National Building Museum
The National Building Museum is located at 401 F Street NW in Washington, D. C. United States, it is a museum of "architecture, engineering and urban planning". It was created by an act of Congress in 1980, is a private non-profit institution; the museum hosts various temporary exhibits in galleries around the spacious Great Hall. The building, completed in 1887, served as the Pension Building, housing the United States Pension Bureau, hosted several presidential inaugural balls, it is an important early large-scale example of Renaissance Revival architecture, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985. The National Building Museum is housed in the former Pension Bureau building, a brick structure completed in 1887 and designed by Montgomery C. Meigs, the U. S. Army quartermaster general, it is notable for several architectural features, including the spectacular interior columns and a frieze, sculpted by Caspar Buberl, stretching around the exterior of the building and depicting Civil War soldiers in scenes somewhat reminiscent of those on Trajan's Column as well as the Horsemen Frieze of the Parthenon.
The vast interior, measuring 316 × 116 feet, has been used to hold inauguration balls. After the Civil War, the United States Congress passed legislation that extended the scope of pension coverage for veterans and their survivors and dependents, notably their widows and orphans; the number of staff needed to implement and administer the new benefits system ballooned to over 1,500, required a new building from which to run it all. Meigs was chosen to construct the new building, he departed from the established Greco-Roman models, the basis of government buildings in Washington, D. C. until and which continued after the Pension Building's completion. Meigs based his design on Italian Renaissance precedents, notably Rome's Palazzo Farnese and the Palazzo della Cancelleria. Included in his design was a frieze sculpted by Caspar Buberl; because a sculpture of that size was well out of Meigs's budget, he had Buberl create 28 different scenes, totaling 69 feet in length, which were mixed and modified to create the continuous 1,200-foot parade of over 1,300 figures.
Because of the 28 sections' modification and mixture, it is only in careful examination that the frieze is seen to be the same figures repeated several times. The sculpture includes infantry, artillery and medical components, as well as a good deal of the supply and quartermaster functions, for it was in that capacity that Meigs had served during the Civil War. Meigs's correspondence with Buberl reveals that Meigs insisted that a black teamster, who "must be a negro, a plantation slave, freed by war", be included in the quartermaster panel; this figure was to assume a central position, over the building's west entrance. Built before modern artificial ventilation, the building was designed to maximize air circulation: all offices not only had exterior windows, but opened onto the court, designed to admit cool air at ground level and exhaust hot air at the roof. Made of brick and tile, the stairs were designed for the limitations of disabled and aging veterans, having a gradual ascent with low steps.
In addition, each step slanted from back to front to allow easy drainage: a flight could be washed by pouring water from the top. When Philip Sheridan was asked to comment on the building, his biting reply echoed the negative sentiment of much of the Washington establishment of the day: "Too bad the damn thing is fireproof." A similar quote is attributed to William Tecumseh Sherman casting doubt on the truth of the Sheridan tale. The completed building, sometimes called "Meigs Old Red Barn", required more than 15 million bricks, according to the wit of the day, were each counted by the parsimonious Meigs; the building was used for federal government offices until the 1960s when it had fallen into a state of disrepair and was considered for demolition. After pressure from conservationists, the government commissioned a report by architect Chloethiel Woodard Smith of possible other uses for the building, her 1967 report suggested a museum dedicated to the building arts. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.
In 1980, Congress created the National Building Museum as a non-profit institution. The building itself was formally renamed the National Building Museum in 1997; every year, the annual Christmas in Washington program was filmed at the museum, with the President and First Lady until the show's cancellation in 2015. The National Building Museum Shop was honored in 2007 as the "Best Museum Store" in the country by Niche magazine, "Best All-Around Museum Shop" in the region by The Washington Post, a "Top Shop" by the Washingtonian, named best museum shop in D. C. by National Geographic Traveler's blog, Intelligent Travel, in July 2009. In 2010, The Huffington Post included the National Building Museum in a story, "Museums with Amazing Gift Shops"; the Museum Shop sells books about the built environment and an array of housewares, educational toys and items for an office, all with an emphasis on design. On June 7, 2008, Hillary Clinton suspended her campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination with a farewell rally inside the museum.
Several of Clinton's most recognized quotes and sayings were first spoken on this date to several hundreds of supporters, including "If we can blast fifty women into space, we will someday launch a woman into the White House." The National Building Museum presen
J. Edgar Hoover Building
The J. Edgar Hoover Building is a low-rise office building located at 935 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. in the United States. It is the headquarters of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Planning for the building began in 1962, a site was formally selected in January 1963. Design work, focusing on avoiding the typical blocky, monolithic structure typical of most federal architecture at the time, began in 1963 and was complete by 1964. Land clearance and excavation of the foundation began in March 1965. Work on the superstructure began in May 1971; these delays meant. Construction finished in September 1975, President Gerald Ford dedicated the structure on September 30, 1975; the building is named for former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. President Richard Nixon directed federal agencies to refer to the structure as the J. Edgar Hoover FBI Building on May 4, 1972, but the order did not have the force of law; the U. S. Congress enacted legislation formally naming the structure on October 14, 1972, President Nixon signed it on October 21.
The J. Edgar Hoover Building has 2,800,876 square feet of internal space, numerous amenities, a special, secure system of elevators and corridors to keep public tours separate from the rest of the building; the building has three floors below-ground, an underground parking garage. The structure is eight stories high on the Pennsylvania Avenue NW side, 11 stories high on the E Street NW side. Two wings connect the two main buildings, forming an trapezoidal courtyard; the exterior is buff-colored precast and cast-in-place concrete with repetitive, bronze-tinted windows set deep in concrete frames. Critical reaction to the J. Edgar Hoover Building ranged from strong praise to strong disapproval when it opened. More it has been condemned on aesthetic and urban planning grounds. By 2012, the J. Edgar Hoover Building was nearing the end of its useful lifespan, suffering from deterioration due to deferred maintenance and mediocre design; the FBI, General Services Administration, Government Accountability Office agreed that the building was no longer appropriate for the FBI, but the cost of building a new headquarters led to inaction for several years.
Plans were made to relocate the FBI's headquarters elsewhere, but those plans were abandoned in 2017 due to a lack of funding for a new headquarters building. Since 1935, as an element of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI had been headquartered in the Department of Justice Building. In March 1962, the Kennedy administration proposed spending $60 million to construct a headquarters for the FBI on the north side of Pennsylvania Avenue NW opposite the Justice Department; the administration argued that the FBI, which had offices in the Justice Department building as well as 16 other sites in the capital, was too dispersed to function effectively. Prospects for the new building seemed good. A House committee approved the budget request on April 11, a Senate committee approved it a day later, but the United States House of Representatives deleted the funds when the budget reached the House floor. A budget conference committee voted in September to restore enough funds for site selection and preliminary design.
The site selection process for the new FBI headquarters was driven by factors unrelated to organizational efficiency. By 1960, Pennsylvania Avenue was marked by deteriorating homes and office buildings on the north side and the monumental Neoclassical federal office buildings of Federal Triangle on the south side. Kennedy noticed the dilapidated condition of the street when his inaugural procession traversed Pennsylvania Avenue in January 1961. At a cabinet meeting on August 4, 1961, Kennedy established the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space to recommend new structures to accommodate the growing federal government. Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan was assigned to help staff the committee. In the Ad Hoc Committee's final report, Moynihan proposed that Pennsylvania Avenue be redeveloped using the powers of the federal government; the report suggested razing every block north of Pennsylvania Avenue from the United States Capitol to 15th Street NW, building a mixture of cultural buildings, government buildings, office buildings and retail on these blocks.
Kennedy approved the report on June 1, 1962, established an informal "President's Council on Pennsylvania Avenue" to draw up a plan to redevelop Pennsylvania Avenue. The site selected by GSA on January 3, 1963, for the new FBI headquarters were two city blocks bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue NW, 9th Street NW, E Street NW, 10th Street NW. GSA administrator Bernard Boutin said the site was selected after informal consultation with the President's Council on Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Capital Planning Commission. Boutin said construction of the new FBI building would help revitalize the Pennsylvania Avenue area as suggested by both the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space and the President's Council on Pennsylvania Avenue. Boutin emphasized that the design of the new structure would be in harmony with other buildings planned by the President's Council on Pennsylvania Avenue, would necessitate the closing of a short section of D Street NW between 9th and 10th Streets NW. More th
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
The Petersen House is a 19th-century federal style row house located at 516 10th Street NW in Washington, D. C. On April 15, 1865, United States President Abraham Lincoln died there after being shot the previous evening at Ford's Theatre, located across the street; the house was built in 1849 by a German tailor. Future Vice-President John C. Breckinridge, a friend of the Lincoln family, once rented this house in 1852. In 1865, it served as a boarding house, it has served as a museum since the 1930s. On the night of April 14, 1865, Lincoln and his wife Mary Todd were attending a performance of Our American Cousin when John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Southern sympathizer, entered the box and shot the President in the back of the head. Henry Rathbone and Clara Harris were in the box with the Lincolns, Rathbone suffered serious stab wounds while trying to prevent Booth's escape. Doctors including Charles Leale and Charles Sabin Taft examined Lincoln in the box before having him carried across the street to the Petersen House, where boarder Henry Safford directed them inside.
Physicians continually removed blood clots which formed over the wound and poured out the excess brain fluid and brain matter from where the bullet had entered Lincoln's head in order to relieve pressure on the brain. However, the external and internal hemorrhaging continued throughout the night. During the night and early morning, guards patrolled outside to prevent onlookers from coming inside the house. Lincoln's Cabinet members and various members of Congress were allowed to see the President. Lincoln died in the house on April 15, 1865, at 7:22 a.m. aged 56. Individuals in the room when he died included his son Robert Todd Lincoln, Senator Charles Sumner, generals Henry Wager Halleck, Richard James Oglesby and Montgomery C. Meigs, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. Booth was located in Virginia 11 days and was shot by Union forces, dying two hours later. Since 1933, the National Park Service has maintained it as a historical museum, recreating the scene at the time of Lincoln's death; the bed that Lincoln occupied and other items from the bedroom had been bought by Chicago collector, Charles F. Gunther, are now owned by and on display at the Chicago History Museum.
However, replicas have taken their places. The bloodstained pillow and pillowcases are the ones used by Lincoln. Today, the Petersen House is administered by the National Park Service as part of the Ford's Theatre National Historic Site; the house is open to visitors daily from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Admission is free, but requires a time ticket
Shakespeare Theatre Company
The Shakespeare Theatre Company is a regional theatre company located in Washington, D. C; the theatre company focuses on plays from the Shakespeare canon, but its seasons include works by other classic playwrights such as Euripides, Wilde, Schiller and Tennessee Williams. The company manages and performs in the Harman Center for the Arts, consisting of the Lansburgh Theatre and Sidney Harman Hall. In cooperation with George Washington University, they run the Academy for Classical Acting; the company is a member of the League of Resident Theatres. The Folger Shakespeare Library on Capitol Hill includes a replica of an Elizabethan theatre used for lectures and tours. In 1970 this space was transformed into a functioning playhouse, soon Folger Theatre Group was organized to perform in the space. After years of discussion, Amherst College, administering body of the Folger Shakespeare Library, in 1986 withdrew financial support for the company. To save the company, concerned citizens led by R. Robert Linowes reincorporated it as the non-profit Shakespeare Theatre at the Folger hiring Michael Kahn as artistic director.
The company continued to perform at the Folger for the next six years. Changing its name to The Shakespeare Theatre, the troupe moved in 1992 to the Lansburgh Theatre, a newly built space in the original Lansburgh's Department Store building in the Penn Quarter. At the start of the 2005-6 season, it adopted Shakespeare Theatre Company; the company constructed another theatre, Sidney Harman Hall, which opened in 2007 in the lower part of an office building in the quarter, the two theatres were joined to become the Harman Center for the Arts. Meanwhile, after importing traveling shows from the Shenandoah Shakespeare Express the Folger Shakespeare Library developed a new Folger Theatre company to present plays in its Elizabethan replica; the Shakespeare Theatre Company has two current performance venues. The newer and larger Sidney Harman Hall occupies the lower half of an 11-story office tower; the exterior is distinguished by a glass façade curtain wall on a projected bay window. The 774-seat performance space can be configured as a proscenium, semi-arena, corridor or bare stage.
The smaller Lansburgh Theatre is in the restored former Lansburgh's Department Store flagship store built in 1882. The performance space is 451-seat classic proscenium stage; the seating arrangement is reminiscent of a Greek Amphitheater. It has been described as "an intimate space for dramatic theatre, ensemble music and dance"In the past the company has performed shows at the Terrace Theater in the Kennedy Center. In addition to its performance spaces, the company maintains administrative offices, rehearsal studios, a costume shop in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. A set construction and painting shop is near Catholic University in Northeast D. C. A stage properties shop for the construction and storage of furniture, decorative items, hand props and a variety of set dressing items is located just outside D. C. on the northeast side of the city. The Shakespeare Theatre Company's self professed mission is "...to present classic theatre of scope and size in an imaginative and accessible American style that honors the playwrights’ language and intentions while viewing their work through a 21st-century lens".
Their vision is to "... endeavor to be an important resource to an expanded national and international community—as the nation’s premier destination for classic theatre, as a training ground for the next generation of theatre artists and as a model provider of high-quality educational content for students and scholars." Richmond Crinkley Louis W. Scheeder John Neville-Andrews Michael Kahn Simon Godwin Resident theatre company pioneer Zelda Fichandler has stated that for resident theatre companies "repertory is destiny" - a theatre company acquires its audience by the productions it presents. Most of The Shakespeare Theatre Company's productions are from The Bard's canon; however each year up to half of the productions are classical works by other authors. The oldest has been the oldest surviving play in the history of theatre; the youngest plays include works by Harold Pinter. The company has produced modern interpretations of classical texts such as Mary Zimmerman's Argonautika. 2017-2018 Season Fully staged productionsThe Lover and The Collection, by Harold Pinter Twelfth Night, by William Shakespeare Hamlet, by William Shakespeare Noura, by Heather Raffo Camelot and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick LoeweShakespeare Theatre Company Presentation:Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett and presented by Druid2016-2017 Season Fully staged productions:Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare The Secret Garden, by Marsha Norman and Lucy Simon and based on the novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett Charles III, by Mike Bartlett Macbeth, by William Shakespeare The School for Lies, adapted by David Ives and based on a play by MolièreShakespeare Theatre Company Presentation:The Select, based on a novel by Ernest Hemingway and presented by Elevator Repair Service, In addition to its troupe of regular and appearing actors, The Shakespeare Theatre Company invites guest performers and directors each season.
Jane Alexander - Ghosts Elizabeth Ashley - Mrs. Warren's Profession (Mrs Wa
Metrobus (Washington, D.C.)
Metrobus is a bus service operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Its fleet consists of 1,595 buses covering an area of 1,500 square miles in Washington, D. C. Maryland and Virginia. There are 269 bus routes serving 11,129 stops, including 2,554 bus shelters. In 2016, Metrobus provided 123.6 million trips. On a typical weekday in June 2017, it provided more than 390,000 trips; as of June 25, 2017, the Metrobus fare structure is as follows: Local bus within the District of Columbia, Central Maryland and Northern Virginia,: $2 Express bus: $4.25 Express Airport buses 5A and B30: $7.50Discounts are available for senior citizens, people with disabilities and DC students. Up to two children, per paying adult, under 5 years of age ride for free. Children at least 5 years of age pay adult fare. Express routes: 11Y, 17B, 17G, 17H, 17K, 17L, 17M, 18G, 18H, 18P and 29W. All Metrobuses have SmarTrip card readers which automatically deduct the correct fare from a rider's SmarTrip card.
SmarTrip cards are sold in Metrorail stations, Metro Sales Office at Metro Center Station, regional commuter stores. Metrobus issued paper transfers which gave the rider free transfers to any regular bus for two hours. Effective January 4, 2009, bus and rail riders must use a SmarTrip card to receive the automatic rail-to-bus transfer credit. If a bus rider pays with cash, they must pay full fare again. Bus-to-bus free transfer time for regular buses was increased to three hours on this date. Transfer is allowed to other Metrobus routes or routes of other regional operators, but Express routes have different requirements. On June 27, 2010, the transfer window was reduced from 3 hours to 2 hours. NOTES: On July 4, 2018, WMATA awarded a 5-year contract to New Flyer for up to 694 buses, order consist of forty-foot CNG, forty-foot clean diesel, sixty-foot CNG, sixty-foot diesel heavy-duty transit buses; these new buses will replace Metro's older Orion V buses, which were delivered in 2000, Metro's older Orion VII CNG buses, which were delivered in 2005–2006.
Red/Silver painted buses will be used on local routes and Blue/Silver buses will be used on limited stop routes. These buses will have either "Local" or "MetroExtra" on the top of each side of the bus for easy identification; the numbering represents its region of operation. To differ the regions numbering system, most Maryland letters is "prefix" to the route number and Virginia letters is "suffix" to the "number" of the route. An example is: F12, 16C, 36, A2 or C4, Information can be found here. WMATA is adding a total of 533 hybrid buses to replace its diesel bus fleet; each new "New Flyer Xcelsior XDE40" bus costs $571,737 and is expected to break down less as well as offer greater fuel economy. With the latest purchase of 152 hybrid buses for $89.3 million from New Flyer of America, WMATA's Metrobus fleet will consist of 297 diesel buses, 800 hybrid buses and 458 natural gas fueled buses. Note: In 2015, the rest of the NABI BRT order was converted to the New Flyer Xcelsior order, due to New Flyer discontinuing production of its NABI-branded buses.
These buses were served by WMATA at one point but were replaced by newer and more efficient buses after serving at least 8 years. Some buses were preserved and some were acquired by museums while the rest of the fleets were scrapped. In 1973, WMATA bought Alexandria and Washington Transit Company and Washington Marlboro and Annapolis Transit Company and created the Metrobus system. All buses from the two companies consists of the GMC Fishbowl buses. DC Transit is one of the other transit agencies, which operates on the DC area; the DC Transit bus fleet consists of both GMC Old Looks and GMC Fishbowl buses. WMATA began to take control on all of the DC Transit fleet; when all three companies were owned by WMATA, all buses were being repainted to the 1st generation scheme. In 1974, WMATA ordered the 1974 AM General buses, it was the first buses to be painted in the 1st generation scheme. All 1974 AM General buses were placed in service on September 1, 1974. In 1976, WMATA order its first Flxible buses, the Flxible New Looks, similar to the GMC Fishbowl buses.
These buses were placed in service on August 1977. In 1979, WMATA ordered the GMC RTS II, it is the last bus order from GMC. Bus 9112 is preserved at Landover division, having suburban seats. In 1983, WMATA order its first articulated buses, the MAN SG-310, in which it can meet the passenger high demands, to avoid having buses being crowded in D. C. In 1986, WMATA ordered the Flxible Metro A buses; these received a much more advanced upgrade from WMATA's 1978 Flxible New Looks buses, as they were much wider and longer in length, had more upgraded interior since these WMATA buses received newer/bigger blue seats with a plastic blue cushion on the bottom and back of all passenger seats. Additionally, the aisles of these particular WMATA buses, was expanded so passengers could move around the bus much more and comfortably; the Flxible Metro A featured a more advanced air conditioning and heating system as well. The back of these buses had a uniquely shaped black colored trapezoid shape on top a white bottom square area.
Instead of the thin, straight facing oval shaped headlights and taillights which WMATA's 1978 Flxible New Looks and several of WMATA's previous models before those buses had, these buses featured straight, vertically facing rectangular front lights and taillights. The 1986–87 Flxible Metro A was first buses
Mary Elizabeth Jenkins Surratt was an American boarding house owner, convicted of taking part in the conspiracy to assassinate U. S. President Abraham Lincoln. Sentenced to death, she became the first woman executed by the US federal government, she maintained her innocence until her death, the case against her was and is controversial. Surratt was the mother of John H. Surratt, Jr., tried but was not convicted of involvement in the assassination. Born in the 1820s, Surratt converted to Catholicism at a young age and remained a practicing Catholic for the rest of her life, she had three children by him. An entrepreneur, John became the owner of a tavern, an inn, a hotel; the Surratts were sympathetic to the Confederate States of America and hosted fellow Confederate sympathizers at their tavern. Upon her husband's death in 1862, Surratt had to manage his estate. Tired of doing so without help, Surratt moved to her townhouse in Washington, D. C. which she ran as a boardinghouse. There, she was introduced to John Wilkes Booth.
Booth visited the boardinghouse numerous times, as did George Atzerodt and Lewis Powell, Booth's co-conspirators in the Lincoln assassination. Shortly before leaving Washington to kill Lincoln, Booth spoke with Surratt and handed her a package containing binoculars for one of her tenants, John M. Lloyd. After Lincoln was murdered, Surratt was arrested and put on military tribunal trial the following month, along with the other conspirators, she was convicted due to the testimonies of Lloyd, who said that she told him to have the "shooting irons" ready, Louis J. Weichmann, who testified about Surratt's relationships with Confederate groups and sympathizers. Five of the nine judges at her trial asked that Surratt be granted clemency by President Andrew Johnson because of her age and sex. Johnson did not grant her clemency, though accounts differ as to whether or not he received the clemency request. Surratt was hanged on July 7, 1865 and buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery, she has since been portrayed in film and television.
Mary Elizabeth Jenkins was born to Archibald and Elizabeth Anne Jenkins on a tobacco plantation near the southern Maryland town of Waterloo. Sources differ as to whether she was born in 1820 or 1823. There is uncertainty as to the month as well, she had two brothers: John Jenkins, born in 1822, James Jenkins, born in 1825. Her father died in the fall of 1825 when Mary was either two or five years old, Mary's mother inherited their property. Although her father was a non-denominational Protestant and her mother Episcopalian, Surratt was enrolled in a private Roman Catholic girls' boarding school, the Academy for Young Ladies in Alexandria, Virginia, on November 25, 1835. Mary's maternal aunt, Sarah Latham Webster, was a Catholic, which may have influenced where she was sent to school. Within two years, Mary converted to Roman Catholicism and adopted the baptismal name of Maria Eugenia, she stayed at the Academy for Young Ladies for four years, when the school closed. She remained an observant Catholic for the rest of her life.
Mary Jenkins met John Harrison Surratt in 1839, when she was 16 or 19 and he was 26. His family had settled in Maryland in the late 1600s. An orphan, he was adopted by Richard and Sarah Neale of Washington, D. C. a wealthy couple who owned a farm. The Neales divided their farm among their children, Surratt inherited a portion of it, his background has been described by historian Kate Clifford Larson as "questionable", he had fathered at least one child out of wedlock. They wed in August 1840. John converted to Roman Catholicism prior to the marriage, the couple may have wed at a Catholic church in Washington, D. C. John purchased a mill in Oxon Hill and the couple moved there; the Surratts had three children over the next few years: Isaac, Elizabeth Susanna, John, Jr.. In 1843, John Surratt purchased from his adoptive father 236 acres of land straddling the DC/Maryland border, a parcel named "Foxhall". Richard Neale died in September 1843, a month John purchased 119 acres of land adjoining Foxhall.
John and Mary Surratt and their children moved back to John's childhood home in the District of Columbia in 1845 to help John's mother run the Neale farm. But Sarah Neale fell ill and died in August 1845, having shortly before her death deeded the remainder of the Neale farm to John. Mary Surratt became involved in raising funds to build St. Ignatius Church in Oxon Hill, but John was unhappy with his wife's religious activities, his behavior deteriorated over the next few years. John drank often failed to pay his debts, his temper was volatile and violent. In 1851, the Neale farmhouse burned to the ground. John found work on the Alexandria Railroad. Mary moved with her children into the home of Thomas Jenkins, in nearby Clinton. Within a year, John purchased 200 acres of farmland near what is now Clinton, by 1853, he constructed a tavern and an inn there. Mary refused to move herself and the children into the new residence, she took up residence on the old Neale farm, but John sold both the Neale farm and Foxhall in May 1853 to pay debts and she was forced to move back in with him in December.
With the money he earned from the tavern and sale