Greensburg is a city in and the county seat of Westmoreland County, United States, and a part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The city lies within the Laurel Highlands and the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau, the city is named after Nathanael Greene, a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. The population was 14,892 at the 2010 census, located 30 miles southeast of Pittsburgh, Greensburg is a major business, academic and cultural center in Western Pennsylvania. It is evident as the population doubles during work hours. The city ranks seventh in Pennsylvania in daytime growth, behind Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, King of Prussia, Lancaster and it ranks 16th in the United States for daytime growth among towns with a resident population between 15,000 and 24,999. In 2007, Greensburg was ranked as one of the Best Places to Retire in Pennsylvania by U. S. News & World Report. After the end of the Revolutionary War, an inn was built along a trail that stretched from Philadelphia west over the Appalachian Mountains to Fort Pitt.
A tiny settlement known as Newtown grew around the inn, today the center of Greensburgs Business District at the intersection of Pittsburgh, at Pittsburgh, the wagon trail became Penn Avenue. Newtown became the new county seat in 1785, in 1786, the county built a log courthouse on land purchased from two residents, Christopher Truby and William Jack. The Westmoreland County Courthouse, in its various incarnations, has stood on this site, the area surrounding the courthouse became the original borough of Greensburg, named for American Revolutionary War General Nathanael Greene, and formally incorporated as a borough in 1799. In the early 19th century, Greensburg had very little growth, after 1850, Greensburg became a growing county seat with inns and small businesses. It was a stop and the discovery of large areas of soft coal nearby made it the center of a vigorous mining industry in the late 19th century. Seton Hill College, formerly St. Josephs Academy, became a womens institution in 1918.
Greensburg became a Third-Class City on January 2,1928, after World War II, more residential areas were developed in various sections of town. Changes in local shopping habits had already taken its toll by the late 1970s when Troutmans Department Store closed, also, in July 2009, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, the largest medical school in the country, opened a satellite campus at Seton Hill University. Now over 200 students study at LECOM at Seton Hill every year, as part of this ongoing transition, an expansion of the Westmoreland Museum of American Art was completed in 2015. The city is home of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Greensburg, Greensburgs first log school house was located at the site of St. Clair Park. St. Clair Park was originally a cemetery, when the borough banned cemeteries, St. Clair cemetery was moved to its current location, just east of town
Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district
Pennsylvanias 9th congressional district has been a relatively safe seat for the Republicans since 1933. In the 2012 general election, he beat his Democratic opponent, nurse Karen Ramsburg, in 2010, he won 73% of the vote, and in 2008 won 64%. Shuster was first elected to the district in 2001, effectively inheriting the seat from his father, Bud Shuster, according to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, in 2010 the 9th was the most Republican district in Pennsylvania, with a score of R +17. The district was created in 1795 from Pennsylvanias At-large congressional district, list of United States congressional districts Pennsylvanias congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called whiskey tax was the first tax imposed on a product by the newly formed federal government. It became law in 1791, and was intended to generate revenue for the war debt incurred during the Revolutionary War. The tax applied to all distilled spirits, but American whiskey was by far the countrys most popular distilled beverage in the 18th century, farmers of the western frontier were accustomed to distilling their surplus rye, wheat, corn, or fermented grain mixtures into whiskey. In these regions, whiskey often served as a medium of exchange, throughout Western Pennsylvania counties, protesters used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794, when a U. S. marshal arrived in western Pennsylvania to serve writs to distillers who had not paid the excise. The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed men attacked the home of tax inspector General John Neville.
Washington responded by sending peace commissioners to western Pennsylvania to negotiate with the rebels, Washington himself rode at the head of an army to suppress the insurgency, with 13,000 militiamen provided by the governors of Virginia, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, about 20 men were arrested, but all were acquitted or pardoned. Most distillers in nearby Kentucky were found to be all but impossible to tax—in the next six years, numerous examples of resistance are recorded in court documents and newspaper accounts. The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new government had the will and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The events contributed to the formation of parties in the United States. The whiskey tax was repealed in the early 1800s during the Jefferson administration, a new U. S. federal government began operating in 1789, following the ratification of the United States Constitution. The previous central government under the Articles of Confederation had been unable to levy taxes, it had borrowed money to meet expenses and fund the Revolution, the state governments had amassed an additional $25 million in debt.
Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton sought to use this debt to create a system that would promote American prosperity. In his Report on Public Credit, he urged Congress to consolidate the state, Congress approved these measures in June and July 1790. A source of government revenue was needed to pay the amount due to the previous bondholders to whom the debt was owed. By December 1790, Hamilton believed that import duties, which were the primary source of revenue, had been raised as high as feasible
The new party controlled the presidency and Congress, as well as most states, from 1801 to 1825, during the First Party System. It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress, and included many politicians who had opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after their ideology Republicanism and they distrusted the Federalist commitment to republicanism. The party splintered in 1824 into the Jacksonian movement and the short-lived National Republican Party, the term Democratic-Republican is used especially by modern political scientists for the first Republican Party. It is known as the Jeffersonian Republicans, historians typically use the title Republican Party. An Anti-Administration faction met secretly in the capital to oppose Hamiltons financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to monarchy and subversive of republicanism, Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a role in 1794–95 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with Britain. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its revolution, while Britain represented the hated monarchy, the party denounced many of Hamiltons measures as unconstitutional, especially the national bank. The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast and it demanded states rights as expressed by the Principles of 1798 articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers, Republicans were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists. The party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election, the Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away, and totally collapsed after 1815. The Republicans dominated the First Party System, despite internal divisions, the party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress.
They included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe, by 1824, the caucus system had practically collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated Congress and most state governments outside New England, by 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center, as the First Party System collapsed. The emergence of the Second Party System in the 1830s realigned the old factions, one remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay formed the National Republicans in 1828, the precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate, some time by 1792 is certain. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis, in most states the congressional elections were recognized, as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it, as a struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest
Pennsylvania's 24th congressional district
Pennsylvanias 24th congressional district was one of Pennsylvanias districts of the United States House of Representatives. This district was created in 1833, the district was eliminated in 1983. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district
It is currently represented by Republican Keith Rothfus. A thoroughly unionized district, the 12th has historically been among the most Democratic areas of the state, the Democrats in this area were not as liberal as their counterparts in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Most of them were somewhat conservative on issues, particularly abortion. The 12th included all of Greene County, a rural region that still has a traditionally Democratic influence due to its labor leanings. In Washington county, the city of Washington, a large and Democratic edge suburb of Pittsburgh is a part of the 12th, most of the Monongahela Valley region, a very Democratic area that was once an important steel-making area, was part of the 12th. However, more rural western Washington County and the northern portion of the county belonged to the 18th. The western portion of Fayette County, including the city of Uniontown, the major population base of the district was located just to the east, taking in most of Somerset and Cambria counties.
This area, the heart of a large coal-mining region, includes the districts largest city, the 12th contained a part of Indiana County, mainly the college town of Indiana. A portion of Armstrong County was included in the district, including several industrial suburbs such as Freeport, a large chunk of the old 20th District was incorporated into the 12th. In some parts of the portion of the district, one side of the street is in the 12th while the other side of the street is in the 18th District. Prior to the 2012 redistricting, the district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index score of R+1, the district is notable as the only congressional district in the nation that voted for Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry in 2004 but went for Republican John McCain in 2008. In the 2006 election, Murtha was re-elected with 61% of the vote and his Republican opponent, Washington County Commissioner Diana Irey, received 39%. John Murtha won the 2008 election with 58% of the vote, Murtha was a United States Marine and the first Vietnam War veteran to serve in Congress.
He defeated Lt. Col. William T. Russell, an army veteran, Pennsylvania governor Ed Rendell scheduled a special election for May 18,2010, following the death of Representative John Murtha. On March 8,2010, the Pennsylvania Democratic Partys Executive Committee nominated Mark Critz, on March 11, a convention of Republicans from the 12th district nominated businessman Tim Burns. The Libertarian Partys candidate was Demo Agoris, who ran for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in the 48th district as a Libertarian in 2006, Mark Critz was re-elected in the regularly scheduled 2010 election, again beating Republican Tim Burns. Mark Critz ran for re-election to a full term in the 2012 election. Critz garnered 48. 5% of the vote to Rothfus 51. 5%, list of United States congressional districts Pennsylvanias congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four US presidents belonged to the party while in office and it emerged in the 1830s as the immediate successor to the National Republican and Anti-Masonic Parties, and was rooted in the tradition of the Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s and it originally formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of the US Congress over the Presidency and favored a program of modernization, banking and it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants, and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal, Party founders chose the Whig name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence.
The underlying political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not directly related to the British Whig party, the Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, another war hero, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey was the Whig Partys last presidential nominee, in 1852. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president, John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrisons death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became president after Taylors death in 1850, was the last Whig president, the party fell apart because of the internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories. Most Whig Party leaders eventually quit politics or changed parties, the northern voter base mostly gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, the Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election.
Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades and played a role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction. The name Whig derived from a term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution and it indicated hostility to the British Sovereign, and despite the identical name, did not directly derive from the British Whig Party. The American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as a man on horseback with a reactionary opposition to the forces of social, economic. Casting their enemy as King Andrew, they sought to identify themselves as opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jeffersons Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements, and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back. In 1831, Henry Clay re-entered the Senate and started planning a new party and he defended national rather than sectional interests.
His Jacksonian opponents, distrusted the government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Wilkinsburg is a borough in Allegheny County, United States adjacent to the city of Pittsburgh. The population was 15,930 at the 2010 census, having lost more than 13,000 in the 70 years since 1940, when 29,853 people were enumerated. The borough was named for John Wilkins, Jr. a United States Army officer who served as Quartermaster General of the United States Army from 1796 to 1802, Wilkinsburg was founded and developed by highly religious European immigrants. The borough has a high concentration of churches, mostly Protestant. Wilkinsburg separated from the city of Pittsburgh in 1871, according to borough leader James Kelly, this was in order to maintain the religious integrity of the community. Wilkinsburg was known during this time by many as The Holy City, in 1899 the Wilkinsburg library was founded as a branch of the Braddock library, which was the first of the Carnegie libraries in the nation. The Wilkinsburg library serves as a place for council members as well as being the home of the local police department.
In 1923, Wilkinsburg-based Russian immigrant Vladimir Zworykin designed and patented the iconoscope, today, ABC affiliate WTAE-TV is located in the borough on Ardmore Boulevard. Although the borough has become depressed in recent years, many efforts are being made to change this. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 2.3 square miles. The population density was 8,335.1 people per square mile, there were 10,696 housing units at an average density of 4,644.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 29. 25% White,66. 51% African American,0. 38% Native American,0. 81% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,0. 55% from other races, and 2. 44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 13% of the population,44. 5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the family size was 2.91. In the borough the population was out, with 23. 4% under the age of 18,7. 7% from 18 to 24,30. 0% from 25 to 44,23. 1% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 78.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.0 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $26,621, and the median income for a family was $33,412. Males had an income of $26,813 versus $26,196 for females
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. The city proper has a population of 304,391. The metropolitan population of 2,353,045 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 26th-largest in the U. S. The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclines, a fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics. For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment, Americas 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out. The area has served as the federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research. The area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University, the region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, sustainable energy, and energy extraction.
Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. The current pronunciation, which is unusual in English speaking countries, is almost certainly a result of a printing error in some copies of the City Charter of March 18,1816. The error was repeated commonly enough throughout the rest of the 19th century that the pronunciation was lost. After a public campaign the original spelling was restored by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1911. The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee, the first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century, Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers, during 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off.
The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalles 1669 claims, the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne, the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddocks Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758, Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named Pittsborough