Landscape painting known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, trees and forests where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is always included in the view, weather is an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, develop when there is a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects; the two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. The recognition of a spiritual element in landscape art is present from its beginnings in East Asian art, drawing on Daoism and other philosophical traditions, but in the West only becomes explicit with Romanticism. Landscape views in art may be imaginary, or copied from reality with varying degrees of accuracy.
If the primary purpose of a picture is to depict an actual, specific place including buildings prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views common as prints in the West, are seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful; the word "landscape" entered the modern English language as landskip, an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art, with its first use as a word for a painting in 1598. Within a few decades it was used to describe vistas in poetry, as a term for real views; however the cognate term landscaef or landskipe for a cleared patch of land had existed in Old English, though it is not recorded from Middle English. The earliest forms of art around the world depict little that could be called landscape, although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included; the earliest "pure landscapes" with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE.
Hunting scenes those set in the enclosed vista of the reed beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human and animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting. The frescos from the Tomb of Nebamun, now in the British Museum, are a famous example. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance, is needed, this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive. More ancient Roman landscapes survive, from the 1st century BCE onwards frescos of landscapes decorating rooms that have been preserved at archaeological sites of Pompeii and elsewhere, mosaics; the Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui, or "pure" landscape, in which the only sign of human life is a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.
Both the Roman and Chinese traditions show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes backed with a range of spectacular mountains – in China with waterfalls and in Rome including sea, lakes or rivers. These were used, as in the example illustrated, to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists; the Chinese style showed only a distant view, or used dead ground or mist to avoid that difficulty. A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been that while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres, in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain-water ink painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. Aesthetic theories in both regions gave the highest status to the works seen to require the most imagination from the artist. In the West this was history painting, but in East Asia it was the imaginary landscape, where famous practitioners were, at least in theory, amateur literati, including several Emperors of both China and Japan.
They were also poets whose lines and images illustrated each other. In the 1830s the British inventor William Talbot creates the process of calotype and in 1844 he publishes the first book with photo illustrations: "The Pencil of Nature"Talbot, W. H. F.. The Pencil of Nature: in 6 parts. However, in the West, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not work against the development of landscape painting – for several centuries landscapes were promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene religious or mythological. In early Western medieval art interest in landscape disappears entirely, kept alive only in copies of Late Antique works such as the Utrecht Psalter. A revival in interest in nature mainly manifested itself in depictions of small gardens such as the Hortus Conclusus or those in millefleur tapestries; the frescos of figures at work or pl
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Westbury is a town and civil parish in the west of the English county of Wiltshire, most famous for the Westbury White Horse. The most origin of the West- in Westbury is that the town is near the western edge of the county of Wiltshire, the bounds of which have been much the same since the Anglo-Saxon period; the -bury part of the name is a form of borough, which has cognates in many languages, such as the German -burg and the Greek -pyrgos. It carries the idea of a fortified town. In Wiltshire, -bury indicates an Iron Age or Bronze Age fortified hill fort, such a site is to be found above the Westbury White Horse. Westbury is in the far west of Wiltshire, close to the border with Somerset, it lies at the northwestern edge of Salisbury Plain, 18 miles southeast of the city of Bath 5 miles south of the county town of Trowbridge and 4.5 miles north of the garrison town of Warminster. Other nearby towns and cities include Frome and Salisbury; the villages in the Westbury postal area are Bratton, Dilton Marsh, Edington and Hawkeridge, Coulston.
Nearby are Upton Scudamore, North Bradley, Yarnbrook. There are several suburbs, including Frogmore, Bitham Park, the Ham, Leigh Park, Westbury Leigh. Westbury Leigh is sometimes considered a separate village, with its own church and chapel, although it has always been within the town's boundaries. Leigh Park is a large housing estate developed since the late 1990s to the north of Westbury Leigh, includes a large medical centre, a community hall, a district centre with a Tesco Express store. In the past, Westbury was sometimes known as Westbury-under-the-Plain to distinguish it from other towns of the same name. Westbury is nestled under the northwestern bluffs of Salisbury Plain, it is there that the town's most famous feature can be seen: the Westbury White Horse, it is sometimes claimed locally that the White Horse was first cut into the chalk face as long ago as the year 878, to commemorate the victory of Alfred the Great over the Danes in the Battle of Eðandun. However, scholars believe this to be an invention of the late 18th century, no evidence has yet been found for the existence of the horse before the 1720s.
The form of the current White Horse dates from 1778. In the 1950s it was decided that the horse would be more maintained if it were set in concrete and painted white; the horse's original form may have been quite different from the horse seen today. One 18th-century engraving shows the horse facing to the right, but in its current form it faces to the left. Westbury centres with the churchyard of All Saints' Church behind it. All Saints' has a heavy ring of bells, an Erasmus Bible, a 16th-century clock with no face constructed by a local blacksmith, a marble bust of William Phipps by Robert Taylor; the west window of the church was donated by Abraham Laverton, who built Prospect Square and the nearby Laverton Institute, which he donated to a local charity, known today as "the Laverton". In the early part of September 1877, there was found on Bremeridge Farm, in the parish of Dilton Marsh, belonging to Charles Paul Phipps, esq. of Chalcot House, a hoard of 32 gold coins. They were found during repairs and improvements of the homestead, about a foot and a half below the surface, in the courtyard, one above another, without any appearance of a purse or box.
Until the 1940s, the Westbury Hill Fair was an important annual event for the sale of sheep. The town has been home to the Army Officer Selection Board and the Cadet Force Commissioning Board, located at Leighton House, since 1949, its closure was announced in 2016. A former Lafarge cement production plant lies about 1.3 miles northeast of the town centre. From 1961 until its demolition in 2016, the plant's 400 feet chimney was the tallest unsupported structure in southwestern England; the majority of local government functions are carried out by Wiltshire Council, a unitary authority. Westbury is divided into three council divisions, each electing one member of Wiltshire Council. Westbury is a civil parish with an elected town council of fifteen members; this has significant consultative roles, in addition to increasing responsibility for services in the town. The chairman of the town council has the title of Mayor of Westbury, a wholly ceremonial role; the council has taken over the running of the town's play areas and flower planting from Wiltshire Council and has supplemented reduced services from Wiltshire Council with its own staff.
The council runs the Grade II listed Laverton Institute which serves as the town hall and as a venue for events and meetings. The parliamentary constituency of Westbury dated back to the 15th century, but the name was abandoned in 2010, when the town and most of the former constituency became part of the new South West Wiltshire constituency. Before the parliamentary reforms of the mid-19th century, Westbury was considered a pocket borough, at one point having as few as twenty-four electors; this status led to gifts to the town from the owners of the parliamentary borough, including the notable former town hall in the Market Place, donated by Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes. Westbury has one of the oldest working Victorian swimming pools in the country, built
Arthur Merric Bloomfield Boyd was a leading Australian painter of the late 20th century. Boyd's work ranges from impressionist renderings of Australian landscape to starkly expressionist figuration, many canvases feature both. Several famous works set Biblical stories against the Australian landscape, such as The Expulsion, now at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Having a strong social conscience, Boyd's work deals with humanitarian issues and universal themes of love and shame. Boyd was a member of the Antipodeans, a group of Melbourne painters that included Clifton Pugh, David Boyd, John Brack, Robert Dickerson, John Perceval and Charles Blackman; the Boyd family artistic dynasty includes painters, sculptors and other arts professionals, commencing with Boyd's grandmother Emma Minnie Boyd and her husband Arthur Merric Boyd, Boyd's father Merric and mother Doris. His other sister Mary Boyd a painter, married first John Perceval, later Sidney Nolan, both artists. Boyd's wife, Yvonne Boyd is a painter.
In 1993, Arthur and Yvonne Boyd gave family properties comprising 1,100 hectares at Bundanon on the Shoalhaven River to the people of Australia. Held in trust, Boyd donated further property and the copyright to all of his work. Boyd was born at Murrumbeena, Victoria into the artistic dynasty Boyd family, the son of Doris Boyd and her husband Merric, both potters and painters. Boyd's sisters Lucy and Mary were both artists as well as both of Boyd's elder brothers. After leaving school aged 14 years, Boyd attended night classes at the National Gallery School in Melbourne where Jewish immigrant artist Yosl Bergner introduced Boyd to writers such as Dostoyevsky and Kafka and influenced his humanitarian values and social conscience. Boyd spent several years living on the Mornington Peninsula with his grandfather, the landscape painter Arthur Merric Boyd, who nurtured his talent. Early paintings were portraits and of seascapes of Port Phillip created while he was an adolescent, living in the suburbs of Melbourne.
He moved to the inner city. Reflecting this move in the late 1930s, his work moved into a distinct period of depictions of fanciful characters in urban settings. Boyd was conscripted in 1941 and served with the Cartographic Unit until 1944. Although he did not see active duty, Boyd's expressionistic wartime paintings, including images of cripples and those deemed unfit for war service, were considered painful images of the dispossessed and the outcast. Following the war, together with John Perceval founded a workshop at Murrumbeena and turned his hand to pottery, ceramic painting and sculpture. Although Boyd was a close friend of Albert Tucker, Joy Hester and Sidney Nolan, he kept an emotional distance from the modernist Heide Circle founded by art patrons John and Sunday Reed who supported Tucker and Hester amongst others. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Boyd traveled to Victoria's Wimmera country and to Central Australia including Alice Springs and his work turned towards landscape paintings.
During this period his best-known work comes from his Love and Death of a Half-Caste Bride series of 31 paintings known as The Bride, that imagined an Aboriginal person of mixed descent as a neglected outsider. First exhibited in Melbourne in April 1958, the series met a mixed reaction, as it did that year in Adelaide and Sydney. Following the 1999 acquisition of Reflected Bride 1 by the National Gallery of Australia, the gallery's director Brian Kennedy commented in 2002: The Bride paintings are among the greatest expressions of conscience by an Australian artist. Brilliantly executed and of sustained quality, Reflected Bride 1 speaks to contemporary Australia, beseeching reconciliation, understanding and a tolerant, compassionate meeting of old and new cultures. Boyd’s paintings are not pretty and carry a pervasive magical and somewhat menacing atmosphere, it is as if the landscape are one. The bride rises from an Ophelia caught by a groom whose foot hooks a tree; the bride is staring at an absurd mask-like white bride’s head which appears to glow out of the forest.
This is a strange place of nightmarish dreams. In 1956, Boyd's ceramic sculpture'Olympic Pylon' was installed in the forecourt of the Melbourne Olympic Swimming Pool. Boyd represented Australia with Arthur Streeton at the Venice Biennale in 1958, where his Bride series was well received, he was affiliated with the Antipodeans, a group of painters founded in 1959 and supported by Australian art historian Bernard Smith, who tried to promote figurative art when abstract painting and sculpture was dominant. The group exhibited at the Whitechapel gallery in London. In 1959 Boyd and his family moved to London, where he remained until 1971. In London, he started receiving commissions for ballet and opera set designs, after taking up etching and returning to ceramic painting, in 1966 he began the Nebuchadnezzar series in response to the Vietnam War as a statement of the human condition. While in London, Boyd entered another distinct period with his works themed around the idea of metamorphosis, he produced several series of works, including a collection of fifteen biblical paintings based on the teaching of his mother, Doris.
He produced a tempera series about large areas of sky and land, called the Wimmera series. The recipient of a Creative Arts Fellowship f
En plein air
En plein air is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with academic rules that might create a predetermined look. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the mid-19th century, working in natural light became important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School, Impressionists. In 1830, the Barbizon School in France, inspired by John Constable, enabled artists like Charles-François Daubigny and Théodore Rousseau to more depict the appearance of outdoor settings in various light and weather conditions. In the late 1800s, the en plein air approach was incorporated with the impressionists’ style, artists such as Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille, Edgar Degas began creating their work outdoors. From France, the movement expanded to America, starting in California moving to other American locales notable for their natural light qualities, including the Hudson River Valley in New York; the Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light and colour.
This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes. Their movement began in Florence in the late 1850s; the Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century. The popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil; the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the mid-19th century that the'box easel' known as the'French box easel' or'field easel', was invented, it is uncertain who developed it, but these portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store.
The Pochade Box is a compact box that allows the artist to keep all their supplies and palette within the box and have the work on the inside of the lid. Some designs allow for a larger canvas. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid; these boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home, or classroom. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small not more than 20 inches. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs and environmental conditions such as weather. Acrylic paint may harden and dry in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation; the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics. The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint.
French impressionist painters such as Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir advocated plein air painting, much of their work was done outdoors in the diffuse light of a large white umbrella. Claude Monet was an avid en plein air artist who deduced that to seize the closeness and likeness of an outside setting at a specific moment one had to be outside to do so rather than just paint an outside setting in their studio. In the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in Russia, painters such as Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and I. E. Grabar were known for painting en plein air, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air. American impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, Arthur Hill Gilbert. In Canada, the Group of Seven and Tom Thomson are examples of en plein air advocates.
Art colonies Heidelberg School Urban Sketchers Media related to Painting en plein air at Wikimedia Commons
Australian art is any art made in or about Australia, or by Australians overseas, from prehistoric times to the present. This includes Aboriginal, Landscape, early-twentieth-century painters, print makers and sculptors influenced by European modernism, Contemporary art; the visual arts have a long history in Australia, with evidence of Aboriginal art dating back at least 30,000 years. Australia has produced many notable artists of both Western and Indigenous Australian schools, including the late-19th-century Heidelberg School plein air painters, the Antipodeans, the Central Australian Hermannsburg School watercolourists, the Western Desert Art Movement and coeval examples of well-known High modernism and Postmodern art; the first ancestors of Aboriginal Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia as early as 60,000 years ago, evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30,000 years. Examples of ancient Aboriginal rock artworks can be found throughout the continent.
Notable examples can be found in national parks, such as those of the UNESCO listed sites at Uluru and Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, the Bradshaw rock paintings in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Rock art can be found within protected parks in urban areas such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Sydney; the Sydney rock engravings are 5000 to 200 years old. Murujuga in Western Australia has the Friends of Australian Rock Art advocating its preservation, the numerous engravings there were heritage listed in 2007. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe, Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. There are three major regional styles: the geometric style found in Central Australia, the Kimberley and Victoria known for its concentric circles and dots; these designs carry significance linked to the spirituality of the Dreamtime. William Barak was one of the last traditionally educated of the Wurundjeri-willam, people who come from the district now incorporating the city of Melbourne.
He remains notable for his artworks which recorded traditional Aboriginal ways for the education of Westerners. Margaret Preston was among the early non-indigenous painters to incorporate Aboriginal influences in her works. Albert Namatjira is an Arrernte man, his landscapes inspired the Hermannsburg School of art. The works of Elizabeth Durack are notable for their fusion of indigenous influences. Since the 1970s, indigenous artists have employed the use of acrylic paints - with styles such as the Western Desert Art Movement becoming globally renowned 20th-century art movements; the National Gallery of Australia exhibits a great many indigenous art works, including those of the Torres Strait Islands who are known for their traditional sculpture and headgear. The Art Gallery of New South Wales has an extensive collection of indigenous Australian art. In May 2011, the Director of the Place and Rock Art Heritage Unit at Griffith University, Paul Taçon, called for the creation of a national database for rock art.
Paul Taçon launched the "Protect Australia’s Spirit" campaign in May 2011 with the regarded Australian actor Jack Thompson. This campaign aims to create the first resourced national archive to bring together information about rock art sites, as well as planning for future rock art management and conservation; the National Rock Art Institute would bring together existing rock art expertise from Griffith University, Australian National University, the University of Western Australia if they were funded by philanthropists, big business and government. Rock Art Research is published twice a year and covers international scholarship of rock art. Early Western art in Australia, from 1788 onwards, is narrated as the gradual shift from a European sense of light to an Australian one; the lighting in Australia is notably different from that of Europe, early attempts at landscapes attempted to reflect this. It has been one of transformation, where artistic ideas originating from beyond gained new meaning and purpose when transplanted into the new continent and the emerging society.
The first artistic representations of the Australia scene by European artists were natural history illustrations, depicting the distinctive flora and fauna of the land for scientific purposes, the topography of the coast. Sydney Parkinson, the Botanical illustrator on James Cook's 1770 voyage that first charted the eastern coastline of Australia, made a large number of such drawings under the direction of naturalist Joseph Banks. Many of these drawings were met with skepticism when taken back to Europe, for example claims that the platypus was a hoax. In the form of copies and reproductions, George Stubbs' 1772 paintings Portrait of a Large Dog and The Kongouro from New Holland—depicting a dingo and kangaroo respectively—were the first images of Australian fauna to be disseminated in Britain. Despite Banks' suggestions, no professional natural-history artist sailed on the First Fleet in 1788; until the turn of the century all drawings made in the colony were crafted by soldiers, including British naval officers George Raper and John Hunter, convict artists, including Thomas Watling.
However, many of these drawings are by unknown artists, most notably the Port Jackson P
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It