Penmaenmawr is a town and community in Conwy County Borough, in the parish of Dwygyfylchi. It is on the North Wales coast between Conwy and Llanfairfechan and was an important quarrying town, though quarrying is no longer a major employer; the population of the community was 4,353 including Dwygyfylchi and Capelulo. The town itself having a population of 2,868, it was named after Penmaenmawr mountain, which stands above the sea west of the town. Much of its rounded top has been quarried away, leaving the present-day lower flat top; the town was bypassed by the A55 Expressway in the 1980s, losing its old Edwardian period promenade in the process, replaced by a modern one. Penmaenmawr is noted for coastal walks. Nearby are the popular attractions of Bwlch Sychnant and Mynydd y Dref, the town lies within Eryri, the Snowdonia National Park; the name Penmaenmawr is the Welsh for'Head of the Great Stone', or'Great Headland of Stone' contrasting with Penmaenbach. The villages that make up Penmaenmawr are Penmaenan and Pant Yr Afon on the west and Dwygyfylchi and Capelulo on the east.
They are on a small coastal plain about 2 miles in length and half a mile deep facing Conwy Bay and the Irish Sea to the north. The bay is sheltered by the south-east tip of Anglesey and Ynys Seiriol to the north-west and the limestone headland of Pen-y-Gogarth to the north-east; the sea is shallow here between the Conwy estuary. The beach is extensive, consisting of a wide expanse of sand. Two headlands separate Penmaenmawr from its neighbours. In the west the bulk of Penmaen Mawr lies between the town neighbouring Llanfairfechan and the wider coastal plain extending to Bangor. To the east the smaller but no less rugged headland of Penmaen Bach divides Dwygyfylchi from Conwy Morfa. Penmaenbach is the most northerly tip of the Snowdonia National Park, which covers a large part of Dwygyfylchi and Capelulo. To the south an arc of hills and uplands extends east to west from Capelulo to Penmaen Mawr, beginning with Yr Allt Wen above Dwygyfylchi, Bwlch Sychnant and Pen-sychnant at Capelulo; the rounded hill of Foel Lys, Gwddw Glas, Bryn Derwydd and the head of Cwm Graiglwyd and Penmaen-mawr.
Foel Lus rises to 362 metres. The coastal plain is nearly divided by Trwyn-yr-Wylfa, which marks the boundary between Pant-yr-afon and Penmaenan in the west and the "Hen Bentra" or "Old Village" of Dwygyfylchi and Capelulo in the east. Two small rivers flow through the area; the first, Afon Pabwyr, runs down from wooded Cwm Graiglwyd under the town centre, Pant-yr-afon, to the beach. The uplands above the town have many prehistoric remains, including the site of prehistoric polished stone axe factories on the west slopes of Cwm Graiglwyd near the top of Penmaen-mawr; this was once one of the most important stone axe manufacturing sites in Europe, together with the Langdale axe industry in the Lake District, Tievebulliagh in County Antrim and other sites across Britain. There is evidence that axes from Graiglwyd were exported 5,000 years ago, examples having been found as far afield as Cornwall and south-east England; the nearby Meini Hirion, known in English as Druid's Circle, is a prehistoric stone circle.
A prehistoric trackway from Bwlch-y-ddeufaen to Conwy runs by the circle. The summit of Penmaen-mawr, from which the town takes its name, was 1,500 feet above sea level until reduced by modern quarrying; the summit area was crowned by Braich-y-Dinas, one of the largest Iron Age hill-forts in Europe, comparable with Tre'r Ceiri near Trefor on the Llŷn peninsula. However, nothing remains today. According to tradition, the 5th- or 6th-century saint Seiriol, after whom Ynys Seiriol is named, had a hermit's cell in Cwm Graiglwyd. A declivity, Clipyn Seiriol, above the modern road tunnel through Penmaen-mawr bears his name, as does the modern church of St Seiriol's near the town centre; the older church of St Gwynin's in Dwygyfylchi is the parish church today. Penmaenmawr is associated with Saint Ulo, Capelulo being at the foot of Sychnant and reputedly the site of an early medieval chapel. From the early Middle Ages onwards the parish has been part of Arllechwedd Uchaf, this ancient Welsh cwmwd, which together with neighbouring Arllechwedd Isaf makes up the cantref of Arllechwedd, is still used by the church as an administrative unit today.
The industrial quarrying of igneous rock at Penmaenan began in 1830 with the opening of the Penmaen Quarry and the subsequent, competing Graiglwyd and'Old' quarries which were amalgamated by 1888 under Colonel Darbishire. Most of the production in these early years was of setts and paving, but from 1881 the advantage of crushed rock for railway ballast was demonstrated and new crushing mills were built to provide for that market. In 1911 Darbishire merged these operations with the quarries of Trefor to form the Penmaenmawr & Welsh Granite Co.. As the industry grew and their families flocked to Penmaenmawr from all over north-west Wales and beyond; the link was strong with Trefor, the home of Trefor granite quarry on the sl
"What U Gon' Do" is a single by Lil Jon & the Eastside Boyz from their album Crunk Juice and features Lil Scrappy. It is one of the best known songs; the track reached #22 on the Billboard Hot 100, #8 on the Hot Rap Tracks chart, #13 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart. Two remixes to the song was an addition to the Crunk Juice in the Remix CD. A Jamaican remix featuring Elephant Man and Lady Saw and a Latino remix featuring Pitbull and Daddy Yankee; the Latino remix became the official remix. The song appeared in a season one episode of The Andy Milonakis Show when Lil Jon guest starred
Coming of Age in Samoa is a book by American anthropologist Margaret Mead based upon her research and study of youth – adolescent girls – on the island of Ta'u in the Samoan Islands. The book details the sexual life of teenagers in Samoan society in the early 20th century, theorizes that culture has a leading influence on psychosexual development. First published in 1928, the book launched Mead as a pioneering researcher and as the most famous anthropologist in the world. Since its first publication, Coming of Age in Samoa was the most read book in the field of anthropology until Napoleon Chagnon's Yanomamö: The Fierce People overtook it; the book has sparked years of ongoing and intense debate and controversy on questions pertaining to society and science. It is a key text in the nature versus nurture debate, as well as in discussions on issues relating to family, gender, social norms, attitudes. In the 1980s, Derek Freeman contested many of Mead's claims, argued that she was hoaxed into counterfactually believing that Samoan culture had more relaxed sexual norms than Western culture.
However, the anthropology community on the whole has rejected Freeman's claims, concluding that Freeman cherry-picked his data, misrepresented both Mead's research and the interviews that he conducted. In the foreword to Coming of Age in Samoa, Mead's advisor, Franz Boas, writes: "Courtesy, good manners, conformity to definite ethical standards are universal, but what constitutes courtesy, good manners, definite ethical standards is not universal, it is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways." Boas went on to point out that, at the time of publication, many Americans had begun to discuss the problems faced by young people as they pass through adolescence as "unavoidable periods of adjustment". Boas felt that a study of the problems faced by adolescents in another culture would be illuminating. Mead introduces the book with a general discussion of the problems facing adolescents in modern society and the various approaches to understanding these problems: religion, educational theory, psychology.
She discusses various limitations in each approach and introduces the new field of anthropology as a promising alternative science based on analyzing social structures and dynamics. She contrasts the methodology of the anthropologist with other scientific studies of behavior and the obvious reasons that controlled experiments are so much more difficult for anthropology than other sciences. For this reason her methodology is one of studying societies in their natural environment. Rather than select a culture, well understood such as Europe or America, she chooses South Sea island people because their culture is radically different from Western culture and to yield more useful data as a result. However, in doing so she introduces new complexity in that she must first understand and communicate to her readers the nature of South Sea culture itself rather than delve directly into issues of adolescence as she could in a more familiar culture. Once she has an understanding of Samoan culture she will delve into the specifics of how adolescent education and socialization are carried out in Samoan culture and contrast it with Western culture.
Mead described the goal of her research as follows:"I have tried to answer the question which sent me to Samoa: Are the disturbances which vex our adolescents due to the nature of adolescence itself or to the civilization? Under different conditions does adolescence present a different picture?" To answer this question, she conducted her study among a small group of Samoans. She found a village of 600 people on the island of Ta'ū, in which, over a period of between six and nine months, she got to know, lived with and interviewed 68 young women between the ages of 9 and 20. Mead studied daily living, social structures and dynamics, etiquette, etc. Mead begins with the description of a typical idyllic day in Samoa, she describes child education, starting with the birth of children, celebrated with a lengthy ritual feast. After birth, Mead describes how children are ignored, for girl children sometimes explicitly ritually ignored, after birth up to puberty, she describes the various methods of disciplining children.
Most involve some sort such as hitting with hands, palm fronds, or shells. However, the punishment is ritualistic and not meant to inflict serious harm. Children are expected to contribute meaningful work from a early age. Young children of both sexes help to care for infants; as the children grow older, the education of the boys shifts to fishing, while the girls focus more on child care. However, the concept of age for the Samoans is not the same as in the West. Samoans do not keep track of birth days, they judge maturity not on actual number of years alive, but rather on the outward physical changes in the child; as a child gets bigger and stronger, he or she gets responsibility. Mead describes some specific skills the children must learn related to weaving and fishing, almost casually interjects the first description of Samoan sexuality, saying that in addition to work for adolescent girls: "All of her interest is expended on clandestine sex adventures." This comes directly after a passage where Mead describes how a reputation for laziness can make an adolescent girl a poor candidate for marriage, implying that for Samoans a work ethic is a more important criterion for marriage than virginity.
Male adolescents undergo various kinds of both encouragement and punishment to make them competitive and aggressive. Males have many
Friday Foster is an American newspaper comic strip and written by Jim Lawrence and continued by Jorge Longarón. It ran from January 18, 1970 to February 17, 1974 and was notable for featuring one of the first African-American women as the title character in a comic strip. Jackie Ormes's Torchy predated it. After two years of development, the strip was illustrated by Spanish cartoonist Jorge Longarón and syndicated by the Chicago Tribune Syndicate; the strip focused on the glamorous life of its title character, a former fashion model who became an assistant to a top fashion photographer, as described by comics historian Dave Karlen: Starting out as an assistant to high-fashion photographer Shawn North, Friday after learning the ropes moved in front of the camera to become a world traveling supermodel leaving her troubled life in Harlem behind her. Early on, Lawrence's story lines had a harder edge showing the contrast of Friday's family with her street-wise brother trying to accept her newfound success in the world of magazine publishing.
But soon its episodes changed focus to showcase more soap-opera thrills of romance and travel for the gorgeous African-American. Hong Kong, Paris and Africa were all shown with equal flair from the detailed artistic masterpieces produced by Longarón from his home in Barcelona. Artist Frank Springer did a small amount uncredited work on the strip, recalling in the mid-2000s, "I knew the writer, who lived here in New Jersey... I got a call a couple of times from Lawrence who said they hadn't gotten the material through from Spain" and asked Springer to fill in. "I guess over the years I did two Sunday pages, maybe three."Dell Comics published a single issue of a Friday Foster comic book, written by Joe Gill and illustrated by Jack Sparling. In 1975, Friday Foster was adapted into a blaxploitation feature film of the same name, starring Pam Grier. In September 2019, the Friday Foster character appeared in a Dick Tracy story drawn by Andrew Pepoy. Friday Foster
Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in farm country outside the town of Claremore, Indian Territory, in 1906, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns his flirtatious fiancée, Ado Annie; the original Broadway production opened on March 31, 1943. It was a box-office smash and ran for an unprecedented 2,212 performances enjoying award-winning revivals, national tours, foreign productions and an Oscar-winning 1955 film adaptation, it has long been a popular choice for community productions. Rodgers and Hammerstein won a special Pulitzer Prize for Oklahoma! in 1944. This musical, building on the innovations of the earlier Show Boat, epitomized the development of the "book musical", a musical play where the songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals that are able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter.
In addition, Oklahoma! Features motifs, that recur throughout the work to connect the music and story. A fifteen-minute "dream ballet" reflects Laurey's struggle with her feelings about two men and Jud. By the early 1940s, Rodgers and Hammerstein were each well known for creating Broadway hits with other collaborators. Rodgers, with Lorenz Hart, had produced over two dozen musicals since the 1920s, including such popular successes as Babes in Arms, The Boys from Syracuse and Pal Joey. Among other successes, Hammerstein had written the words for Rose-Marie, The Desert Song, The New Moon and Show Boat. Though less productive in the 1930s, he wrote musicals and films, sharing an Academy Award for his song with Jerome Kern, "The Last Time I Saw Paris", included in the 1941 film Lady Be Good. By the early 1940s, Hart had sunk into alcoholism and emotional turmoil, he became unreliable, prompting Rodgers to approach Hammerstein to ask if he would consider working with him. In 1931, the Theatre Guild produced Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, a play about settlers in Oklahoma's Indian Territory.
Though the play was not successful, ten years in 1941, Theresa Helburn, one of the Guild's producers, saw a summer-stock production supplemented with traditional folk songs and square dances and decided the play could be the basis of a musical that might revive the struggling Guild. She contacted Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, whose first successful collaboration, The Garrick Gaieties, had been produced by the Theatre Guild in 1925. Rodgers obtained the rights for himself and Hart. Rodgers had asked Oscar Hammerstein II to collaborate with Hart. During the tryouts of Rodgers and Hart's By Jupiter in 1941, Hammerstein had assured Rodgers that if Hart was unable to work, he would be willing to take his place. Coincidentally in 1942, Hammerstein had thought of musicalizing Green Grow the Lilacs, but when he had approached Jerome Kern about it, the latter declined. Hammerstein learned that Rodgers was seeking someone to write the book, he eagerly took the opportunity. Hart lost interest in the musical.
Moreover, spiraling downward, consumed by his longstanding alcoholism, Hart no longer felt like writing. He embarked on a vacation to Mexico, advising Rodgers that Hammerstein would be a good choice of a new collaborator; this partnership allowed both Rodgers and Hammerstein to follow their preferred writing methods: Hammerstein preferred to write a complete lyric before it was set to music, Rodgers preferred to set completed lyrics to music. In Rodgers' previous collaborations with Hart, Rodgers had always written the music first, since the unfocused Hart needed something on which to base his lyrics. Hammerstein's previous collaborators included composers Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Vincent Youmans, Kern, who all wrote music first, for which Hammerstein wrote lyrics; the role reversal in the Rodgers and Hammerstein partnership permitted Hammerstein to craft the lyrics into a fundamental part of the story so that the songs could amplify and intensify the story instead of diverting it. As Rodgers and Hammerstein began developing the new musical, they agreed that their musical and dramatic choices would be dictated by the source material, Green Grow the Lilacs, not by musical comedy conventions.
Musicals of that era featured big production numbers, novelty acts, show-stopping specialty dances. Between the world wars, roles in musicals were filled by actors who could sing, but Rodgers and Hammerstein chose, conversely, to cast singers who could act. Though Theresa Helburn, codirector of the Theatre Guild, suggested Shirley Temple as Laurey and Groucho Marx as Ali Hakim and Hammerstein, with director Rouben Mamoulian's support, insisted that performers more appropriate for the roles be cast; as a result, there were no stars in another unusual step. The production was choreographed by Agnes de Mille, who provided one of the show's most notable and enduring features: a 15-minute first-act ballet finale depicting Laurey's struggle to evaluate her suitors and Curly; the first title give
Hernando Beach is a census-designated place in Hernando County, United States. The population was 2,299 at the 2010 census. Hernando Beach was mentioned in Season 2, Episode 4 of the Starz series "Magic City"; the community is along the Gulf of Mexico. Shoal Line Boulevard forms the eastern edge of the CDP, the community extends from Osowaw Boulevard in the south to Minnow Creek in the north; the southern end of the CDP is 1.5 miles west of U. S. Route 19 at Timber Pines. S. Route 19 at Weeki Wachee Springs. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Hernando Beach CDP has a total area of 4.1 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles are land and 0.54 square miles, or 13.38%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,185 people, 975 households, 727 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 558.1 people per square mile. There were 1,182 housing units at an average density of 301.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.71% White, 0.23% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.56% of the population. There were 975 households out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.9% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.4% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.52. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 13.6% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 38.8% from 45 to 64, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $47,014, the median income for a family was $49,605. Males had a median income of $47,093 versus $21,630 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $25,856. About 4.2% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
The Hernando County Sheriff's Office is in charge of law enforcement in Hernando Beach. Their Marine Unit Station headquarters is on Shoal Line Boulevard in Hernando Beach. There is the Crime Watch in Hernando Beach, supervised by the County Sheriff's office; the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary has their Hernando County Unit, Division 15, Flotilla 8, on Shoal Line as well. Flotilla 8 is in charge of all auxiliary maritime functions for Hernando County, as well as public outreach. Jenkins Creek Park