Peng Chau

Peng Chau is a small island located off the north-eastern coast of Lantau Island, Hong Kong. It is known locally for fishing industry and seafood. Peng Chau has an area of 0.99 square kilometres. The tallest point of the island is Finger Hill, 95 metres in height and provides hiking opportunities for those who seek them. In 2003, the island was undergoing land degradation restorative work. There are several temples on Peng Chau, including: Tin Hau temple, built in 1792 Golden Flower Shrine, dedicated to Lady Kam Fa Lung Mo Temple Seven Sisters Temple The island is the site of the, now defunct, Peng Chau Theatre. There are remains of the Sing Lei Hap Gei Lime Kiln Factory, established in the 19th century, the Great China Match Company Factory, built in 1938; the main mode of transportation on the island is the bicycle, or on foot. As a general rule, motor vehicles are not permitted on the island, the only exceptions being emergency services and village vehicles used for the transport of goods around the island.

Peng Chau is accessible by a ferry from Central on Hong Kong Island, or by ferries from Cheung Chau via Mui Wo and Chi Ma Wan, or by Kai-to ferries from Discovery Bay on Lantau Island. Helicopters are sometimes used in medical emergencies. Peng Chau is linked to Tai Lei Island by a bridge; the bridge is part of Peng Lei Road. It is a popular fishing spot. Politically, Peng Chau is part of Peng Chau & Hei Ling Chau constituency of the Islands District Council. For 2015 to 2019, the seat was occupied by Josephine Tsang Sau-ho; the executive branch of the government of the island included department of the Islands District Office of the Home Affairs Department. The local police station is belongs to the Cheung Chau Division of the Marine Police. Islands of Hong Kong List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong Peng Chau page at the Hong Kong Tourism Board. Simple Life in Peng Chau - TV program by the Radio Television Hong Kong on Peng Chau. Green Peng Chau Association

Williamson County Courthouse (Tennessee)

The Williamson County Courthouse in Franklin, Tennessee is a historic courthouse. It is a contributing building in the Franklin Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the courthouse is the third one to serve the county. It is 65 by 90 feet in plan, its portico has four Doric columns. It was restored. In 1888, a 23-year-old African-American suspect, Amos Miller, was lynched: hanged from the balcony of the courthouse after being taken by a mob from the courtroom before his trial was completed. On the grounds of the courthouse is a Confederate Monument, separately listed on the National Register. Lynching of Amos Miller

Bombus hyperboreus

Bombus hyperboreus is a species of Arctic bumblebee with a circumpolar distribution. The species is found in the arctic areas of Canada, Greenland, northern Scandinavia, Russia. However, more the nearctic bumble bee, Bombus natvigi has been separated from this species, based on genetic analysis. Bombus hyperboreus is limited to the Palaearctic, it is a brood parasite, attacks and enslaves other bumblebee colonies in order to reproduce as they do not have the ability to produce workers themselves. Most of its targets are colonies of species of Alpinobombus. Bombus hyperboreus was named B. arcticus in 1802. Zoologist Schönherr renamed the species to B. hyperboreus in 1809. It was not until 1950 that B. hyperboreus was used to identify the species. Petitions were needed to change the name to B. hyperboreus officially. Bombus hyperboreus is part of the genus Bombus, composed of all of the bumblebee species, it falls under the subgenus Alpinobombus and is most related to Bombus neoboreus, but shares relations with Bombus balteatus, B. alpinus, B. polaris.

Bombus natvigi has been separated from Bombus hyperboreus based on genetic analysis. Bombus hyperboreus is palaearctic. Due to its parasitic lifestyle, workers are present. Queens and drones are similar, with the anterior part of the abdomen brownish-orange; the thorax has a black transversal band. Because the environment the species inhabits is cold and windy, it is suggested that their black bands act as a method to increase their body temperature through solar radiation, their long, dense hair coat minimizes insulation loss; the mean length of the queen is large at 18.4 millimetres and is presumed to allow the species to counter the strong effects of the windy and cold environment. Members of the subgenus Alpinobombus, including B. hyperboreus, live in grasslands and shrub land in high Arctic and alpine areas, otherwise known as the Arctic tundra. They are distributed in the Arctic and western Nearctic regions; the distribution of the species in terms of altitude varies depending on the season.

During the summer, B. hyperboreus makes use of the entire altitudinal range. However, they tend to inhabit and forage at basal altitudes in the spring and higher altitudes towards the end of the summer and beginning of autumn. Bombus hyperboreus have a varied diet and forage on medium to deep flowers; some species that have been observed pollinating are of the genus Pedicularis Pedicularis hirsuta and Pedicularis lapponica. But they are not limited to just those species. Near Lake Latnjajaure of northern Sweden, Bombus hyperboreus have been observed collecting pollen and nectar of Saxifraga oppositifolia and switching to forage on Astragalus alpinus and Bartsia alpina once those come into flower; the flowers they forage on vary depending on the season and altitude of their habitation. In Mt. Njulla of northern Sweden, for example, in the beginning of the summer, Rhododendron lapponicum and Salix species dominate their diet, but as the season goes on, their diet changes to consumption of Vaccinium species mid-summer and to consumption of Astragalus alpinus and Solidago virgaurea towards the beginning of August.

In the early spring, mated queens emerge from the frozen ground in the tundra and seek out a growing colony of a different bee species. Bombus hyperboreus obtains a colony by enslaving her workers; the queen produces queens and drones. Because queens do not produce workers of their own, they rely on the captured workers to care for them; the number of queens and drones the species produces is far greater than any of the other alpine and non-alpine species of the Arctic region and are most seen from early spring to the end of August, in tandem with the species that it usurps. Nests are found covered by foliage, such as moist, mossy shrub, twigs, withered leaves of Salix glauca and dry leaves of Pyrola grandiflora; the entrance to the nest is usually well camouflaged. Sometimes, waxy coverings are used to support additional foliage above the nest. Inside the nest, many cocoons carry male and queen larvae, with most of the vacated ones containing honey, a few containing pollen; the nests have a tremendous amount of honey, considering that a majority of the hive is composed of sexual beings and drones, few workers.

The temperatures of the nests are regulated and maintained at a range of 25–35 °C. Bees of the genus Bombus organize their cocoons in a certain manner. New cocoons are placed to the side of other cocoons so that the emerging adults do not disturb the rest of the cells. After the emergence of the adults, the cocoons are used to store pollen. Bombus hyperboreus, a cuckoo bumblebee, is known to be a social parasite among the bumblebee family attacking and enslaving colonies of species of the same subgenus. Though it usurps Bombus polaris, there have been evidence of B. hyperboreus usurping Bombus balteatus and Bombus jonellus as well. B. hyperboreus tends to usurp species in its subgenus. Most parasitic bumblebees depend on social bumblebees because they do not have pollen baskets and cannot produce their own wax. However, B. hyperboreus is different: although it is parasitic, it has pollen baskets and collects pollen. To begin usurpation, an impregnated queen emerges in the spring some time after a B. polaris queen, searches to invade her nest.

After invading her colony, the B. polaris queen is killed and her wo