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Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act is a United States federal law passed by the 47th United States Congress and signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur on January 16, 1883; the act mandates that most positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political patronage. By the late 1870s, American politics operated on the spoils system, a political patronage practice in which officeholders awarded their allies with government jobs in return for financial and political support. Proponents of the spoils system were successful at blocking meaningful civil service reform until the assassination of President James A. Garfield in 1881; the 47th Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act during its lame duck session and President Chester A. Arthur, himself a former spoilsman, signed the bill into law; the Pendleton Civil Service Act provided for the selection of some government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation.

It made it illegal to fire or demote these government officials for political reasons and created the United States Civil Service Commission to enforce the merit system. The act only applied to about ten percent of federal employees, but it now covers most federal employees. Since the presidency of Andrew Jackson, presidents had made political appointments on the basis of political support rather than on the basis of merit, in a practice known as the spoils system. In return for appointments, these appointees were charged with raising campaign funds and bolstering the popularity of the president and the party in their communities; the success of the spoils system helped ensure the dominance of both the Democratic Party in the period before the American Civil War and the Republican Party in the period after the Civil War. Patronage became a key issue in elections, as many partisans in both major parties were more concerned about control over political appointments than they were about policy issues.

During the Civil War, Senator Charles Sumner introduced the first major civil service reform bill, calling for the use of competitive exams to determine political appointments. Sumner's bill failed to pass Congress, in subsequent years several other civil service reform bills were defeated as the public became concerned about public corruption. After taking office in 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes established a special cabinet committee charged with drawing up new rules for federal appointments. Hayes's efforts for reform brought him into conflict with the Stalwart, or pro-spoils, branch of the Republican party, led by Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York. With Congress unwilling to take action on civil service reform, Hayes issued an executive order that forbade federal office holders from being required to make campaign contributions or otherwise taking part in party politics. Chester A. Arthur, the Collector of the Port of New York, his subordinates Alonzo B. Cornell and George H. Sharpe, all Conkling supporters, refused to obey the president's order.

In September 1877, Hayes demanded the three men's resignations. Hayes was forced to wait until July 1878 when, during a Congressional recess, he sacked Arthur and Cornell and replaced them with recess appointments. Despite opposition from Conkling, both of Hayes's nominees were confirmed by the Senate, giving Hayes his most significant civil service reform victory. For the remainder of his term, Hayes pressed Congress to enact permanent reform legislation and restore the dormant United States Civil Service Commission using his last annual message to Congress in 1880 to appeal for reform. In 1880, Democratic Senator George H. Pendleton of Ohio introduced legislation to require the selection of civil servants based on merit as determined by an examination, but the measure failed to pass. Pendleton's bill was based on reforms proposed by the Jay Commission, which Hayes had assigned to investigate the Port of New York, it expanded similar civil service reforms attempted by President Franklin Pierce 30 years earlier.

Hayes declined to seek a second term as president, was succeeded by fellow Republican James A. Garfield, who won the 1880 presidential election on a ticket with former Port Collector Chester A. Arthur. In 1881, President Garfield was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, who believed that he had not received an appointment by Garfield because of his own affiliation with the Stalwarts. Garfield died on September 19, 1881, was succeeded by Vice President Arthur. Many worried about. Civil service reformers established the National Civil Service Reform League and undertook a major public campaign for reform, arguing that the spoils system had played a major role in the assassination of Garfield. In President Arthur's first annual address to Congress, Arthur requested civil service reform legislation, Pendleton again introduced his bill, which again did not pass. Democrats, campaigning on the reform issue, won control of the House of Representatives in the 1882 congressional elections; the party's disastrous performance in the 1882 elections helped convince many Republicans to support the civil service reform during the 1882 lame-duck session of Congress.

The election results were seen as a public mandate for civil service reform, but many Republicans wanted to pass a bill so that they could craft the legislation before losing control of Congress, allowing the party to take credit for the bill and to protect Republican officeholders

Joseph Corbett Jr.

Joseph Corbett Jr. was convicted of the 1960 kidnapping and murder of Adolph Coors III, heir to the Coors beer fortune. Corbett was convicted of shooting a man in the back of the head in 1951, which he claimed was self-defense. Corbett was placed in a maximum-security prison and due to good behavior, he was transferred to minimum security, from which he escaped. On the morning of February 9, 1960, Adolph Coors III, the 45-year-old CEO and chairman of the board of the Coors brewery, left his house for work, but never arrived. A delivery man found Coors' station wagon abandoned, blood droplets were found nearby. Corbett was implicated, the FBI began a manhunt that spanned from California to Atlantic City, New Jersey, to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In March 1960, the FBI added Corbett to its Ten Most Wanted list. On September 11, 1960, Coors' remains were found in a trash dump, with two bullet wounds in his back. Corbett was arrested October 29, 1960 in Vancouver by Canadian police after the Vancouver police recognized his car parked outside a motor inn.

Since the kidnap and murder occurred in Colorado, the state charged Corbett with murder. On March 29, 1961, Corbett was sentenced to life imprisonment, he was paroled and released from prison on December 12, 1980. In 1996 Corbett gave his only interview following his release from prison. Corbett committed suicide on August 24, 2009. List of fugitives from justice who disappeared A Look Back at the Coors Kidnapping Case Jett, Philip; the Death of an Heir: Adolph Coors III and the Murder That Rocked an American Brewing Dynasty New York: St. Martin's Press, 2017. ISBN 978-1250111807

Turner Township, Michigan

Turner Township is a civil township of Arenac County in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 550; the villages of Turner and the eastern portion of Twining are located within the township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 32.3 square miles, of which 31.2 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles, or 3.66%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 642 people, 243 households, 174 families residing in the township; the population density was 19.8 per square mile. There were 303 housing units at an average density of 9.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 97.66% White, 0.16% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 243 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families.

23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.12. In the township the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the township was $35,104, the median income for a family was $38,125. Males had a median income of $25,982 versus $18,942 for females; the per capita income for the township was $13,416. About 18.4% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.3% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over

Clear Water Bay Road

Clear Water Bay Road is a major road from a complex interchange in Ngau Chi Wan to a dead end in Clear Water Bay, Sai Kung District. It is a route to Sai Kung Town and Tseung Kwan O via Hiram's Highway and Hang Hau Road / Ying Yip Road respectively. An expressway deviation, New Clear Water Bay Road, bypasses a steep, winding, 1 in 6 alignment of Clear Water Bay Road near Shun Lee and Fei Ngo Shan. In 1932, Clear Water Bay Road began from Kowloon City. In 1963, part of the road was renamed Prince Edward Road East. Clear Water Bay Road begins at Ngau Chi Wan at the junction with Lung Cheung Road, Prince Edward Road East and Kwun Tong Road near MTR Choi Hung Station, it is bypassed by the newer deviation, running past Choi Wan Estate and Fei Ngo Shan south of Kowloon Peak and reaches Cha Liu Au. It merges with the new road continues as a four-lane expressway east to Tseng Lan Shue, Pak Shek Wo and Pik Uk and runs downhill to Tai Po Tsai. There is an interchange to Sai Kung with the Hiram's Highway.

It continues southward toward the Clear Water Bay Peninsula and junctions Ying Yip Road and Hang Hau Road at a complex roundabout near Silverstrand. The road continues south-east to Sheung Sze Wan, reaches Tai Au Mun; the road ends south in Tai Hang Tun. New Clear Water Bay Road is an expressway deviation of Clear Water Bay Road in Kowloon near Choi Wan Estate and Shun Lee Estate. For the section below Kowloon Peak, Clear Water Bay Road is steep and reaches the ratio of 1 in 6 It is difficult for buses ascending the incline. With the ever-increasing usage of the road due to population increases and the establishment of a country park in Sai Kung, the Hong Kong Government decided to build a new expressway diverging from the junction near Choi Wan Estate junctions with Shun Lee Tsuen Road at Shun Lee loops back over itself to climb the steep hill and rejoins the original road at the junction with Anderson Road near Cha Liu Au; the new road was completed in 1980. The loop flyover runs from the hill north of Jordan Valley to Kowloon Peak, it was the highest bridge in Hong Kong at that time.

List of streets and roads in Hong Kong


Alecto is one of the Erinyes, in Greek mythology. According to Hesiod, Alecto was the daughter of Gaea fertilized by the blood spilled from Uranus when Cronus castrated him, she is the sister of Tisiphone, the embodiment of murder, Megaera, the embodiment of jealousy. Alecto's job as a Fury is castigating the moral crimes of humans if they are against others; the Furies had snakes for blood dripped from their eyes. In addition they had bats' wings. Alecto's function is similar to Nemesis, with the difference that Nemesis's function is to castigate crimes against the gods, not mortals, her punishment for mortals was Madness. In the Aeneid, Juno commanded Alecto to prevent the Trojans from having their way with King Latinus by marriage or besiege Italian borders. Alecto's mission is to cause their downfall through war. To do this, Alecto takes over the body of Queen Amata, who clamors for all of the Latin mothers to riot against the Trojans, she disguises herself as Juno's priestess Calybe and appears to Turnus in a dream persuading him to begin the war against the Trojans.

Met with a mocking response from Turnus, Alecto abandons persuasion and attacks Turnus with a torch, causing his blood to "boil with the passion for war". Unsatisfied with her work in igniting the war, Alecto asks Juno if she can provoke more strife by drawing in bordering towns. Juno replies that she will manage the rest of the war herself: You're roving far too high on the heavens' winds, the Father, king of steep Olympus, won't allow it. You must give way. Whatever struggle is still to come, I'll manage it myself. Alecto appears in Virgil's Aeneid, Dante's Inferno, the musical piece Music for a While by Purcell, she is in Miklós Zrínyi's Siege of Sziget, in various works of Dostoyevsky, in Handel's Rinaldo HWV 7 in the Aria "Sibillar gli angui d'Aletto". A reference to Alecto appears in "The Crooked Staircase" by Dean Koontz. Minor planet 465 Alekto is named in her honor. Family tree of the Greek gods

Soay sheep

The Soay sheep is a breed of domestic sheep descended from a population of feral sheep on the 100-hectare island of Soay in the St Kilda Archipelago, about 65 kilometres from the Western Isles of Scotland. It is one of the Northern European short-tailed sheep breeds, it remains physically similar to the wild ancestors of domestic sheep, the Mediterranean mouflon and the horned urial sheep of Central Asia. It is much smaller than modern domesticated sheep but hardier, is extraordinarily agile, tending to take refuge amongst the cliffs when frightened. Soays may be solid black or brown, or more blonde or dark brown with buffish-white underbelly and rump. In the early twentieth century, some Soay sheep were relocated to establish exotic flocks, such as the flock of "Park Soay" at Woburn Abbey, established by the Duke of Bedford in 1910, selected for "primitive" characteristics. A number of Soay sheep were translocated from Soay to another of the St Kilda group, the island of Hirta by the Marquess of Bute in the 1930s, after the human population and their sheep were evacuated.

The name of the island is from Old Norse Seyðoy, meaning "Island of Sheep". The breed live wild on Holy Isle off Arran. Soay sheep were introduced from St. Kilda to Lundy, an island in the Bristol Channel, by Martin Coles Harman soon after he purchased the island in 1924. There is a small population living wild in and around the Cheddar Gorge in Somerset; the Soays are hardy and have been allowed to become feral. The breed is listed in "Category 4: At Risk" by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust, because there are only between 900 and 1500 registered breeding Soay ewes; the Soay is distinct from two other short-tailed breeds associated with St. Kilda: the Boreray, the "St. Kilda", a former name for the Hebridean sheep; the Hirta population has been the subject of scientific study since the 1950s. The population makes an ideal model subject for scientists researching evolution, population dynamics and demography because the population is unmanaged, is closed and has no significant competitors or predators.

The sheep exhibit a phenomenon known as overcompensatory density dependence, in which their population never reaches equilibrium. The population growth is so great as to exceed the carrying capacity of the island, which causes a dramatic population crash, the cycle repeats. For example, in 1989, the population fell by two thirds within 12 weeks; the age and sex structure of the population are important in determining. Survival rates of males are influenced by weather throughout winter, whereas survival rates of females are influenced most by rainfall at the end of winter, when they will be pregnant. Another factor in mortality rates is the loading of intestinal nematode parasites damaging in malnourished hosts; the breed was used in experimental archaeology at Butser Ancient Farm because it resembles British prehistoric breeds. The breed is becoming smaller because of the change in climate; the sheep have short tails and shed their wool, which can be hand plucked in the spring and early summer.

About one kilogram of wool can be obtained from each animal per year. Ewes are polled, scurred or horned and rams are either horned or scurred, they are most brown or tan with a white belly, white rump patch and/or white patch under the chin. White markings on the face and/or body and legs occur. Self-colored black or tan individuals are seen; this breed has fine fleece and, in contrast to mouflon, the inner fleece is developed and it is difficult to distinguish an outer coat. This is a clear indication that the Soay are indeed the product of a domesticated breed in prehistoric times; the breed lacks the flocking instinct of many breeds. Attempts to work them using sheep dogs result in a scattering of the group; the lambs produce smaller carcasses relative to commercial breeds. The meat from the Soay is lean and low in cholesterol, it has a stronger flavour with a gamey taste. Crossing with larger breeds, such as the Suffolk or Mule, can produce larger carcasses which will be lean and still retain much of the flavour.

The Soay is similar to another feral type from the island of Lítla Dímun in the Faroe Islands, which became extinct in the mid-nineteenth century due to overhunting. List of domesticated Scottish breeds Study discovers secret of Scottish sheep evolution Soay Sheep Society of the UK The Sheep of St. Kilda