Washington National Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington known as Washington National Cathedral, is an American cathedral of the Episcopal Church. The cathedral is located in Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The structure is of Neo-Gothic design modeled on English Gothic style of the late fourteenth century, it is both the second-largest church building in the United States, the fourth-tallest structure in Washington, D. C; the cathedral is the seat of both the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Michael Bruce Curry, the bishop of the Diocese of Washington, Mariann Edgar Budde. Over 270,000 people visit the structure annually; the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation, under the first seven Bishops of Washington, erected the cathedral under a charter passed by the United States Congress on January 6, 1893. Construction began on September 29, 1907, when the foundation stone was laid in the presence of President Theodore Roosevelt and a crowd of more than 20,000, ended 83 years when the "final finial" was placed in the presence of President George H. W. Bush in 1990.
Decorative work, such as carvings and statuary, is ongoing as of 2011. The Foundation is the legal entity; the cathedral stands at Wisconsin Avenues in the northwest quadrant of Washington. It is an associate member of the organized inter-denominational Washington Theological Consortium, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2007, it was ranked third on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. In 1792, Pierre L'Enfant's "Plan of the Federal City" set aside land for a "great church for national purposes"; the National Portrait Gallery now occupies that site. In 1891, a meeting was held to renew plans for a national cathedral. On January 6, 1893, the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia was granted a charter from Congress to establish the cathedral; the 52nd United States Congress declared in the act to incorporate the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia that the "said corporation is hereby empowered to establish and maintain within the District of Columbia a cathedral and institutions of learning for the promotion of religion and education and charity."
The commanding site on Mount Saint Alban was chosen. Henry Yates Satterlee, first Episcopal bishop of the Diocese of Washington, chose George Frederick Bodley, Britain's leading Anglican church architect, as the head architect. Henry Vaughan was selected supervising architect. Construction started September 29, 1907, with a ceremonial address by President Theodore Roosevelt and the laying of the cornerstone. In 1912, Bethlehem Chapel opened for services in the unfinished cathedral, which have continued daily since; when construction of the cathedral resumed after a brief hiatus for World War I, both Bodley and Vaughan had died. Gen. John J. Pershing led fundraising efforts for the church after World War I. American architect Philip Hubert Frohman took over the design of the cathedral and was thenceforth designated the principal architect. Funding for Washington National Cathedral has come from private sources. Maintenance and upkeep continue to rely upon private support. From its earliest days, the cathedral has been promoted as more than an Episcopal cathedral.
Planners hoped. They wanted it to be a venue for great services. For much of the cathedral's history, this was captured in the phrase "a house of prayer for all people." In more recent times the phrases "national house of prayer" and "spiritual home for the nation" have been used. The cathedral has achieved this status by offering itself and being accepted by religious and political leaders as playing this role, its initial charter was similar to those granted to American University, Catholic University of America, other not-for-profit entities founded in the District of Columbia around 1900. Contrary to popular misconception, the government has not designated it as a national house of prayer. During World War II, monthly services were held there "on behalf of a united people in a time of emergency". Before and since, the structure has hosted other major events, both religious and secular, that have drawn the attention of the American people, as well as tourists from around the world. State funerals for four American presidents have been held at the cathedral: 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower: lay in repose at the cathedral before lying in state 38th President Gerald Ford 40th President Ronald Reagan 41st President George H. W. Bush Memorial services were held at the cathedral for the following presidents: Warren G. Harding William Howard Taft Calvin Coolidge Harry S. Truman Richard NixonPresidential prayer services were held the day after the inaugurations for: 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January 1937 40th President Ronald Reagan in 1985 41st President George H. W. Bush in 1989 43rd President George W. Bush in 2001 and 2005 44th President Barack Obama in 2009 and 2013 45th President Donald Trump in 2017 Other events have included: Funeral for former first lady Edith Wilson Memorial service for former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt Memorial service for the casualties of the Vietnam War on November 14, 1982 Public funeral for Chief of Naval Operations, United States Navy, Admiral Jeremy M
National World War I Memorial (Washington, D.C.)
The National World War I Memorial is a planned memorial commemorating the service rendered by members of the United States Armed Forces in World War I. The 2015 National Defense Authorization Act established the World War I Centennial Commission, given the authority to build the memorial in Pershing Park, located at 14th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. in the United States. The park, which has existed since 1981 contains the John J. Pershing General of the Armies commemorative work. In January 2016, the design commission selected the submission "The Weight of Sacrifice", by a team consisting of Joseph Weishaar, Sabin Howard, Phoebe Lickwar, GWWO Architects, as the winning design; the Pershing Park site was occupied by a variety of 19th-century structures until about 1930, when the federal government took legal title to the block and demolished the structures on it. Legislation designating the plot as a Pershing Square subsequently was adopted by Congress in 1957. Development of the square proved controversial, as different groups offered competing proposals for memorials to John J. Pershing, who had served as General of the Armies in World War I.
These disagreements led to inaction, by 1962 the square remained bare and cluttered with trash. In September 1963, District of Columbia officials planted grass and flower beds to temporarily beautify the square. In November 1963, the President's Council on Pennsylvania Avenue proposed a master plan for the redevelopment of Pennsylvania Avenue NW from the White House to the United States Capitol; the master plan proposed constructing a National Plaza, which would have required the demolition of the Pershing Square, the Willard Hotel north of the square, the two blocks of buildings and streets east of these tracts. The American Legion, among others, kept pushing for a grand statue of Pershing for the square, but all plans for the park were suspended until such time as the Pennsylvania Avenue master plan could be finalized. National Plaza was never constructed. Instead, a much smaller Freedom Plaza was built which did not require the demolition of Pershing Park. Designs for a statue and memorial to Pershing and for the larger park were finalized in the 1970s, Pershing Park constructed with Freedom Plaza from 1979 to 1981.
During this period, the park was enlarged due to the realignment of Pennsylvania Avenue NW along the area's north side. Pershing Park formally opened to the public at 11:45 AM on May 14, 1981. Pershing Park contains a statue of General Pershing by Robert White, as well as memorial walls and benches behind the statue describing Pershing's achievements in World War I; the park contains a fountain, a pond, flower beds. The ice rink is managed by a concessionaire of the National Park Service. Pershing Park was owned by the government of the District of Columbia, but administered by the National Park Service as an official unit of the park system. More than 400 demonstrators were illegally arrested in Pershing Park in September 2002 during anti-globalization protests against the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. In 1931, the people of the District of Columbia erected the District of Columbia War Memorial on the National Mall to honor individuals from the District who had served in the U.
S. armed forces in World War I. But the largest of the country's World War I memorials was the Liberty Memorial, a 217-foot tall tower with an artificial "burning pyre" atop it, located in Kansas City, Missouri. A Memorial Court surrounded the tower, with a Memory Hall on the east and a Museum Building on the west. Ground was broken on the memorial on November 1, 1921, it opened on November 11, 1926, but no national memorial commemorating World War I was erected over the next 70 years, which upset World War I veterans. The Liberty Memorial suffered from neglect over the years, the tower was closed to the public in 1994. A $102 million renovation and expansion effort began in 2000, the memorial reopened in 2002; the expansion, which added 30,000-square-foot in museum space, a 20,000-square-foot research center, a theater, a cafeteria, modern storage for the museum's extensive collection, opened in 2006. With the 2000 Liberty Memorial renovation under way, Senator Kit Bond introduced a resolution in the United States Senate giving official federal recognition to the Liberty Memorial as "America's National World War I Museum".
The designation was only honorific, but the resolution did not pass. In 2004, with the National World War II Memorial about to open in Washington, D. C. Representative Karen McCarthy introduced legislation in the United States House of Representatives to designate the Liberty Memorial as "America's National World War I Museum". In the Senate, Senator Jim Talent sought agreement to amend S. 2400, the Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, with identical language. Talent's amendment was unanimously adopted by the Senate on June 15, 2004; the Senate bill was reconciled with a similar House bill in conference committee, passed both houses of Congress. President George W. Bush signed the legislation into law on October 28, 2004; the push for a national World War I memorial arose from the successful effort to establish the National World War II Memorial. Legislation to establish the National World War II Memorial was introduced in 1987, after several unsuccessful efforts passed Congress on May
Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge
The Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge conveys Pennsylvania Avenue across Rock Creek and the adjoining Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, between the neighborhoods of Georgetown and Foggy Bottom in Northwest Washington, D. C. Pennsylvania Avenue terminates at M Street west of the bridge; the original bridge at this site was constructed of large cast iron pipes by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1858 to 1860. Montgomery C. Meigs designed the bridge and supervised its construction as part of the original construction of the Washington Aqueduct, it was named the Meigs Bridge after it was completed, although name that never caught on and it was called other names such as the Tubular Bridge. At the time of its construction it was the only bridge made of cast iron of substantial size in the United States, it was intended to be an aqueduct bridge carrying water mains connected to the Georgetown Reservoir, but the onset of the Civil War necessitated making it a vehicular crossing as well. The level of traffic was such.
The bridge used an innovative design in which the 48-inch water pipes themselves formed the load-bearing arches of the bridge supporting the roadway. A water pressure engine in the west abutment supplied water to a reservoir at the current site of the Georgetown branch of the D. C. Public Library to feed the significant part of the City of Georgetown, too high to be directly fed by the main Washington Aqueduct. A horse-drawn streetcar line crossed the bridge from 1863 to 1872, when it was rerouted over the nearby M Street Bridge. In 1913 the D. C. Board of Commissioners opted to build an expanded arch bridge around the existing bridge rather than construct a new steel-girder bridge, for reasons of cost; the United States Commission of Fine Arts, the agency tasked with reviewing architectural projects in the capital, opposed the plan on aesthetic grounds, saying that the arch design would clash with the existing Q Street Bridge upstream, but their recommendations were ignored. The expanded bridge was built of reinforced concrete with a smooth granite facing.
The abutments and water mains of the original bridge are encased inside the expanded bridge, which still transports water to this day, although they no longer support the load of the bridge. The new bridge was wider than the original. By 2015, the bridge was considered to be structurally deficient, with a 15-month rehabilitation planned to begin that summer. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Washington, D. C. Pennsylvania Avenue Bridge at Structurae
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
The L'Enfant Plan for the city of Washington is the urban plan developed in 1791 by Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Major L'Enfant was a French engineer who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, discussions were underway regarding a new federal capital city for the United States, L'Enfant wrote to President Washington asking to be commissioned to plan the city. However, any decision on the capital was put on hold until July 1790 when Congress passed the Residence Act; the legislation specified that the new capital should be situated on the Potomac River, at some location between the Eastern Branch and the Conococheague Creek near Hagerstown, Maryland. The Residence Act gave authority to President Washington to appoint three commissioners to oversee the survey of the federal district and provide public buildings to accommodate the Federal government in 1800. In 1791, President Washington appointed L'Enfant to plan the new "Federal City", under the supervision of three commissioners whom Washington had earlier appointed to oversee the planning and development of the territory that became the "District of Columbia".
Included in the new district were the riverport towns of Georgetown and Alexandria, Virginia. Thomas Jefferson, serving as President Washington's Secretary of State, worked with Washington in the overall planning of the nation's capital. Jefferson sent L'Enfant a letter outlining his task, to provide a drawing of suitable sites for the federal city and the public buildings. Jefferson had modest ideas for the Capital. However, L'Enfant saw the task as far more grandiose, believing that he was devising the city plan and designing the buildings. L'Enfant began his work from Suter's Fountain Inn. Washington arrived on March 28 to meet with L'Enfant and the Commissioners for several days. On June 22, L'Enfant presented his first plan for the federal city to the President. On August 19, he appended a new map to a letter. President Washington retained a copy of one of L'Enfant's plans, showed it to the Congress, gave it to the three Commissioners. In November 1791, L'Enfant secured the lease of quarries at Wigginton Island and southeast along Aquia Creek to supply well-regarded "Aquia Creek sandstone" for the foundation of the "Congress House".
However, his temperament and his insistence that his city design be realized as a whole brought him into conflict with the Commissioners, who wanted to direct the limited funds into construction of the Federal buildings, they had Jefferson's support in the matter. L'Enfant's "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States..." encompassed an area bounded by the Potomac River, the Eastern Branch, the base of the escarpment of the Atlantic Seaboard Fall Line, Rock Creek. His plan specified locations for two buildings, the "Congress House" and the "President's House"; the "Congress House" would be built on "Jenkins Hill", which L'Enfant described as a "pedestal awaiting a monument". The "President's House" would be situated on a ridge parallel to the Potomac River north of the mouth of Tiber Creek, which L'Enfant proposed to canalize. L'Enfant envisioned the "President's House" to have monumental architecture. Reflecting his grandiose visions, he specified that the "President's House" would be five times the size of the building, constructed then becoming the largest residence constructed in America.
Emphasizing the importance of the new nation's legislature, the "Congress House" would be located on a longitude designated as 0:0. The plan specified. To form the grid, some streets would travel in an east–west direction, while others would travel in a north-south direction. Broader diagonal "grand avenues" named after the states of the Union, crossed the north/south-east/west grid; these "grand avenues" intersected with the north–south and east–west streets at circles and rectangular plazas that would honor notable Americans and provide open space. The plan identified some of the circles and rectangular plazas as numbered "reservations"; the plan's legends identified uses for other open spaces. Other legends specified the widths of grand streets. A prominent geometric feature of L'Enfant's plan was a large right triangle whose hypotenuse was a wide avenue connecting the "President's House"and the "Congress House". To complete the triangle, a line projecting due south from the center of the President's house intersected at a right angle a line projecting due west from the center of the Congress house.
A 400 feet -wide garden-lined "grand avenue" containing a "public walk" would travel for about 1 mile along the east–west line. L'Enfant chose the west end of this "grand avenue" to be the location of a future equestrian statue of George Washington for which the Continental Congress had voted in 1783. (Although the planned "grand avenue" became the portion of the National Mall, now between the Capitol's grounds and the Washington Monument, neither the avenue nor Washington's equestrian statue were constructed (see: National M
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo