A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Continental Divide of the Americas
The Continental Divide is the principal, mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas. The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean and, along the northernmost reaches of the Divide, those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean. Though there are a few other hydrological divides in the Americas, the Continental Divide is by far the most prominent of these because it tends to follow a line of high peaks along the main ranges of the Rocky Mountains and Andes, at a much higher elevation than the other hydrological divisions; the Continental Divide begins at Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas. The Divide crosses northern Alaska into the Yukon zig-zags south into British Columbia via the Cassiar Mountains and Omineca Mountains and northern Nechako Plateau to Summit Lake, north of the city of Prince George and just south of the community of McLeod Lake.
From there the Divide traverses the McGregor Plateau to the spine of the Rockies, following the crest of the Canadian Rockies southeast to the 120th meridian west, from there forming the boundary between southern British Columbia and southern Alberta. The Divide crosses into the United States in northwestern Montana, at the boundary between Waterton Lakes National Park and Glacier National Park. In Canada, it forms the western boundary of Waterton Lakes National Park, in the US bisects Glacier National Park. Further south, the Divide forms the backbone of the Rocky Mountain Front in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, heads south towards Helena and Butte west past the namesake community of Divide, through the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness to the Bitterroot Range, where it forms the eastern third of the state boundary between Idaho and Montana; the Divide crosses into Wyoming within Yellowstone National Park and continues southeast into Colorado where it reaches its highest point in North America at the summit of Grays Peak at 4,352 m.
It crosses US Hwy 160 in southwestern Colorado at Wolf Creek Pass, where a line symbolizes the division. The Divide proceeds south into western New Mexico, passing along the western boundary of the endorheic Plains of San Agustin. Although the Divide represents the height of land between watersheds, it does not always follow the highest ranges/peaks within each state or province. In Mexico, it passes through Chihuahua, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Querétaro, México, the Federal District, Puebla and Chiapas. In Central America, it continues through southern Guatemala, southwestern Honduras, western Nicaragua, western/southwestern Costa Rica, southern Panama; the divide reaches its lowest natural point in Central America at the Isthmus of Rivas at 47 m in Nicaragua. In Panama, the Canal cuts through it at 85 ft; the Divide continues into South America, where it follows the peaks of the Andes Mountains, traversing western Colombia, central Ecuador and southwestern Peru, eastern Chile, southward to the southern end of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.
In North America, another non-mountainous divide, the Laurentian Divide, further separates the Hudson Bay-Arctic Ocean drainage region from the Atlantic watershed region. Secondary divides separate the watersheds that flow into the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River from watersheds that flow to the Atlantic via the Missouri-Mississippi complex. Another secondary divide follows the Appalachian chain, which separates those streams and rivers that flow directly into the Atlantic Ocean from those that exit via the Mississippi River. Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park, Montana, is the point where two of the principal continental divides in North America converge, the primary Continental Divide and the Northern or Laurentian Divide. From this point, waters flow to the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico, the Arctic Ocean via Hudson Bay. Most geographers, geologists and oceanographers consider this point the hydrological apex of North America, as Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic.
For example, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north as being part of the Arctic Ocean "Arctic Ocean Subdivision 9.11." This hydrological apex of North America status of Triple Divide Peak is the main reason behind the designation of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park as the "Crown of the Continent" of North America. The summit of the peak is the world's only oceanic triple divide point. Discounting Antarctica and its ice sheets, only one other continent borders three oceans, but the inward-draining Endorheic basin area of Central Asia from western China to the Aral and Caspian Seas is so vast that any Arctic and Indian Ocean tributaries are never within proximity of each other. Thus, North America's status of having a single location draining into three oceans is unique in the world. Sources differ, however, on whether Hudson Bay south of the Arctic Circle, is part of the Atlantic or Arctic Ocean. Hudson Bay's water budget connects to the Atlantic more than to the Arctic Ocean.
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Haakon County, South Dakota
Haakon County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,937, its county seat is Philip. The county was created in 1914 and organized in 1915, was formed from the original counties of Nowlin and most of Sterling, absorbed by Stanley County, it is named for Haakon VII, who became king of Norway in 1905. It is the only county in South Dakota named for a non-American person and is one of only nine counties in South Dakota named for persons who did not live in South Dakota. Most of South Dakota's counties are named for early South Dakota officials or legislators, or for physical features, or are derived from Indian words, or from counties in other states, with one named for a Roman goddess, one for an animal, one for a concept; the terrain of Haakon County consists of semi-arid rolling hills, carved with gullies and drainages devoted to agriculture. The Cheyenne River, a tributary of the Missouri River, flows northeastward along the county's north boundary line, the Bad River flows east-northeastward through the lower part of the county, both heading for their discharge points into the Missouri.
The terrain slopes to the northeast, its highest point is near the midpoint of its western boundary line, at 2,802' ASL. Haakon County has a total area of 1,827 square miles, of which 1,811 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; the eastern portion of South Dakota's counties observe Central Time. Haakon County is the easternmost of the SD counties to observe Mountain Time. Billsburg State Game Production Area Cheyenne State Game Production Area Waggoner Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,196 people, 870 households, 620 families in the county; the population density was 1.21 person per square mile. There were 1,002 housing units at an average density of 0.55 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.40% White, 2.50% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 1.00% from two or more races. 0.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 870 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.60% were married couples living together, 4.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families.
26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.70% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,894, the median income for a family was $35,958. Males had a median income of $25,098 versus $18,913 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,780. About 12.00% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.70% of those under age 18 and 16.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,937 people, 850 households, 540 families in the county; the population density was 1.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,013 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.7% white, 1.9% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.2% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 45.4% were German, 19.4% were Irish, 17.6% were Norwegian, 8.6% were English, 6.2% were Czech, 5.1% were Dutch, 1.2% were American. Of the 850 households, 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families, 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 48.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,281 and the median income for a family was $60,000. Males had a median income of $37,679 versus $22,277 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $25,877. About 13.2% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over. In 2007, the average price for housing was: Single family home: $143,052 Town homes and other attached homes: $116,019 Twin homes: $176,744 Mobile homes: $51,477 Philip Midland East Haakon West Haakon The Haakon County voters are reliably Republican. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Haakon County, South Dakota
Black Elk Peak
Black Elk Peak is the highest natural point in South Dakota, United States. It lies in the Black Elk Wilderness area, in southern Pennington County, in the Black Hills National Forest; the peak lies 3.7 mi west-southwest of Mount Rushmore. At 7,242 feet, it has been described by the Board on Geographical Names as the highest summit in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Although part of the North American Cordillera the Chisos Mountains of the Big Bend of Texas are far east of the continental divide and contain mountains higher than Black Elk peak and range from 14 to 16 miles further east at 103°15′29″W, it is known as Hiŋháŋ Káǧa. The U. S. Board on Geographic Names, which has jurisdiction in federal lands changed the mountain's name from "Harney Peak" to "Black Elk Peak" on August 11, 2016, honoring Black Elk, the noted Lakota Sioux medicine man for whom the Wilderness Area is named. Professional but unofficial measurements in 2016 found the highest natural rock to be at 7,231.32 feet NAVD88 and the nearby secondary peak lower at 7,229.41 feet.
This peak was called Hiŋháŋ Káǧa, or, "Owl maker," after rock formations that look like owls. They occupied the territory at the time of European colonization, they considered it a sacred site within the Black Hills, which they call Ȟé Sápa. The mountain was named Harney Peak in 1855 by American Lieutenant Gouverneur K. Warren in honor of US General William S. Harney, his commander in a regional military expedition. In punitive retaliation for other Sioux raids, in September 1855 Harney's forces killed Brulé Sioux warriors and children in what Americans called the Battle of Blue Water Creek in Garden County, Nebraska. Harney commanded the United States military in the Black Hills area in the late 1870s; the Lakota had tried to get the name of the peak changed for 50 years, as Harney had massacred their people. In 2014 the Sioux renewed their effort to get the name changed, in an effort led by Basil Brave Heart of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. A Korean War veteran, he felt; some Lakota requested state officials in 2015 to reinstate their original name Hinhan Kaga for the peak.
The Lakota Council of the Pine Ridge Reservation and descendants of Black Elk, a noted medicine man, supported naming it for him, as the national wilderness area around the peak is named for the shaman. He became known beyond the Lakota in part through the book Black Elk Speaks, written by John G. Neihardt from long talks with the shaman. South Dakota Governor Dennis Daugaard opposed the name change, as did other state officials, no action was taken in 2015; the U. S. Board on Geographic Names changed the mountain's name from "Harney Peak" to "Black Elk Peak" on August 11, 2016, by a unanimous vote of 12–0, with one abstention. On August 18, 2016, Gov. Daugaard announced. Hinhan Kaga and the Black Hills were protected within the Great Sioux Reservation established by the United States government in the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. American settlement was concentrated east of the river; the first Americans believed to have reached the summit were a party led by General George Armstrong Custer in 1874, during the Black Hills expedition.
He was looking for gold. The federal government took back the Black Hills and another strip of land in a new treaty in 1877. More than a decade it broke up the Great Sioux Reservation in 1889 into five smaller reservations, the same year that North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted as states to the Union; the government made some 9 million acres of former Lakota land available for purchase for ranching and homesteading. Most American settlement in West River did not start until the early 20th century; the area attracted many European immigrants as well as migrants from the East. Black Elk Peak is the site, he became a medicine man known for his wisdom. Late in life, he returned to the peak accompanied by writer John Neihardt. Black Elk was sharing much of his life and philosophy with Neihardt through long talks translated by his son. Neihardt tried to express the medicine man's wisdom in his book Black Elk Speaks. Neihardt recorded Black Elk's words about his vision as follows: "I was standing on the highest mountain of them all, round about beneath me was the whole hoop of the world," he is quoted as saying.
"And while I stood there I saw more than I understood more than I saw. American settlers used Black Elk Peak as a fire lookout tower in 1911, with a wood crate placed at the summit for a seat. In 1920, a 12'x12' wood structure was built, it was expanded to 16'x16' the following year; the federal Civilian Conservation Corps enlisted local men and completed construction of a stone fire tower in 1938, one of numerous projects in the state during the Great Depression. The Harney Peak fire tower was last staffed in 1967. A United States post office was operated at Black Elk Peak from 1936 until 1942, again from 1945 until 1946; the Harney Peak post office was one of the "most elevated post offices in the United States". In May 2015 the South Dakota Board of Geographic Names recommended renaming Harney Peak a
U.S. Route 16
U. S. Route 16 is an east–west United States Highway between Rapid City, South Dakota and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is at a junction with Interstate 90/U. S. Route 14, concurrent with I-190, in Rapid City, South Dakota; the western terminus is the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, concurrent with US 14 and US 20. US 16 in Wyoming crosses through the towns of Newcastle and Upton before joining I-90 near Moorcroft, it runs concurrently with I-90 to Gillette, where it splits off north and arcs back down to the town of Buffalo. From Buffalo it goes over the Powder River Pass on its way to Worland. In Worland, it overlaps US 20 through the towns of Basin and Greybull. In Greybull, the two routes combine with US 14 and go west to Cody and into Yellowstone National Park. For most of the way it is a two-lane road. US 16 is known as Mount Rushmore Road in western South Dakota; the highway enters South Dakota east of Wyoming. It travels near the third-longest cave in the world.
The highway goes through the city of Custer and shares alignment with US 385. East of Hill City, US 16 splits off US 385, it becomes a four-lane divided highway, with the two roadways separated by up to a half-mile in some places, including the old gold-mining town of Rockerville, South Dakota, contained between the two roadways. In Rapid City, a truck bypass runs along Catron Boulevard and Elk Vale Road up to Exit 61 on I-90; the South Dakota section of US 16 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-138. US 16 connected Detroit with Yellowstone, including a ferry link across Lake Michigan between Muskegon and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In Michigan, the route was in use long before automobiles and was known to white settlers as the Grand River Road, prior to the designation of US Routes in 1926, had been designated as M-16 in the 1920s from Detroit to south of Muskegon. In 1938, reflectorized discs were placed on US-16 every 100 feet from Detroit to Lansing, resulting in fewer nighttime traffic accidents.
Other states would do the same on their roads. US 16 crossed the South Dakota – Wyoming state line west of Spearfish. U. S. Route 216 was commissioned in 1930 as a loop off US 16 to the south between Rapid City and Moorcroft, crossing the state line west of Custer. In 1934, US 16 was moved to the US 216 alignment, while the former US 16 became part of an extension of US 14. In Michigan, most of US 16 was superseded by I-96 and a segment of Grand River Avenue in Detroit became M-5. US 16 was decommissioned in Wisconsin and eastern South Dakota to its present termini. Between Rapid City and Dexter, Minnesota, it has been supplanted by I-90. East of there it is now Minnesota State Highway 16 and Wisconsin Highway 16. In South Dakota it was replaced by various state highways and county roads: in West River the old alignment was transferred to county responsibility while in East River it remained a state-maintained highway. An older Alternate US 16 in South Dakota has become South Dakota Highway 240.
In South Dakota, in 2009, the South Dakota Department of Transportation designated US-16/US-385 between Custer and Hill City, which passes by the Crazy Horse Memorial, now being carved in the Black Hills, the Crazy Horse Memorial Highway. This segment of US-385 is a part of the George Hearst Memorial Highway. Mileage resets at the state line crossing. U. S. Route 116 U. S. Route 216 U. S. Route 16A in South Dakota Special routes of U. S. Route 16 Endpoints of US 16 Highways and Gas Stations- US Hwy 16 Page 1937 South Dakota Transportation Map 1930 Minnesota Transportation Map 1937 Wisconsin Transportation Map