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Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the first and oldest art museum and art school in the United States; the academy's museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history and art training; the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow. For many years it held its exhibitions in an 1806 building, designed by John Dorsey with pillars of the Ionic order, it stood on the site of the American Theater at Chestnut and 10th streets. The academy opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were displayed; the first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810.

The Academy had to be reconstructed after the fire of 1845. Some 23 years leaders of the academy raised funds to construct a building more worthy of its treasures, they commissioned the current Furness-Hewitt building, constructed from 1871. It opened as part of the 1876 Philadelphia Exposition. In 1876, former Academy student and artist Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, promoted him to director in 1882. Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to. Students in the certificate program learned fundamentals of drawing, painting and printmaking for two years. For the next two years, they had conducted independent study, guided by frequent critiques from faculty and visiting artists. From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions, from which the museum made significant acquisitions. Harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution.

Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is well represented in the collection, it provides a transition between 19th- and 20th- century art movements. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the tenth president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academy's gold medal. Painter John McLure Hamilton, who began his art education at the Academy under Thomas Eakins, in 1921 described the contributions Coates made during his tenure: The reign of Mr. Coates at the Academy marked the period of its greatest prosperity. Rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuart's work acquired; the annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown... Mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns...

In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and Chase... His unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour and the glory of the Academy, it was under Mr. Coates' enlightened direction, fulfilled the expressed wish of Benjamin West, the first honorary Academician, that "Philadelphia may be as much celebrated for her galleries of paintings by the native genius of the country, as she is distinguished by the virtues of her people. During World War I, Academy students were involved in war work. "About sixty percent of the young men enlisted or entered Government service, all of the young women and all the rest of the young men were directly or indirectly engaged in war work." A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, The Academy Fling, was sent to service members.

George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. The 1844 Board of Directors' declaration that women artists "would have exclusive use of the statue gallery for professional purposes" and study time in the museum on Monday and Friday mornings signified a significant advance towards formal training in art for women. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive professional art training in the United States; this period between the mid-19th and early 20th centuries shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists. By 1860 female students were allowed to take anatomy and antique courses, drawing from antique casts. In addition, women enjoyed gallery access. Life classes, the study of the nude body, were available to women in the spring of 1868 with female models; this came after much debate on. It took 24 years before women could take full advantage of all aspects of training at the prestigious institution.

After 1868 women took more active leadership roles and achieved influential

Caladenia christineae

Caladenia christineae known as Christine's spider orchid, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has up to four small, white to cream-coloured flowers, it is distinguished from similar spider orchids by its small, odourless flowers with their stiffly held sepals and petals. Caladenia christineae is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single erect, hairy leaf 6–20 cm long and 4–12 mm wide. Up to four flowers are arranged on each flower 7 -- 10 cm long and 6 -- 8 cm wide; the flowers are creamy-white or creamy-yellow with lateral sepals, petals that are held stiffly, spreading from each other. The labellum is cream has narrow teeth on its margins. There are four or more rows of pale red calli along the centre line of the labellum. Flowering occurs in October. Caladenia christineae was first formally described by Stephen Hopper and Andrew Brown in 2001 from a specimen collected near Rocky Gully; the description was published in Nuytsia.

The specific epithet honours Christine Hopper, the wife of the co-author of this orchid's description. Christine's spider orchid is known from 28 populations between Yornup, Bridgetown and Mt Barker in the Jarrah Forest and Warren biogeographic regions. Caladenia christineae is classified as "vulnerable" by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and as "Threatened Flora" by the Department of Environment and Conservation meaning that it is to become extinct or is rare, or otherwise in need of special protection; the main threats to this species are fire between May and November, salinity, road maintenance and grazing

Lausanne Cathedral

The Cathedral of Notre Dame of Lausanne is a church located in the city of Lausanne, in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It belongs to the Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud. Construction of the Cathedral began as early as 1170 by an original unknown master mason. Twenty years another master mason restarted construction until 1215. A third engineer, Jean Cotereel, completed the majority of the existing cathedral including a porch, two towers, one of, the current day belfry; the other tower was never completed. The cathedral was consecrated and dedicated to Our Lady in 1275 by Pope Gregory X, Rudolph of Habsburg, the bishop of Lausanne at the time, Guillaume of Champvent; the medieval architect Villard de Honnecourt drew the rose window of the south transept in his sketchbook in 1270. The Protestant Reformation, in particular the variant which came from nearby Geneva affected the Cathedral. In 1536 a new liturgical area was added to the nave and the colourful decorations inside the Cathedral were covered over.

Other major restorations occurred in the 18th and 19th century which were directed by the great French architect, Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc. During the 20th century major restorations occurred to restore the painted interior decorations as well as to restore a painted portal on the South side of the Cathedral. New organs were installed in 2003; the great pipe organ of the Cathedral of Notre Dame of Lausanne was inaugurated in December 2003. It is a unique instrument in the world, it took ten years to design it and it is composed of 7000 pipes, two consoles, five manuals, one pedalboard. It is the first organ in the world to be designed by a designer, it is the first organ to contain all four of the principal organ styles. It is the first organ manufactured by an American company for a European Cathedral, it took 150,000 man-hours to build and weighs 40 tons. It was preceded by a Kuhn Organ from 1955 which has since been relocated to the Polish Baltic Philharmonic in Gdańsk, Poland; the organist is Jean-Christophe Geiser.

Guided tours of the great organ are available in English and German by request. The Cathedral has a total of seven bells; the two biggest bells are located on the lower level. The oldest bell dates back to 1493 while the most recent bells date back 1898; the bells are still in use today to mark the hours. Since 1405 until the present day without interruption, the city of Lausanne has maintained a lookout in the Cathedral bell tower; the lookout announces the time by yelling the hour from 365 days a year. The lookout cries the hour to each cardinal direction "« C'est le guet, il a sonné »"; the original purpose of the lookout was to provide a warning in case of fire though it has now become a traditional function. Since 2002, the official lookout is Renato Häusler. List of cathedrals in Switzerland Page on the website of the City of Lausanne