotrata granulovirus and des Cydia pomonella granulovirus" at the Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in Braunschweig.
He obtained the doctoral degree Dr. rer. nat. in 1994 from the Technical University of Braunschweig. From 1994 to 1996 he was Marie-Curie Fellow at the Department of Virology of Wageningen University working with Prof. J. M. Vlak, before he moved to the plant protection service of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. From 1997 to 2009 he headed the research group Biotechnological Plant Protection at the Agricultural Service Centre in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, where he addressed safety issues related to genetic engineering of maize and grapes and improved methods for biological plant protection using microorganisms and insect viruses. Since 2010 he is director of the Institute for Biological Control of the Julius Kuehn Institute in Darmstadt. In 2006, he obtained a postdoctoral degree of Genetics at the University of Mainz, since 2012 he is adjunct Professor at the TU Darmstadt. Jehle‘s scientific work aims to investigate and evaluate methods of biological control for organic and integrated farming.
His research focus is on insect viruses, their classification and phylogeny, their use as biological plant protection agents, research into baculovirus resistance. In 2008 he was honored for this work by the Society of Invertebrate Pathology with the Founders´ Lecturer Award; the results of this research culminated in book contributions. Member of the German Phytomedicine Society, Member of the German Society of General and Applied Entomology Convenor of the Working Group “Insect Pathogens and Entomopathogenic Nematodes” of the IOBC/wprs, 2011-2017 Council Member of the Society of Invertebrate Pathology Since 1998 Member of the Study Group Baculoviruses of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Since 2012 Member of the ICTV Study Group Hytrosaviruses Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Research Institute of Biological Agriculture Switzerland JEHLE, J. A. NICKEL, A. VLAK, J. M. BACKHAUS, H.. Horizontal escape of the novel Tc1-like lepidopteran transposon TCp3.2 into Cydia pomonella granulovirus.
Journal of Molecular Evolution 46, 215–224. LANGE, M. JEHLE, J. A.. The genome of Cryptophlebia leucotrata granulovirus. Virology 317, 220–236. JEHLE, J. A. LANGE, M. WANG, H. HU, Z.-H. WANG, Y. HAUSCHILD, R.. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of baculoviruses of Lepidoptera. Virology 346, 180–196. JEHLE, J. A. BLISSARD, G. W. BONNING, B. C. CORY, J. HERNIOU, E. A. ROHRMANN, G. F. THEILMANN, D. A. THIEM, S. M. VLAK, J. M.. On the classification and nomenclature of baculoviruses: A proposal for revision. Archives of Virology 151, 1257–1266. ASSER-KAISER, S. FRITSCH, E. UNDORF-SPAHN, K. KIENZLE, J. EBERLE, K. E. GUND, N. A. REINEKE, A. ZEBITZ, C. P. W. HECKEL, D. G. HUBER, J. JEHLE, J. A.. Rapid emergence of baculovirus resistance in codling moth due to sex-linked inheritance. Science 318, 1916–1918. NGUYEN THU, H. JEHLE, J. A.. Seasonal and tissue-specific expression of Cry1Ab in Bt corn. Journal of Plant Disease and Protection 114, 82–87. WANG, Y. BININDA-EMONDS, O. R. P. VAN OERS, M. M. VLAK, J. M. JEHLE, J.
A.. The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel provides novel insights into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses. Virus Genes 42, 444–456. EBERLE, K. E. WENNMANN, J. T. KLEESPIES, R. G. JEHLE, J. A.. Methods in Insect Virology in: Manual of Techniques Insect Pathology, Editor: L. Lacey. Elsevier. GEBHARDT, M. EBERLE, K. E. RADTKE, P. JEHLE, J. A.. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus-isolate dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, 15711–15716. SAUER, A. FRITSCH, E. UNDORF-SPAHN, K. NGUYEN, P. MAREC, F. HECKEL, D. JEHLE, J. A.. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups. PLOS ONE: 1–17. Webseite of Julius Kühn-Instituts Darmstadt Johannes Jehle at the TU Darmstadt Johannes Jehle on Researchgate Symposium on Plant Protection and Health in Europe
Flatrock Township is one of the thirteen townships of Henry County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,247, of whom 962 lived in the unincorporated portion of the township. Located in the western part of the county, it borders the following townships: Napoleon Township - north Harrison Township - northeast corner Monroe Township - east Marion Township - southeast corner Pleasant Township - south Highland Township, Defiance County - southwest corner Richland Township, Defiance County - west Adams Township, Defiance County - northwest cornerThe village of Florida is located in northwestern Flatrock Township, a portion of the village of Holgate is in the southeastern part of the township, it is the only Flatrock Township statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it.
There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Trustees: Thomas J. Bortz Nicholas P. Franz Charles M. Eberle Fiscal Officer: Anne M. Taylor Zoning Inspector: Lauren Bunke County website
The Octagon Centre, built in 1983, is a multi-purpose conference centre and music venue at the University of Sheffield, England. Situated in the Western Bank campus, it is joined by a skyway to University House and comprises an eight-sided auditorium with a capacity of 1,500, meeting rooms, a lounge with bar and patio; the Octagon is used for a variety of purposes, including examinations, graduation ceremonies, music concerts and club nights. In 1958 the University Grants Committee agreed to allocate a sum of £175,000 for the construction of a new oval shaped theatre, which would have been built next to University House and was predicted to be completed for 1965. By early 1963, the funding was revoked because a theatre building was no longer considered a priority for the university given other pressures arising from construction underway at the time; the Drama Studio opened on a nearby site in 1970, considered something of a compromise. The university was offered the empty premises of JG Graves Limited, opposite the Western Bank building.
Despite initial plans to convert it for use by the Biology department, the building was demolished. The site was used as the Clarkson Street car park until the Octagon Centre construction began in 1982. By 1981 the university had made plans to build a new venue at a cost of £1.75 million, considered to be inappropriate expenditure at a time of tight funding. The plans were criticised by the local press at the time; the building was planned as an extension to the student's union, but due to the financial stake provided by the university an arrangement was made to share the use of the building between the union and the university, in exchange for student union control of parts of University House. The building was opened in 1983 under the management of Stephen Ware and contributed to Sheffield being listed as one of the top ten conference towns in the UK by Conference Britain in 1985; the Social Democrat Party held a conference there in 1988 and degree congregations moved there from Sheffield City Hall in 1984.
The Octagon Centre consists of a main auditorium known as the Convocation Hall to the north, with offices and meeting rooms in corridors across two floors at a lower elevation on the southern side of the building. There is a bar lounge on the south side of the hall; the Convocation Hall has a diameter of 32 m on the East-West axis, covers an area of 870 m2 and has a capacity of 1000 seated or 1500 standing. The building is connected to University House by a footbridge, offering access to University House's catering facilities; the centre offers five meeting rooms to clients with the following outline capacities: The Octagon Centre has hosted live music concerts from a number of notable bands as part of the touring music circuit in the UK, such as Nirvana on 28 November 1991. The Students' Union hosts nightclub and live music events in the Octagon. In 2006 Eddie Izzard received an honorary doctorate in Letters at a graduation ceremony in the Octagon Centre; the Octagon Centre is situated on the A57 near its western intersection with the A61, junction 6 of the Sheffield Inner Ring Road.
Access from the north and north-east of the country is provided by the M1 and M18, with routes from the south served by the M1 and A61. Access from the west is served by the A57 Snake Pass, alternatively using the A628 Woodhead pass in poor winter weather conditions. Although there are a number of car parking spaces around the university, car parking can be limited, so the university recommend using park and ride services or planning car parking in advance. A number of bus routes serve the area around the university, with routes H1, 30, 30A, 51, 52, 70, 120, 272, 273, 274, 275 and 505 serving the nearest stops to the Octagon Centre; the Octagon Centre is a short walk from the University of Sheffield Supertram stop, served by the Blue and Yellow lines to destinations including Sheffield station, Malin Bridge and Meadowhall Interchange. The nearest rail station is Sheffield station, connecting it to local destinations by Northern and TransPennine Express services, with intercity services operated by CrossCountry and East Midlands Railway.
Sheffield station is just over two hours away from London St Pancras and one hour from Leeds and Nottingham. There is a direct connection to the Supertram network at the station via an overbridge, which allows onward travel to the Octagon Centre via the University of Sheffield tram stop; the nearest international airport is Doncaster Sheffield 30 minutes away by car. Other nearby international airports include Leeds Bradford and East Midlands Airport. Manchester has a direct rail link to Sheffield and London Heathrow and London Gatwick are connected to Sheffield by rail with one change of train four hours away. University of Sheffield University of Sheffield Students' Union University House Drama Studio The Octagon Centre University of Sheffield Conferences Convocation