Lyndon B. Johnson
A Democrat from Texas, he previously served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two more as Senate Majority Whip, Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate and they went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20,1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22,1963 and he successfully ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. He is one of four people who have served as President, Vice President, Senator. Johnson was renowned for his personality and the Johnson treatment. Assisted in part by an economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 550,000 in early 1968, American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U. S. and abroad. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, while he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson, Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed.
After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, historians argue that Johnsons presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27,1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a farmhouse on the Pedernales River. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, and three sisters, Rebekah and Lucia, the nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJs cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry and he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison Sr. was the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer, and the last president born as a British subject. He was 68 years,23 days old at the time of his inauguration and he died of complications from pneumonia 31 days into his term, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. He was the first president to die in office, and his death sparked a constitutional crisis. He was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, who served as the 23rd United States President from 1889 to 1893, before election as president, Harrison served as the first congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory and the first Governor of Indiana Territory. He gained national fame for leading U. S. forces against Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, as a general officer in the subsequent War of 1812, his most notable action was in the Battle of the Thames in 1813. This battle resulted in the death of Tecumseh and the dissolution of the Indian coalition which Tecumseh had led, after the war, Harrison moved to Ohio, where he was elected to the United States House of Representatives.
In 1824, the legislature elected him to the United States Senate. He served a term after being appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Colombia in May 1828. In Santa Fe de Bogotá, he spoke with president Simón Bolívar, returning to his farm in Ohio, Harrison lived in relative retirement until he was nominated for the presidency as one of several Whig Party candidates in the election of 1836. He received more votes than any other Whig, but was defeated by Democrat Martin Van Buren and he retired again to his farm. Van Buren soon became a target of criticism from the Whigs surrounding economic difficulties following the Panic of 1837. John Tyler of Virginia was selected as his running mate and Tyler defeated Van Buren in the 1840 election. However, Harrison died of pneumonia in April 1841, a month after taking office, Tyler assumed all of the powers and duties of the president, setting a major precedent. Harrison was a member of a prominent political family of entirely English descent, Harrison was the last U. S.
president born as a British subject before American Revolution. Benjamin Harrison V, Williams father, was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, the senior Harrison served in the Virginia legislature as the fifth governor of Virginia in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Williams older brother, Carter Bassett Harrison, represented Virginia in the U. S. House, Harrison was tutored at home before he entered Hampden–Sydney College, the Presbyterian school in Virginia in 1787 at age 14. He remained at the school until 1790, receiving an education that included Latin, French, logic. Harrisons Episcopalian father removed him from the college, possibly because of a revival that was occurring at the school
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Pierre Peter Charles LEnfant was a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D. C. the LEnfant Plan. In 1758, his brother Pierre Joseph died at the age of six and he studied art at the Royal Academy in the Louvre, as well as with his father at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. He left school in France to enlist in the American Revolutionary War on the side of the rebelling colonials, LEnfant was recruited by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to join in the American Revolutionary War in the American colonies. He arrived in 1777 at the age of 23, and served as an engineer in the Continental Army with Major General Lafayette. He was commissioned as a captain in the Corps of Engineers on April 3,1779 to rank from February 18,1778, despite his aristocratic origins, LEnfant closely identified with the United States, changing his first name from Pierre to Peter. LEnfant served on General George Washingtons staff at Valley Forge, while there, the Marquis de Lafayette commissioned LEnfant to paint a portrait of Washington.
He was wounded at the Siege of Savannah on October 9,1779 and he recovered and became a prisoner of war at surrender of Charleston, South Carolina on May 12,1780. He was exchanged in November 1780 and served on General George Washingtons staff for the remainder of the Revolutionary War, LEnfant was promoted by brevet to Major of Engineers on May 2,1783, in recognition of his service to the cause of American liberty. He was discharged when the Continental Army was disbanded in December 1783, after the war, LEnfant designed the badge of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of former officers of the Continental Army, shaped as an eagle, at the request of Washington. He was sent to France to have made for members of the Society. Following the American Revolutionary War, LEnfant established a successful and highly profitable civil engineering firm in New York City and he achieved some fame as an architect by redesigning the City Hall in New York for the First Congress of the United States.
He designed furniture and houses for the wealthy as well as coins and medals and he was a friend of Alexander Hamilton. While LEnfant was in New York City, he was initiated into Freemasonry and his initiation took place on April 17,1789, at Holland Lodge No. 8, F & A M, which the Grand Lodge of New York F & A M had chartered in 1787, LEnfant took only the first of three degrees offered by the Lodge and did not progress further in Freemasonry. Included in the new district were the port towns of Georgetown. LEnfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9,1791, and began his work, Washington arrived on March 28, to meet with LEnfant and the Commissioners for several days. On June 22, LEnfant presented his first plan for the city to the President. On August 19, he appended a new map to a letter that he sent to the President, President Washington retained a copy of one of LEnfants plans, showed it to the Congress, and gave it to the three Commissioners
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Washington National Cathedral
The cathedral is the seat of both the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Michael Bruce Curry, and the Bishop of the Diocese of Washington, Mariann Edgar Budde. In 2009, nearly 400,000 visitors toured the structure, average attendance at Sunday services in 2009 was 1,667, the highest of all domestic parishes in the Episcopal Church that year. The Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation, under the first seven Bishops of Washington, decorative work, such as carvings and statuary, is ongoing as of 2011. The Cathedral stands at Massachusetts and Wisconsin Avenues in the northwest quadrant of Washington and it is an associate member of the recently organized inter-denominational Washington Theological Consortium. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in 2007, it was ranked third on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. In 1792, Pierre LEnfants Plan of the Federal City set aside land for a church for national purposes. The National Portrait Gallery now occupies that site, in 1891, a meeting was held to renew plans for a national cathedral.
On January 6,1893, the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral Foundation of the District of Columbia was granted a charter from Congress to establish the cathedral, the commanding site on Mount Saint Alban was chosen. Henry Yates Satterlee, first Episcopal Bishop of the Diocese of Washington, chose George Frederick Bodley, Britains leading Anglican church architect, Henry Vaughan was selected supervising architect. Construction started September 29,1907, with an address by President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1912, Bethlehem Chapel opened for services in the unfinished cathedral, when construction of the cathedral resumed after a brief hiatus for World War I, both Bodley and Vaughan had died. Gen. John J. Pershing led fundraising efforts for the church after World War I, American architect Philip Hubert Frohman took over the design of the cathedral and was thenceforth designated the principal architect. Funding for the National Cathedral has come entirely from private sources and upkeep continue to rely entirely upon private support.
The United States Congress has designated the Washington National Cathedral as the National House of Prayer, during World War II, monthly services were held there on behalf of a united people in a time of emergency. Before and since, the structure has hosted major events. Secretary of Commerce Ronald Brown Funeral for U. S. S, a memorial service for King was held at the cathedral the same week. The cathedral was damaged in August 2011 during the Virginia earthquake, finial stones on several pinnacles broke off, and several pinnacles twisted out of alignment or collapsed entirely. Some gargoyles and other carvings were damaged, and a hole was punched through the roof by falling masonry
It is one of the oldest residential neighborhoods in Washington, D. C. and with roughly 35,000 people in just under 2 square miles, it is one of the most densely populated. As a geographic feature, Capitol Hill rises near the center of the District of Columbia, the Capitol Hill neighborhood today straddles two quadrants of the city and Northeast, and a large portion of it is now designated as the Capitol Hill Historic District. The name Capitol Hill is often used to refer to both the district and to the larger neighborhood around it. Since 1800 the building known as the Capitol has been the home of the Congress of the United States, the Capitol is located inside the Capitol Hill historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but it is listed separately on the NRHP. It was Thomas Jefferson who came up with the name Capitol Hill, consciously invoking the famous Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, crystal clear.
The location of the Capitol was chosen by Pierre LEnfant in his design for the District of Columbia, LEnfant referred to the hill chosen as the site of the future Congress House as Jenkins Hill or Jenkins Heights. However, the tract of land had for many years belonged to the Carroll family and was noted in their records of ownership as New Troy. The neighborhood that is now called Capitol Hill started to develop when the government began work at two locations, the Capitol and the Washington Navy Yard and it became a distinct community between 1799 and 1810 as the federal government became a major employer. The first stage in its history was that of a boarding house community developed for members of Congress. In the early years of the Republic, few Congressmen wished to establish permanent residence in the city, most preferred to live in boarding houses within walking distance of the Capitol. In 1799, the Washington Navy Yard was established on the banks of the Anacostia River, and provided jobs to craftsmen who built and repaired ships.
Many of the craftsmen who were employed both at the Navy Yard and in the construction of the Capitol chose to live within walking distance, to the east of the Capitol and they became the original residential population of the neighborhood. In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson selected the location of the Marine Barracks, by 1810, goldsmiths and churches were flourishing in the area. The Civil War resulted in construction in the Capitol Hill area. Construction of new houses continued in the 1870s and 1880s, the neighborhood began to divide along racial and economic class lines. Electricity, piped water, and plumbing were introduced in the 1890s, there was a real estate development boom between 1890 and 1910 as the Capitol Hill area became one of the first neighborhoods having these modern conveniences. In 1976, the Capitol Hill Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and it is one of the largest historic districts in the United States. It includes buildings from the Federal period through 1919, but most of the buildings are late Victorian, Capitol Hill has remained a fairly stable middle-class neighborhood throughout its existence
A sett, usually referred to in the plural and known in some places as a Belgian block or sampietrino, is a broadly rectangular quarried stone used for paving roads. Setts are usually made of granite, notable places paved with setts include many streets in Rome and Italy, since the technique was first used by Romans, in Aberdeen, much of Edinburghs Old Town and New Town, and Red Square in Moscow. Silloth on Solway, the town in Cumbria, still has the setts on Eden St. Streets paved with setts feature in cycling competitions including the Tour of Britain which visited Silloth on Solway in 2015. In Bruges, most roads are in Belgian block in the center, but in the recent years, in New York City, the West Village and SoHo neighborhoods retain such streets. Older sections of Brooklyn such as DUMBO and surrounding neighborhoods have streets baring Belgian blocks. Part of this includes the tracks of the 23 trolley, though the modern tracks are encased in concrete slabs rather than setts. In Richmond, Virginia Belgian block streets are common, most notably in Shockoe Slip.
Street cars traveled through the street on tracks that are visible though the system has been replaced by buses. The Fells Point neighborhood of Baltimore has Belgian block streets, in many cities besides Richmond and Philadelphia setts have often been used for pavement around street-running trolley or tram lines in the same manner as brickwork. Portland, used Belgian block paving extensively in the 19th century, starting near the Willamette River, many streets in older parts of the city are underlain by these blocks, and a few streets in the Pearl District still feature this kind of pavement. The City of Portland stockpiles these blocks when they are dug up for street or utility repairs or renovation and they have been used between the rails in some of TriMets MAX light rail lines to warn automobile drivers that they are driving on light rail right of way. The romantic claim that old Portland cobbles were imported as ships ballast is incorrect, they are local basalt, streets paved with setts are highlights in several cycling competitions such as the final Champs-Élysées stage of the Tour de France and the Paris–Roubaix road race.
Riding upon sett is technically more challenging than riding on asphalt, flagstone Nicolson pavement Media related to Sett at Wikimedia Commons
Populus nigra, the black poplar, is a species of cottonwood poplar, the type species of section Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe and central Asia, and northwest Africa. The black poplar is a medium to large-sized deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m, normally their trunks achieve up to 1.5 m in diameter – however, some unusual individual trees in France have grown old enough to have much larger trunks – more than 3 meters DBH. Their leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, the species is dioecious – male and female flowers are on different plants – with flowers in catkins and pollination achieved by the wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground, like most other pioneer species, the tree is characterized by rapid growth and are able to quickly colonize open areas. There are three established subspecies and some botanists distinguishing a fourth, Populus nigra subsp and shoots glabrous, bark grey-brown and furrowed. Leaf veins and shoots finely downy, bark grey-brown and furrowed, often with heavy burrs, Mediterranean region, southwest Asia if var. afghanica not distinguished.
Southwest Asia, treated as a cultivar of P. nigra by many botanists, the subspecies betulifolia is one of the rarest trees in Great Britain and Ireland, with only about 7,000 trees known, of which only about 600 have been confirmed as female. Several cultivars have selected, these being propagated readily by cuttings. The true Lombardy poplar, selected in Lombardy, northern Italy, the growth is fastigiate, with a very narrow crown. Coming from the Mediterranean region, it is adapted to hot, dry summers and grows poorly in humid conditions, as a widely selected species chosen by golf architects in the 1960s, it soon became apparent that the Poplars very invasive roots destroyed land drainage systems. Decades the courses were removing Poplars stands wholesale. A group of clones derived by crossing Italica with P, both male and female clones are grown. This is the tree most commonly grown in Great Britain and Ireland as Lombardy poplar, betulifolia widely planted in northwest England. It is a clone, and currently seriously threatened by Poplar Scab disease.
Another fastigiate clone, of origin, with a rather broader. Most, if not all, specimens of the variety Afghanica are of a single clone and it is fastigiate, similar to Italica, but with a striking whitish bark, it differs from Italica in being a female clone. This is the common fastigiate poplar in southwest Asia and southeast Europe, black poplar has a large distribution area throughout Europe and is found in northern Africa and central and west Asia. The distribution area extends from the Mediterranean in the south to approximately 64º latitude in the north and from the British Isles in the west to Kazakhstan, the distribution area includes the Caucasus and large parts of the Middle East
Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site
Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site is a National Historic Site in the city of Washington, D. C. Established on September 30,1965, the site is bounded by Constitution Avenue, 15th Street NW, F Street NW. Pennsylvania Avenue, the heart of the site, is recognized by many as Americas Main Street. A march or event held on the avenue is infused with a deal of political meaning. After seizure of the land by European settlers, David Burns obtained the first title to the area which would become Pennsylvania Avenue NW in 1774, article One, Section 8, of the United States Constitution established a District. Become the seat of the government of the United States, the Residence Act of 1790, established this district and gave to the President of the United States the authority to fix the location of the site somewhere along the Potomac River. President George Washington chose the current site of the city in 1791, Washington chose Pierre Charles LEnfant to plan the new city. Although unnamed at the time, Pennsylvania Avenue was designed in the LEnfant plan as a thoroughfare for bringing existing roads into the heart of the new city.
It was designed to link the presidents palace with the Capitol building planned for Jenkins Hill, the origin of the name Pennsylvania Avenue is somewhat obscure. The name was first applied to the avenue in a letter from surveyor, the actual clearing of Pennsylvania Avenue did not begin until spring 1796. The damp earned the street the nickname of the Great Serbonian Bog, in the fall of 1800, Pennsylvania Avenue was cleared of underbrush, and a 6-foot-wide raised footpath covered in stone chips was built. A stone bridge over Tiber Creek at 2nd Street was built during this time, on March 3,1803, President Thomas Jefferson ordered that Pennsylvania Avenue be widened and the road completed. Benjamin Henry Latrobe, the newly hired to supervise the avenues reconstruction. The wooden blocks required such extensive repair, that between 1876 and 1877 they were replaced with rock from 1st to 6th Streets NW, the avenue was repaved in 1890 and again in 1907. The historic site saw limited growth prior to the 1850s, although a number of firsts occurred in the area, two of the citys first three street lamps were established in the area near Capitol Hill in December 1801.
Center Market, the citys first food market, was built the year on a lot on the south side of Pennsylvania Avenue between 7th and 8th Streets. It became the hub of the early commercial district. Over time, the district moved north, but its southern boundary continued to be marked by Pennsylvania Avenue