Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, accessories, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses and it is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous, early Western travelers, traveling whether to Persia, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in the respective places. The Japanese Shoguns secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration.
Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia, the beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers, the pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and mens fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex. Art historians are able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, in the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century.
Though textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentlemans coat, by 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike, local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and a badge of the conservative peasant. The Haute house was the established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. Since then, the idea of the designer as a celebrity in his or her own right has become increasingly dominant. The impact of unisex expands more broadly to various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail. Fashion weeks are held in cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. Modern Westerners have a number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests, when people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may start
Saint Thomas Christians
Historically, the Saint Thomas Christian community was part of the Church of the East, centered in Persia. They were organised as the Province of India in the 8th century, served by Nestorian bishops, Saint Thomas Christians represent a multi ethnic group. Their language is Malayalam, the language of Kerala, and Syriac is used for liturgical purposes, the Saint Thomas Christians are so called due to their reverence for Saint Thomas the Apostle, who is said to have brought Christianity to India. The name dates to the period of Portuguese colonization and they are known, especially locally, as the Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila. Nasrani is a term meaning Christian, it appears to be derived from Nazareth, Mappila is an honorific applied to members of non-Indian faiths, including Muslims and Jews. Some Syrian Christians of Travancore continue to attach this honorific title to their names, the term Syrian relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church.
According to tradition, St. Thomas, one of the 12 apostles, came to Muziris on the Kerala coast in AD52 which is in the present day Pattanam, Kerala. The Cochin Jews are known to have existed in Kerala in the 1st century AD, the earliest known source connecting the apostle to India is the Acts of Thomas, likely written in the early 3rd century, perhaps in Edessa. The tradition of origin of the Christians in Kerala is found in a version of the Songs of Thomas or Thomma Parvam, written in 1601 believed to be a summary of a larger and older work. As per legend, the community began with Thomass conversion of Brahmin Gramams or families, the four clans Pakalomattam, Pattamukkil at Niranam Church and Kaliyankal were considered the most preeminent. Claims of descent from the various legendary gramams were used as a basis of a system within the community in the Middle Ages. After the 9th century A. D. such as the wearing of the sacred thread, the medieval historian Pius Malekandathil believes these were customs adopted and privileges won during the beginning of the Brahmin dominance of medieval Kerala.
An organised Christian presence in India dates to the arrival of East Syrian settlers and missionaries from Persia, members of what would become the Church of the East, in around the 3rd century. As the community grew and immigration by East Syrians increased, the connection with the Church of the East, centred in the Persian capital of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, strengthened. In the 8th century Patriarch Timothy I organised the community as the Ecclesiastical Province of India, after this point the Province of India was headed by a metropolitan bishop, dispatched from Persia, the Metropolitan-Bishop of the Seat of Saint Thomas and the Whole Christian Church of India. His metropolitan see was probably in Cranganore, or in Mylapore, under him were a varying number of bishops, as well as a native Archdeacon, who had authority over the clergy and who wielded a great amount of secular power. Some contact and transmission of knowledge of the Saint Thomas Christians managed to reach the Christian West, byzantine traveller Cosmas Indicopleustes wrote of East Syrian Christians he met in India and Sri Lanka in the 6th century.
In 883 the English king Alfred the Great reportedly sent a mission, during the Crusades, distorted accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians and the Nestorian Church gave rise to the European legend of Prester John
Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity.
The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera.
This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.
The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land
A shepherds whistle is a specialized, variable-pitch whistle used to train and transmit commands to a sheepdog to aid in herding. Unlike other whistles, they are placed inside the mouth and the sound is controlled by the placement of the tongue, like tin whistles, while simple, they can be used as musical instruments in their own right. A shepherds whistle is used for managing working sheepdogs. They are typically used at sheepdog trials. Shepherds whistles are used to clearly and at distances up to several hundred yards the commands of the owner to his working dog. They produce clear, high-frequency tones of an easily modulated and variable pitch, the pitch is at an optimal frequency for the herding dogs hearing, and for penetration and distance to cut through adverse weather when gathering sheep. There are some standard whistle commands, although the commands in use vary, oral histories have noted primitive whistles made by of folding over a sheet cut from a tin, a jam lid, or dog-food lid, punching a hole, and smoothing sharp edges.
Simple whistles may cost less than 1 USD in bulk, expensive ones may be quite ornate and they are commonly made of plastic, stainless steel, brass, corion, buffalo horn and other materials. The size of the whistle can vary to fit the mouth of the whistler, the whistles shape is best described as a flat circle of material, folded in half on a center line. This forms a very narrow U-shape in cross-section, the open space between the two sides is quite narrow - approximately 4–5 mm. A hole is drilled about 5 mm from the fold, through the line of both faces. The visible faces are a half-circle shape, the design can be varied to make the faces squarish, rectangular, or even a triangular A-shape, and handles or a hole for suspending the whistle as a pendant can be added. The whistle position is not at all like that of a standard whistle, the whistle is pushed into the mouth fold-first. The curved open side of the U is the mouth of the whistle - where the air exits, the lips seal against the outside of the curved edges, such that the inside of the fold can be seen between the lips.
The fold is sealed against the tongue when in use, air travels over the tongue, through the top hole, past the top of the bottom hole, and out of the mouth between the lips. The edge of the acts as a fipple. The lower hole opens onto an otherwise closed pocket of air and this space acts as a sound box, the sound resonates in it. Blowing over the lip of a bottle or jug makes resonances by blowing across an opening, unlike typical, single-tone whistles, the shepherds whistle can emit a range of tones, by using the tongue and mouth to change the shape and size of the sound box
USB flash drive
USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 30 grams, since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with virtually all computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped. As of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB are frequently sold, storage capacities as large as 2 TB are planned, with steady improvements in size and price per capacity expected. Some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the type of memory chip used. USB flash drives are used for the same purposes for which floppy disks or CDs were once used, i. e. for storage, data back-up. They are smaller, have thousands of times more capacity, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, and are unharmed by surface scratches.44 MB3. 5-inch floppy disk. The USB connector may be protected by a cap or by retracting into the body of the drive. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection.
Some devices combine the functionality of a media player with USB flash storage. Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia is considered by many to be the Father of Pen Drive and he is notable for incorporating the worlds first single chip USB flash controller. Pua hails from Sekinchan, Malaysia, pua founded Phison Electronics based in Taiwan with four other partners and is believed to have produced the worlds first USB flash drive with system-on-chip technology. Competing claims have made by Singaporean company Trek Technology and Chinese company Netac Technology, Both Trek Technology. Trek won a Singaporean suit, but a court in the United Kingdom revoked one of Treks UK patents, Trek Technology and IBM began selling the first USB flash drives commercially in 2000. IBMs USB flash drive became available on December 15,2000, in 2000, Lexar introduced a Compact Flash card with a USB connection, and a companion card read/writer and USB cable that eliminated the need for a USB hub. That is considerably slower than what a hard drive or solid-state drive can achieve when connected via the SATA interface.
Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as 180X.1, which is limited to 12 Mbit/s with accounted overhead. The effective transfer rate of a device is significantly affected by the access pattern, for example. Like USB2.0 before it, USB3.0 dramatically improved data rates compared to its predecessor
The ocarina /ɒkəˈriːnə/ or /oʊkəˈriːnə/ is an ancient wind musical instrument—a type of vessel flute. Variations exist, but a typical ocarina is a space with four to twelve finger holes. It is traditionally made from clay or ceramic, but other materials are used—such as plastic, glass, metal, an example of an ocarina made of an animal horn is the medieval German gemshorn. The ocarina belongs to an old family of instruments, believed to date back over 12,000 years. Ocarina-type instruments have been of importance in Chinese and Mesoamerican cultures. For the Chinese, the instrument played an important role in their history of song. The ocarina has similar features to the Xun, another important Chinese instrument, in Japan, the traditional ocarina is known as the tsuchibue. Different expeditions to Mesoamerica, including the one conducted by Cortés, both the Mayans and Aztecs produced versions of the ocarina, but it was the Aztecs who brought Europe the song and dance that accompanied the ocarina.
The ocarina went on to become popular in European communities as a toy instrument, one of the oldest ocarinas found in Europe is from Runik, Kosovo. The ocarina is a Neolithic flute-like wind instrument and was named Runik Ocarina, the word ocarina in the Bolognese dialect of the Emiliano-Romagnolo language means little goose. The earlier form was known in Europe as a gemshorn, which was made from animal horns of the chamois, györgy Ligeti called for four ocarinas in his Violin Concerto. It was not the first time an ocarina was featured The Legend of Zelda series, with the first appearance being as the Magic Flute in 1991s The Legend of Zelda, A Link To The Past. There are many different styles of varying in shape and the number of holes. It has a shape and is held with two hands horizontally. Depending on the number of holes, the player one more hole than the previous note to ascend in pitch. The two most common transverse ocarinas are 10-hole and 12-hole, pendants English Pendant – These are usually very small and portable, and use an English fingering system.
Peruvian Pendant Dating from the time of the Incas, used as instruments for festivals and they are often seen with designs of animals. Inline – These are often called a fusion of the pendant and this style is known for being very small and compact, with more holes than the pendant
A bracelet is an article of jewellery that is worn around the wrist. It may have a function, such as holding a wristwatch or other items of jewellery such as religious symbols or charms. Medical and identity information is marked on some bracelets, such as bracelets, hospital patient-identification tags. If a bracelet is a single, inflexible loop, it is called a bangle. When it is worn around the ankle it is called an ankle bracelet or anklet, a boot bracelet is used to decorate boots. Colloquially, handcuffs are sometimes called bracelets, although the term armlet may be technically similar, it is taken to mean an item that sits on the upper shoulder, an arm ring. The origin of the bracelet is from the Greek brachile meaning of the arm. A bracelet is a small brace or bracer, the history of Egyptian bracelets is as old as 5000 BCE. Starting with materials like bones and woods to serve religious, from the National Geographic Society, the Scarab Bracelet is one of the most recognized symbols of ancient Egypt.
The scarab represented rebirth and regeneration, carved scarabs were worn as jewelry and wrapped into the linen bandages of mummies. Myth told of the god, pushing the sun across the sky. Artifacts, including a bracelet, excavated in the cave at the level were carbon dated to around 40,000 BP. In Bulgaria there is a tradition called Martenitsa, which involves tying a red. In some parts of India, the number and type of bangles worn by a woman denotes her marital status, in Sikhism a bracelet is one of the mandatory articles known as the Five Virtues. In Latin America, Azabache Bracelets are worn to protect against the Mal de ojo, the evil eye is believed to result of excessive admiration or envious looks by others. Having newborn babies wear an azabache, is believed to protect them from the evil eye, taken in the plural, bracelets is often used as slang for handcuffs. A charm bracelet is an item of jewelry worn around the wrist and it carries personal charms, decorative pendants or trinkets which are signifiers of important things in the wearers life.
In recent history, Italian charm bracelets have become trendy, while traditional charms dangle, Italian charms feature individual pieces soldered flat onto the surface of the link
A bindi is a red dot worn on the centre of the forehead, commonly by Hindu and Jain women. The word Bindu dates back to the hymn of creation known as Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda, Bindu is considered the point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is described as the symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state. Bindi is a dot of red colour applied in the centre of the forehead close to the eyebrow worn in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia among Bali. Bindi in Hinduism and Jainism is associated with Ajna Chakra, Bindu is the point or dot around which the mandala is created, representing the universe. Bindi has historical and cultural presence in the region of Greater India, the area between the eyebrows is said to be the sixth chakra, the seat of concealed wisdom. The bindi is said to retain energy and strengthen concentration, the bindi represents the third eye. The Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda, the earliest known Sanskrit text, the Ajna is symbolised by a sacred lotus with two petals, and corresponds to the colours violet, indigo or deep blue, though it is traditionally described as white.
It is at point that the two side nadi Ida and Pingala are said to terminate and merge with the central channel Sushumna, signifying the end of duality. The seed syllable for this chakra is the syllable OM, and the deity is Ardhanarishvara. The Shakti goddess of Ajna is called Hakini, in metaphysics, Bindu is considered the dot or point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is described as the symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state. Bindu is the point around which the mandala is created, representing the universe, Ajna, is known as the third eye chakra and is linked to the pineal gland which may inform a model of its envisioning. Ajnas key issues involve balancing the higher and lower selves and trusting inner guidance, ajnas inner aspect relates to the access of intuition. Mentally, Ajna deals with visual consciousness, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level. In Hinduism and Jainism bindi is associated with Ajna Chakra, the very spot between the eyebrows known as Bhrumadhya is where one focuses his/her sight, so that it helps concentration.
In South Asia, bindi is worn by women of all religious dispositions and is not restricted to religion or region, the Islamic Research Foundation, located in India, says wearing a bindi or mangalsutra is a sign of Hindu women. The traditional bindi still represents and preserves the symbolic significance that is integrated into Indian mythology in many parts of India, the red bindi has multiple meanings which are all simultaneously valid— One simple interpretation it is a cosmetic mark used to enhance beauty
An earring is a piece of jewellery attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear. Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, and have used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook, the simple term ear piercing usually refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are often referred to as cartilage piercings. Cartilage piercings are more complex to perform than earlobe piercings and take longer to heal, earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, glass, precious stone, wood and other materials. Designs range from small loops and studs to large plates and dangling items, the size is ultimately limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe, Ear piercing is one of the oldest known forms of body modification, with artistic and written references from cultures around the world dating back to early history.
Gold and Bronze hoop earrings were prevalent in the Minoan Civilization and examples can be seen on frescoes on the Aegean island of Santorini, during the late Minoan and early Mycenaean periods of Bronze Age Greece hoop earrings with conical pendants were fashionable. Early evidence of earrings worn by men can be seen in evidence from Persepolis in ancient Persia. The carved images of soldiers of the Persian Empire, displayed on some of the walls of the palace. Howard Carter writes in his description of Tutankhamuns tomb that the Pharaohs earlobes were perforated, the burial masks ears were perforated as well, but the holes were covered with golden discs. That implies that at the time, earrings were worn in Egypt by children. Other early evidence of earring-wearing is evident in the Biblical record, in Exodus 32, 1–4, it is written that while Moses was up on Mount Sinai, the Israelites demanded that Aaron make a god for them. It is written that he commanded them to bring their sons, Earrings became fashionable among courtiers and gentlemen in the 1590s during the English Renaissance.
A document published in 1577 by clergyman William Harrison, Description of England, states Some lusty courtiers and gentlemen of courage do wear either rings of gold, among sailors, a pierced earlobe was a symbol that the wearer had sailed around the world or had crossed the equator. The practice of wearing earrings was a tradition for Ainu men and women, Earrings were commonplace among nomadic Turkic tribes. By the late 1950s or early 1960s, the practice re-emerged, teenage girls were known to hold ear piercing parties, where they performed the procedure on one another. Such an event is depicted in the 1978 motion picture Grease, where Sandy, by the mid-1960s, some physicians offered ear piercing as a service. Simultaneously, Manhattan jewelry stores were some of the earliest commercial, non-medical locations for getting an ear piercing, in the late 1960s, ear piercing began to make inroads among men through the hippie and gay communities, although they had been popular among sailors for decades
A bolo tie is a type of necktie consisting of a piece of cord or braided leather with decorative metal tips – aglets – secured with an ornamental clasp or slide. Bolos are easy to make, using attractive flat objects such as pins, plastic netsuke reproductions, polished stones, Christmas tree ornaments. Cords of leather and cordage stock and tips, called findings are available from jewelry supply firms. In the United States, bolo ties are associated with Western wear. Bolo tie slides and tips in silver have been part of Hopi, Zuni, the bolo tie was made the official neckwear of Arizona in 1971. New Mexico passed a measure to designate the bolo as the states official neckwear in 1987. On March 13,2007, New Mexico Governor, Bill Richardson, in 2007, the bolo tie was named the official tie of Texas. Politicians and officials from western states will often wear them, such as former Montana Governor, in the United Kingdom, bolo ties are known as bootlace ties. They were popular with 1950s Teddy Boys, who wore them with drape suits, along with other 1950s fashions, bolo ties were revived as part of the Rockabilly look in the 1980s.
The bolo tie returned as a fashion accessory in the fall of 1988 when male Hollywood stars would be frequently found wearing them. Chain stores like Jeanswest and Merry-Go-Round sold multiple choices for all occasions, during the 1980s and 1990s bolo ties, some elegant and expensive, were sold in Japan and China. Some had fancy, hand-made cords, and unusual tips, sales overseas skyrocketed post-1970s, this was due to the overflow from the United States, where it had fallen out of fashion in the 1980s. During the 2013 NFL season, San Diego Chargers quarterback, Philip Rivers and he was noted wearing it again after defeating the Cincinnati Bengals in the 2013–14 NFL playoffs. Metallurgist Dr. William E. Mangelsdorf of Kingman, Arizona claims to have invented the bolo tie in the late 1940s, according to an article in Sunset, Victor Cedarstaff was riding his horse one day when his hat blew off. Wary of losing the silver-trimmed hatband, he slipped it around his neck and his companion joked, Thats a nice-looking tie youre wearing, Vic.
An idea incubated, and Cedarstaff soon fashioned the first bola tie and it is said that the bolo tie is a North American pioneer creation that dates back to between 1866 and 1886. There is a tie on display at a trading post in Zuni Pueblo
A belly chain or waist chain are the popular English terms for the Kamarband/Udiyanam, which is a type of body jewelry worn around the waist. Some belly chains attach to a piercing, these are called pierced belly chains. They are often made of silver or gold, sometimes a thread is used around the waist instead of a chain. A belly chain is an adornment for belly dancers. Historically, waist chains have used in Eastern countries, specifically India, by men and women, as ornaments and as part of religious ceremonies, as accessories. Many ancient sculptures and paintings from locations in India, dating back to the Indus Valley civilization, around the world, an increasing number of women including celebrities are wearing waist ornaments. In Maldives, it was reported that scholars and other influential people wore silver chains around their waists before the 1680s, sayyid Mohammed arrived in Male’ when he heard that Maldives was filled with what he called forbidden practices. He banned men from wearing waist chains as part of his effort to remove superstition, some men complied, in other cases chains were forcibly removed.
Many deities in the Hindu religion, such as Lord Krishna, a waistband called cummerbund or patka was a part of the medieval upper class costume of Rajasthanis. A 14th century poetry indicates that the waist chain has been a fashion for men in parts, The golden waist chain. Belly chains are common among women in India, in some regions waist chains are common among men as well. Namboothri men generally wear waist strings even as adults, in some aristocratic families, Namboothiri men wore a flattened triple gold string around the waist. As a Hindu custom newborns get a waist chain on the 28th day after their birth, in Kerala, a state in India, almost all newborns irrespective of the religious affiliation get a waist chain. Although many boys generally abandon waist chains during their years, a large fraction of the girls. A follower of Lord Siva is expected to wear a chain, with Rudrakshas strung in a chain with one hundred beads. In Lakshdweep a silver thread is worn by men and women. Dhodia and Kathodis are Katkari men use ornaments around the waist, for cultural reasons, waist chains became a fashion accessory for women and men in many parts of the world.
Patent was issued for using waist chain as a monitoring device to facilitate weight loss