Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Washougal is a city in Clark County, United States. The population was 14,095 as of the 2010 Census. Washougal was incorporated on December 4, 1908, its Mount Pleasant Grange Hall is the oldest continually used grange hall in Washington. This small community is located on the Washington side of the Columbia River, with its lowlands and famous prairie situated on the west entrance to the scenic Columbia River Gorge. Motorists who approach Washougal from the west on the Lewis & Clark Highway can see Mount Hood rising above the Cascade Mountains framed by the columnar cliffs that signal the gateway of the Gorge, it is home to Washougal High School. It can be stated that Washougal is the "crossroads to discovery" in the Pacific Northwest. Shortly after Capt. Robert Gray, a Boston fur trader, entered the mouth of the Columbia River in May 1792, the famed British explorer George Vancouver traveled to the region to verify Gray's discovery. In October 1792, Vancouver directed a young Lieutenant named William Broughton to lead a party of men in a long boat up the Columbia to explore its head waters.
Broughton landed near the east end of Reed Island. He named Mount Hood after Point Vancouver after his commanding officer. Broughton incorrectly assumed the head waters of the Columbia originated from Mount Hood. In reality, the river originates some 1,000 miles to the north and east in Canada, but it would be 18 years before the entire river was charted by another famed British explorer named David Thompson. Captain Gray's discovery of the Columbia opened trade between Europeans and Chinook Indians who lived along the lower Columbia between the Cascade region and the river's mouth. U. S. British and Russian fur traders bartered for sea otter and beaver skins in the late 18th century. Another important group of explorers visited the region in 1805–1806, but this group came from the east, which marked the first cross-continental expedition; these famed explorers were William Clark. The Corps of Discovery was impressed with the fertile valley located near Washougal. In fact, when they reached the Pacific Coast and conducted their historic vote on selecting their winter camp site, the three viable options considered were the Clatsop area near Astoria, the north bank near Chinook, the fertile valley near the Sandy and Washougal Rivers.
But, because the Corps had reached the Pacific in late November, they did not have much time to construct a winter fort before the cold weather set in, therefore choosing the Clatsop region because of the abundance of big game and its view of the Pacific—and they hoped to make contact with a fur trading ship to get word back to President Jefferson about the success of their mission. On their return to the east, the Corps of Discovery rowed hard against the current hoping to return to the Nez Perce in early spring; the Nez Perce were caring for their horses over the winter and they needed the horses to travel over the Rocky Mountains. They arrived at Washougal on Monday, March 31, 1806. Lewis wrote in his journals that they camped on the lower end of a handsome prairie two miles up from the mouth of Seal River and directly across from the upper Quicksand River channel. By triangulating these landmarks, it places their campsite close to present day Capt. William Clark Park at Cottonwood Beach.
The Corps would camp at this location for six days in order to kill big game, dry the meat, sew leather sacks in which to store the meat. Natives descending the river told them of scarcity in provisions east of the Cascades. So the handsome prairie in present-day Washougal turned into a provisioning camp which became their second longest campsite in present-day Washington State. So within a 13-year period Washougal would have famous travelers visit its banks from both the east and west—again in 1811 another famed explorer would camp near the same "handsome prairie" on his famous journey to chart the entire length of the Columbia River. In 1825, the Hudson's Bay Fur Company established Fort Vancouver near present-day Vancouver, Washington. Fur trappers and loggers began to visit regions of the Columbia River and they assigned names to familiar locations. Washougal became known as Washougally Camp, thought to be a derivative of an Indian word meaning "rushing water." One of the first Europeans to settle in this area was a British seaman named Richard Ough who arrived in 1838.
While working at Ft. Vancouver, he met and fell in love with Betsy White Wing, a Native American Princess of the Cascades people, her father, Chief Slyhorse Schluyhus, agreed to their marriage as a political alliance, but he stipulated as a condition that Richard must settle down. After their marriage in 1838, they stayed at Ft. Vancouver. In the 1840s, Richard bought a large swath of land near current downtown Washougal, he purchased it from a fellow settler for $45, a horse, a saddle, a few loaves of bread. Washougal was founded on part of the Oughs' original claim. Among Washougal's first and foremost citizens, the Oughs were generous with money; the Oughs had ten children in all, Grace, Benjamin, Mary, Cecelia and John Thomas. Both Richard and Betsy Ough lived long and fulfilling lives owning a dairy dying at the ages 90 and 96, respectively. Both are buried in the local Catholic Cemetery and they have descendants who still live in Washougal. Personal belongings of the Ough's—including clothing and Indian artifacts—can be found in the Two Rivers Heritage Museum in Washougal.
Just downstream from the handsome prairie where Lewis & Clark and David Th
Mackinaw cloth is a heavy and dense water-repellent woolen cloth, similar to Melton cloth. It was used to make a short coat of the same name, sometimes with a doubled shoulder; these jackets have their origins on the Canadian frontier and were made famous by American loggers in the upper Midwest as workwear during the mid-19th century logging boom. The Mackinac or Mackinaw region in present-day Michigan was an important trade artery during the 18th and 19th centuries. A military force at the straits could command traffic from and to Lake Superior, which drains into the St. Marys River, which in turn empties into Lake Huron east of the straits. Although Fort Mackinac at Mackinac Island had been ceded by Britain to the newly independent United States in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the British Army refused to evacuate the posts on the Great Lakes until 1796, when the forts at Detroit and Niagara were handed over to the Americans. British and American forces contested the area throughout the War of 1812, the boundary was not settled until 1828, when Fort Drummond, a British post on nearby Drummond Island, was evacuated.
The Mackinaw jacket traces its roots to coats that were made by white and Métis women in November 1811, when John Askin Jr. an early trader on the upper Great Lakes, hired them to design and sew 40 woolen greatcoats for the British Army post at Fort St. Joseph, near Mackinac, his wife, Madelaine Askin, took an important role in the design of the coat. Askin was fulfilling a contract he received from the post commander; the jackets were made from three-point trade blankets that Askin, who at the time was keeper of the King's store at the fort, supplied on the captain's authority. Although the order called for blue greatcoats, the number of blankets proved insufficient, so the number was filled out by coats made from blankets in red as well as the black-on-red plaid pattern, associated with the jackets of today, it would be found that the long skirts of the greatcoat were unsuitable for deep snow, once these were removed, the Mackinaw jacket was born. In the days of the Old West, heavyweight buffalo plaid Mackinaw jackets were worn with tuques by American and Canadian lumberjacks in the Midwest, Northwest territories and Alaska.
By the 1930s, the jacket had found widespread use as sportswear among hunters and fishermen, together with the trapper cap. A variant of the Mackinaw in olive drab was issued to the US Army for cold weather use by Jeep crews. After the war, plaid jackets of this type, manufactured under the Pendleton brand, became popular casual wear for American men as an alternative to the similar Hollywood jacket. During the 1960s, padded buffalo plaid Pendleton overshirts were worn by surfers and surf rock groups such as the Beach Boys.. In the late'60s and early'70s "Mac" jackets became standard apparel that helped defined the image of Vancouver's notorious Park Gangs, whose members came from tough, working class and labouring families; the jacket made another comeback among the 1990s grunge, hardcore punk and skater subcultures due to its cheapness, durability and protection from falls when skateboarding. It is occasionally seen on members of the 2010s hipster subculture due to its practical but timeless feel.
In Canada, the "Mac" is regarded as a marker of national identity and working-class values, has been exploited for effect in Canadian comedy shows such as Second City Television and This Hour has 22 Minutes. It is sometimes referred to as a stoner jacket in Canada; the stereotypical lumberjack is depicted wearing a plaid jacket, such as Rufus Ruffcut in Wacky Races or Butcher Bronsky in World Destruction League: Thunder Tanks."HOLY MACKINAW!" is Joe Bowen's signature catchphrase when announcing games for "Hockey Night in Canada" as a player scores or goal tender makes an impressive save
The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members as of 2015, the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. S. and has the largest reservation in the country. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27,000 square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. More than three-quarters of the enrolled Navajo population resides in these two states; the Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.
Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration. Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional "Three Sisters" of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture.
There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos. Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné. During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.
The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo, Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in 1846, when General Stephen W. Kearny invaded Santa Fe with 1,600 men during the Mexican–American War. On November 21, 1846, following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.
This agreement by some New Mexicans. The Navajo raided New Mexican livestock, New Mexicans took women and livestock from the Navajo. In 1849, the military governor of New Mexico, Colonel John MacRae Washington—accompanied by John S. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of 400 soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly, he signed a treaty with two Navajo leaders: Mariano Martinez as Head Chief and Chapitone as Second Chief. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land. The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper." While en route to this treaty signing, Narbona, a prominent Navajo peace leader
Hudson's Bay point blanket
A Hudson's Bay point blanket is a type of wool blanket traded by the Hudson's Bay Company in British North America and the United States during the 1700s and 1800s. The company is named for the Hudson Bay and the blankets were traded to First Nations in exchange for beaver pelts; the blankets continue to be sold by Canada's Hudson's Bay stores and have come to hold iconic status in Canada. In the United States they can be found at luxury department store and Hudson's Bay sister chain Lord & Taylor. In the North American fur trade, by 1700, wool blankets accounted for more than 60 per cent of traded goods. French fur-trader Germain Maugenest is thought to have advised the HBC to introduce point blankets; the blankets were produced with a green stripe, red stripe, yellow stripe and indigo stripe on a white background. In 1798 mill owner received a purchase order for "30 pair of 3 points to be striped with four colors" to be manufactured in Witney, Oxfordshire, a town famous for its woollen blankets since the Middle Ages.
From the early days of the fur trade, wool blankets were made into hooded coats called capotes by both natives and French Canadian voyageurs, which were well suited to Canada's cold winters. Points are short black lines woven into the selvage of the blanket along the just above the bottom set of stripes. About four inches in length, they indicate the finished overall size of a blanket and allow a blanket's size to be determined when folded; the point system was invented by French weavers in the mid-1700s since as now, blankets were shrunk as part of the manufacturing process. The word point derives from the French empointer, meaning "to make threaded stitches on cloth." Over the centuries the sizes of blankets have shifted during the 1900s as beds became larger. Blankets of 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 point were most common during the fur trade era. Today Hudson's Bay blankets are found in point sizes of 3.5, 4, 6 and 8. The misconception persists that the points were an indication of the blanket price in beaver pelts or its weight.
Thickness and quality are the same blanket to blanket, a larger blanket will weigh more. Made in England from 100% wool, versions of the blanket are available at Hudson's Bay stores throughout Canada. Solid colours are available, as is the classic pattern featuring the green, red and indigo stripes. Today the blankets are made in England by John Atkinson, a sub brand of A. W. Hainsworth & Sons Ltd. Wools from Britain and New Zealand are used in the manufacture of blankets; the official licensee allowed to import Hudson's Bay Blankets into the United States for commercial sale is Woolrich Inc. of Pennsylvania. Five U. S. retailers sell the blankets to consumers: Woolrich, Lord & Taylor, L. L. Bean, Getz's Department Store in Marquette and Johnson Woolen Mills. Genuine point blankets have become collectible and could fetch prices up to thousands of dollars; the main determinants of value include age, colour, pattern rarity and condition. Collectible point blankets are the Coronation blankets: the one produced for the 1953 coronation of Queen Elizabeth II brings $600 if in mint condition while examples of the rarer 1937 Coronation blanket have sold for as high as $1300.
In 1890, HBC began adding labels to their blankets because point blankets of similar quality were being sold by HBC competitors from such manufacturers as Early's of Witney. Harold Lee Tichenor, point blanket collector and consultant to Hudson's Bay Company, has written two books on point blankets and their collectibility. In April 2017, HBC updated the label, rotating it from portrait to landscape, making it easy to display English and French on either side of the crest, enhanced with red on the flag. To celebrate Canada's 150th Anniversary in 2017, HBC added an additional label to the blanket: a picture of voyageurs in a canoe, with CANADA printed at the top; the Hudson's Bay blanket was called by different names in First Nations languages. Some examples are: Baahlaads gyaa'adaay, Haida language p̓a̱lx̱a̱lasǥa̱m, Kwak'wala ʔa·q̓unaq, Kutenai language Hbc Heritage - Our History - The Hbc Point Blanket
Salem is the capital of the U. S. state of Oregon, the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city; the river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, the city neighborhood of West Salem is in Polk County. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory in 1851, was incorporated in 1857. Salem had a population of 169,798 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the state after Portland. Salem is a little under an hour's driving distance away from Portland. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Marion and Polk counties and had a combined population of 390,738 at the 2010 census. A 2013 estimate placed the metropolitan population at the state's second largest; the city is home to Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. The State of Oregon is the largest public employer in the city, Salem Health is the largest private employer.
Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit, Amtrak service, non-commercial air travel at McNary Field. Major roads include Interstate 5, Oregon Route 99E, Oregon Route 22, which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street and Center Street bridges; the Native Americans who inhabited the central Willamette Valley at first European contact, the Kalapuya, called the area Chim-i-ki-ti, which means "meeting or resting place" in the Central Kalapuya language. When the Methodist Mission moved to the area, they called the new establishment Chemeketa; when the Oregon Institute was established, the community became known as the Institute. When the Institute was dissolved, the trustees decided to lay out a town site on the Institute lands; some possible sources for the name "Salem" include William H. Willson, who in 1850 and 1851 filed the plans for the main part of the city, suggested adopting an Anglicized version of the Biblical word "Shalom", meaning "peace".
The Reverend David Leslie, President of the town's Trustees wanted a Biblical name, suggested using the last five letters of "Jerusalem". Or, the town may be named after Salem, where Leslie was educated. There were many names suggested, after the change to Salem, some people, such as Asahel Bush, believed the name should be changed back to Chemeketa; the Vern Miller Civic Center, which houses the city offices and library, has a public space dedicated as the Peace Plaza in recognition of the names by which the city has been known. It is estimated; the Kalapuya peoples would gather on the plateau east and south of the current downtown area in the winter and establish camps. They harvested in the streams and fields of the area. One staple of life was the camas root, periodically the Kalapuya would set fires that would clear and fertilize the meadows where it grew. In the early 1850s, the Kalapuya, along with the other native peoples west of the Cascade Mountains, were removed by the U. S. government through a combination of treaties and force.
Most Kalapuya people were moved to the Grande Ronde Reservation somewhat to the west of Salem, with smaller numbers ending up at Siletz Reservation and other Oregon and Washington reservations. The first people of European descent arrived in the area as early as 1812; the first permanent American settlement in the area was the Jason Lee Methodist mission located in the area north of Salem known as Wheatland. In 1842, the missionaries established the Oregon Institute in the area, to become the site of Salem. In 1844, the mission was dissolved and the town site established. In 1851, Salem became the territorial capital; the capital was moved to Corvallis in 1855, but was moved back to Salem permanently that same year. Salem incorporated as a city in 1857, with the coming of statehood in 1859, it became the state capital. Oregon has had three capitol buildings in Salem. A two-story state house, occupied for only two months, burned to the ground in December 1855. Oregon's second capitol building was completed in 1876 on the site of the original.
The Revival-style building was based in part on the U. S. Capitol building; the building received its distinctive copper dome in 1893. On April 25, 1935, this building was destroyed by fire; the third and current Oregon State Capitol was completed on the same site in 1938. It is recognizable by its distinctive pioneer statue atop the capitol dome, plated with gold-leaf and named the Oregon Pioneer. Agriculture has always been important to Salem, the city has recognized and celebrated it in a number of ways. In 1861, Salem was chosen as the permanent site of the Oregon State Fair by the Oregon State Agricultural Association. Salem is nicknamed the "Cherry City", because of the past importance of the local cherry-growing industry; the first cherry festival in Salem was held in 1903 and was an annual event, with parades and the election of a cherry queen, until sometime after World War I. The event was revived as the Salem Cherryland Festival for several years in the late 1940s. Salem is located in Marion and Polk counties.
The 45th Parallel
A sluice is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. A mill race, flume, penstock or lade is a sluice channelling water toward a water mill; the terms sluice, sluice gate, knife gate, slide gate are used interchangeably in the water and wastewater control industry. A sluice gate is traditionally a wood or metal barrier sliding in grooves that are set in the sides of the waterway. Sluice gates control water levels and flow rates in rivers and canals, they are used in wastewater treatment plants and to recover minerals in mining operations, in watermills. "Sluice gate" refers to a movable gate allowing water to flow under it. When a sluice is lowered, water may spill over the top. A mechanism drives the sluice up or down; this may be a simple, hand-operated, chain pulled/lowered, worm drive or rack-and-pinion drive, or it may be electrically or hydraulically powered. Flap sluice gate A automatic type, controlled by the pressure head across it, it is a gate hinged at the top. When pressure is from one side, the gate is kept closed.
Vertical rising sluice gate A plate sliding in the vertical direction, which may be controlled by machinery. Radial sluice gate A structure, where a small part of a cylindrical surface serves as the gate, supported by radial constructions going through the cylinder's radius. On occasion, a counterweight is provided. Rising sector sluice gate Also a part of a cylindrical surface, which rests at the bottom of the channel and rises by rotating around its centre. Needle sluice A sluice formed by a number of thin needles held against a solid frame through water pressure as in a needle dam. Fan gate This type of gate was invented by the Dutch hydraulic engineer Jan Blanken in 1808, he was Inspector-General for Waterstaat of the Kingdom of Holland at the time.. The Fan door has the special property that it can open in the direction of high water using water pressure; this gate type was used to purposely inundate certain regions, for instance in the case of the Hollandic Water Line. Nowadays this type of gate can still be found for example in Gouda.
The design of a Fan gate is shown in the image on the left. The sluice has a separate chamber that can be filled with water and is separated on the high-water-level side of the sluice by a large door; when a tube connecting the separate chamber with the high-water-level side of the sluice is opened, the water level, with that the water pressure in this chamber, will rise to the same level as that on the high-water-level side. The surface area of the door separating the chamber from the high-water-level side of the sluice is larger than that of the door closing the sluice. Since pressures are equal this results into a net force. In the mountains of the United States, sluices transported logs from steep hillsides to downslope sawmill ponds or yarding areas. Nineteenth-century logging was traditionally a winter activity for men who spent summers working on farms. Where there were freezing nights, water might be applied to logging sluices every night so a fresh coating of slippery ice would reduce friction of logs placed in the sluice the following morning.
Sluice boxes are used in the recovery of black sands and other minerals from placer deposits during placer mining operations. They may be small-scale, as used in prospecting, or much larger, as in commercial operations, where the material is first screened using a trommel or screening plant. Typical sluices have transverse riffles over a carpet, which trap the heavy minerals and other valuable minerals; the result is a concentrate. Wood Traditionally wood was the material of choice for sluice gates. Cast iron Cast iron has been popular; this material is great at keeping the strength needed. Stainless steel In most cases, stainless steel is lighter than the older cast iron material. Fibre-reinforced plastic In modern times, newer materials such as fibre-reinforced plastic are being used to build sluices; these modern technologies have many of the attributes of the older materials, while introducing advantages such as corrosion resistance and much lighter weights. In the Somerset Levels, sluice gates are known as clyce.
Most of the inhabitants of Guyana refer to sluices as kokers. Sinhala people in Sri Lanka who had an ancient civilization based on harvested rain water, refer to sluices as Horovuwa. Floodgate Gatehouse – An structure to house a sluice gate Lock Zijlstra – A Dutch name referring to one who lives near a sluice Control lock Crittenden, H. Temple; the Maine Scenic Route. McClain Printing. Moody, Linwood W.. The Maine Two-Footers. Howell-North. Cornwall, L. Peter & Farrell, Jack W.. Ride the Sandy River. Pacific Fast Mail. Soar Valley Sluice Gates Salt/Fresh water separating Sluice Complex