Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located in Pembroke Square. The college was founded in 1624 by King James I of England, using in part the endowment of merchant Thomas Tesdale, was named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain and then-Chancellor of the University. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Pembroke admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, having accepted men only; as of 2018, Pembroke had an estimated financial endowment of £58.5 million. Pembroke offers the study of all the courses offered by the university. Dame Lynne Brindley, former head of the British Library, has been Master of the College since 2013, she will be stepping down at the end of the 2019–2020 academic year. In July 2020, Sir Ernest Ryder, a former Lord Justice of Appeal, will take on the role. In the early seventeenth century, the endowment of Thomas Tesdale, a merchant from nearby Abingdon, Richard Wightwick, the parish priest of Donnington, enabled the conversion of Broadgates Hall, a University hostel for law students since its construction in the fifteenth century, to form the basis of a fully-fledged college.
The letters patent to found the college were signed by King James I in 1624, with the college being named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain, Chancellor of the University, rumoured patron of William Shakespeare. The arms of Pembroke College were granted by the College of Heralds on 14 February 1625, the formal blazon describing it as: “Per pale azure and gules three Lyons rampant and one, Argent, in a Cheife party per pale Argent and Or, in the first a Rose Gules, seeded or, barbed vert in second a Thistle of Scotland proper”. Both James I, as founder of the college, the Earl of Pembroke are commemorated in the arms; the former, representing the union of the crowns as James I of England and James VI of Scotland, is symbolised by the rose and the thistle. The three lions rampant are taken from the Earl’s personal coat arms. Following its foundation, the college proceeded to expand around Broadgates, building what is now known as "Old Quad" in the 1600s. Built in stages through the seventeenth century out of the local Cotswold limestone, space restrictions saw the south-side of the Quad built directly on top of the old City Wall.
A Chapel was built in 1732, the introduction of further accommodation in 1846, the Hall in 1848 to designs by Exeter-based architect John Hayward created "Chapel Quad"—widely considered one of the most beautiful Quads in the University. The Chapel was designed and built by William Townsend, although the interior was redesigned by Charles Kempe—a Pembroke graduate—in 1884. Pembroke alumnus Dr. Damon Wells is a significant benefactor of the college over many years; the Chapel, still used for regular worship bears his name. Further expansion of the college came in the 1960s, after the closure of Beef Lane to the north of Chapel Quad; the private houses north of the closed road were acquired by the college in a piecemeal fashion and reversed so that access was only possible from the rear. The area is now known as "North Quad" and was formally opened in 1962. In April 2013 the Duke of Kent opened a new quadrangle named for the lead donor Chris Rokos The new buildings include a 170-seat multi-purpose auditorium, a new cafe, art gallery, teaching and function rooms.
The development is physically joined to the college's existing city-centre site via a new bridge crossing Brewer Street and the original medieval city wall, and'landing' in the old fellows' garden adjacent to Chapel Quad. Having been one of the university's physically smaller colleges, following the opening of the new building, undergraduates are now able to live in college premises for all years of study. A modern annexe, built near to college on the banks of the Isis at Grandpont, provides accommodation for thirty-six graduates and around forty undergraduates. Named the Geoffrey Arthur Building, the building was named for the diplomat Sir Geoffrey Arthur—a former master of the college. Pembroke offers a broad range of courses, covering all the subject areas offered by the university. In particular, the college has had a strong involvement with Economics, as well as Management Studies, being the first traditional Oxford college to appoint a Fellow in the field; the college has maintained a close relationship with the Saïd Business School.
In March 2002 two Pembroke fellows resigned after allegations that they had offered a place to the fictional child of an undercover reporter in return for a donation to the college library. The journalist had taped a conversation. Pembroke runs its own access schemes entitled'Pem-Brooke' and'Pembroke North' which work with disadvantaged students from London and areas of the North; these schemes provide students with long-term academically intensive programmes, which will give students important skills that will support them with both Oxbridge applications but Russell Group university applications. This type of approach is seen as atypical within widening participation work in Oxford. Pembroke is home to a Junior Common Room notable for its artistic sporting prowess; the JCR is the wealthiest in Oxford due to the purchase and sale of a Francis Bacon painting in the early 20th century.
Odostomia granadensis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Pyramidellidae, the pyrams and their allies. The slender, ovate-conic shell measures 2.6 mm. It is white with a faint yellow band a little posterior to the middle between the sutures; the whorls of the protoconch are deeply obliquely immersed in the first of the succeeding turns, above which only the tilted edge of the last volution projects. The five whorls of the teleoconch are flattened contracted at the sutures, feebly shouldered at the summits; the periphery and the base of the body whorl are well rounded. The entire surface of the spire and the base is marked by many fine spaced, wavy spiral striations, which are stronger on the base than between the sutures; the aperture is ovate. The posterior angle is acute; the outer lip is thin. The columella is short, slender and feebly revolute, provided with a fold at its insertion; this species occurs in the Panama Bay. To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Mollusca Collection To World Register of Marine Species
Kuehneromyces mutabilis known as the sheathed woodtuft, is an edible mushroom that grows in clumps on tree stumps or other dead wood. A few other species have been described in the genus Kuehneromyces, but K. mutabilis is by far the most common and best known. The clustered shiny convex caps are 6–8 cm in diameter, they are hygrophanous. In a dry state they are cinnamon-coloured; the gills are light and cinnamon brown, are sometimes somewhat decurrent. The stipe is 8–10 cm long by about 0.5–1 cm in diameter with a ring which separates the bare, smooth light cinnamon upper part from the darker brown shaggily scaly lower part. This type of stem is sometimes described as "booted"; this species always grows on wood on stumps of broad-leaved trees, on conifers. It is found from April to late October, in the remaining winter months where conditions are mild, it is seen at times when there are few other fungi in evidence. Kuehneromyces mutabilis is found in Australia, North America, Europe. In Europe, it can be found from Southern Europe to Scandinavia.
The caps of this mushroom can be used for flavouring in sauces and soups. K. mutabilis cannot be recommended as an edible mushroom as there is a real possibility that it could be confused with the deadly poisonous Galerina marginata by people who are quite knowledgeable. Although a typical K. mutabilis is distinguished from a typical G. marginata by the "booted" stipe, shaggy below the ring, this character is not reliable and G. marginata can have scales. The main differences are: while they are both hygrophanous, K. mutabilis dries from the centre outwards and G. marginata dries from the edge inwards, the stem below the ring is scaly below the ring in K. mutabilis, but fibrously silky in G. marginata, K. mutabilis has a pleasant mushroom smell and mild taste, whereas G. marginata tastes and smells mealy. This article is translated from the German page. Marcel Bon: The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-Western Europe. ISBN 0-340-39935-X Régis Courtecuisse, Bernard Duhem: Guide des champignons de France et d'Europe.
ISBN 2-603-00953-2 Pholiota mutabilis, from Smith AH & Hesler LR.. The North American Species of Pholiota. Pholiota mutabilis by MushroomExpert. Com, November, 2007. Kuehneromyces mutabilis by Roger Philips, RogersMushrooms. “Kuehneromyces mutabilis” by Robert Sasata, Healing-Mushrooms.net, February, 2008