The Proud and the Free
The Proud and the Free is a historical novel by Howard Fast, published in 1950. It tells the story of the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny from the enlisted men's point of view; the so-called Pennsylvania Line Mutiny began January 1, 1781, ended with negotiated settlement on January 8, 1781. The mutiny was the most successful and consequential insurrection by Continental Army soldiers during the American Revolutionary War; when negotiations with the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania promised satisfactory resolution, many of the soldiers returned to arms for the Continental Army and participated in future campaigns. The narrative is told by Jamie Stuart, an elderly man who, at that time, was a 22-year-old orphaned son of indentured servants from York, Pennsylvania, he was a member of the Foreign Brigade of Pennsylvania which consisted of immigrants but has some native-born Americans in its ranks. The enlisted men live in slum-like housing near New Jersey, they have little food, clothing or money.
The officers, led by the Continental Army's General Anthony Wayne, aka Mad Anthony Wayne, in contrast live in comfortable housing, have gourmet-quality food, fine wine, well-tailored clothes. The novel describes how a wide range of men, not just the dominant Protestants but Jews, Irish and Romans, i.e. Roman Catholics, who would be at each others throats have formed into a cohesive unit with their officers, the gentry, the British as their common enemy; the novel depicts most officers uncaring. One incident too many triggers the soldiers' decision to revolt. One man cites the Declaration of Independence's guidance, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new Government." Led by a Committee of Sergeants the brigades, via surprise and organization, present a fait accompli to their officers who are powerless to stop them. The men follow military procedures to form as a free fighting force. On the way to Princeton, New Jersey, folks along the countryside cheer the men on.
The soldiers agree to return to General Wayne's army as long as there is no direct reprisal against any soldier, that those due a bounty be paid, those whose three-year terms of enlistment had expired are discharged but may reenlist. Stuart, who enlisted when he was 17, departs for Philadelphia and York, Pa. to return to the girl he left behind, Molly Bracken. Restless, Stuart rejoins the brigade, headed to Virginia to participate in one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War
Walter Stewart (general)
Walter Stewart was an Irish-born American general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Stewart began his military career as captain of a Pennsylvania infantry company at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, he served as an aide-de-camp to Horatio Gates for a year with the rank of major. Given command of the Pennsylvania State Regiment, which became the 13th Pennsylvania Regiment, Stewart led his troops with distinction at Brandywine and Germantown in 1777, he was wounded while leading a detachment at the Battle of Monmouth in the summer of 1778. Despite Stewart's ability to cool tensions during the 1780 mutiny of the Connecticut Line, his regiment became involved in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny, he was married in Philadelphia in 1781 before going south with the army to fight in the decisive Siege of Yorktown. After the British surrender, Stewart was involved in the Newburgh Conspiracy. Following a term as Inspector General, he retired from the army at the beginning of 1783, became a successful Philadelphia businessman and a general in the state militia.
He died on June 1796 during an outbreak of yellow fever. Stewart was born into a Scotch-Irish family in Ireland in 1756 in Londonderry, he worked for a relative named Conyngham. In January 1776 he was appointed captain of 3rd Pennsylvania Battalion; the eight company strong 3rd Battalion was authorized on December 9, 1775 and organized between January and March 1776 at Philadelphia. It joined George Washington's main army on June 11, 1776 and was assigned to Thomas Mifflin's brigade. However, in May Stewart was promoted to major and became aide-de-camp to Horatio Gates when that general transferred to the Northern Department. In December 1776, Gates returned to the Philadelphia area with the Northern Department's New Jersey and Pennsylvania regiments; that November, Congress voted Stewart a $100 sword as recognition of his services. One Continental Army private recalled that the ladies of Philadelphia called the good-looking Stewart the "Irish Beauty". Another observer described him as, "of fair, florid complexion, vivacious and well-educated, and, it was said, was the handsomest man in the American army".
On June 17, 1777, Stewart was named commander of the Pennsylvania State Regiment, which became the 13th Pennsylvania Regiment. Stewart, Gates' subordinate for over a year, took his former chief's side in the political struggle between Gates and his rival Philip Schuyler; when Gates assumed command of the Northern Department in August 1777, Stewart wrote him, "You can't Imagine my Dear Sir, the Satisfaction it gives me your being sent back to your proper Command. It is so great a thing, to get the better so Nobly of that petty party, for I can call them by no other Name." In another letter to Gates, he wrote of his fellow Pennsylvanian Anthony Wayne having to dig trenches, "We are throwing up a few works at Wilmington, where Wayne is like a mad bear, it falling to his brigade. I believe he heartily wishes all engineers at the devil." At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, the Pennsylvania State Regiment fought with the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 14th Virginia Regiments in George Weedon's Brigade.
Another authority wrote that the 2nd Virginia Brigade consisted of the 2nd, 6th, 10th, 14th Virginia, but it is possible that some units were attached and others detached. That day, Washington with 11,000 men offered battle to British General Sir William Howe's 12,500 troops. While 5,000 British and Hessians under Wilhelm von Knyphausen threatened the American center, Howe took 7,500 men in a wide turning movement that crossed the Brandywine beyond the American right flank. Belatedly detecting Howe's column, Washington deployed the divisions of John Sullivan, Lord Stirling, Adam Stephen to halt the attempted envelopment. After severe fighting, Howe's force cracked the American line. Leaving Wayne to hold off Knyphausen, Washington ordered the division of Nathanael Greene to block Howe. After his brigade endured a three or four-mile double-time march in 45 minutes, Weedon arranged his troops on a reverse slope behind a fence, he swung the right flank forward behind a fence and some woods so as to take any attackers in enfilade.
Henry Monckton's 2nd Grenadier Battalion blundered into Weedon's trap. As his men came under heavy fire, Monckton asked Hessian Captain Johann von Ewald to ride and get help; the Hessian found James Agnew. One of Agnew's regiments, the 64th Foot was treated, losing 47 of its 420 men in the vicious firefight that followed; the Pennsylvania State Regiment was evidently part of the thrown-forward right flank. One witness recalled the unit's colonel, "Stewart on foot, in its rear, animating his men." An officer in the regiment wrote that, "Our regiment fought at one stand about an hour under incessant fire, yet the loss was less than at Long Island. With the assistance of some artillery, the British forced the Americans back, but the exhausted victors did not pursue in the dark. Stewart led a detachment of his regiment at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777; as Greene's wing advanced on the British positions, Stewart's unit covered Weedon's left flank where a gap had developed between that brigade and Alexander McDougall's Connecticut Brigade.
After driving off two British light infantry companies, his men captured an earthwork near Luken's Mill. He wrote Gates, "I took a little redoubt with three Pieces of Cannon from them", he noted that, "It was cursed Hot work for it before they left them". He noted that his men started fighting 1.5 miles (
Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and statesman. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname Mad Anthony, he led the Legion of the United States. Wayne was born in Chester County, he worked as a tanner and surveyor after attending the College of Philadelphia, he won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly and helped raise a Pennsylvania militia unit in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, he served in the Invasion of Quebec, the Philadelphia campaign, the Yorktown campaign, his reputation suffered due to his defeat in the Battle of Paoli, but he won wide praise for his leadership in the 1779 Battle of Stony Point. After the war, Wayne settled in Georgia on land, granted to him for his military service, he represented Georgia in the United States House of Representatives returned to the Army to accept command of the Northwest Indian War.
His forces defeated several Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the subsequent Treaty of Greenville ended the war. Wayne died in 1796 while on active duty. Various places and things have been named after him, including the cities of Fort Wayne, Waynesburg, Waynesboro and Waynesboro, Georgia, as well as Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, his father was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1745 on his family's Waynesborough estate, he was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia as well as at the College of Philadelphia, although he did not earn a degree. In 1765, Benjamin Franklin sent him and some associates to work for a year surveying land granted in Nova Scotia, he assisted with starting a settlement the following year at The Township of Monckton. In 1767, he returned to work in while continuing work as a surveyor.
He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774 to 1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children, their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne was born in 1772 and became a Representative from Pennsylvania. Wayne raised a militia unit in 1775 and became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1776, he and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières and led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. On September 11, 1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at the Battle of Brandywine where they held off General Wilhelm von Knyphausen to protect the American right flank; the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew and Wayne was ordered to retreat.
He was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howe's advance towards Pennsylvania. Wayne's camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21 in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret; the attack earned General Grey the nickname "No Flint," but the Americans pointed to the tactics and casualties as examples of British brutality. General Wayne's own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, he demanded a formal inquiry in order to clear his name. On October 4, 1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown, his soldiers pushed ahead of other units, the British "pushed on with their Bayonets—and took Ample Vengeance" as they retreated, according to Wayne's report. Generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too however, became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units. General Wayne was again ordered to cover the rear of the retreating body.
After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth where his forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out; the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, a legend grew that he had died fighting Wayne. In July 1779, Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army, his successful attack on British positions in the Battle of Stony Point was the highlight of his Revolutionary War service. On July 16, 1779, he replicated the bold attack used against him at Paoli and led a nighttime bayonet attack lasting 30 minutes, his three columns of about 1,500 light infantry stormed and captured British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliff-side redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The battle lasted 25 minutes and ended with around 550 prisoners taken, with fewer than 100 casualties for Wayne's forces.
The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of the army, which had suffered a series of military defeats, the Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory. It was after this battle that he earned the name Mad Anthony for what his fellow sold
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
8th Pennsylvania Regiment
The 8th Pennsylvania Regiment or Mackay's Battalion was an American infantry unit that became part of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Authorized for frontier defense in July 1776, the eight-company unit was called Mackay's Battalion after its commander, Colonel Aeneas Mackay. Transferred to the main army in November 1776, the unit was renamed the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment on 1 January 1777, it completed an epic winter march from western Pennsylvania to New Jersey, though Mackay and his second-in-command both died soon afterward. In March 1777 Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV assumed command; the regiment was engaged at the Battles of Bound Brook, Brandywine and Germantown in 1777. A body of riflemen were fought at Saratoga. Assigned to the Western Department in May 1778, the 8th Pennsylvania gained a ninth company before seeing action near Fort Laurens and in the Sullivan Expedition in 1778 and 1779; the regiment ceased to exist. A frontier defense battalion was authorized by the Continental Congress on 11 July 1776 as part of the Continental Army in the Northern Department.
On 20 July the unit was named Mackay's Battalion. The battalion was organized from 15 July to 15 September 1776 at Kittanning, Pennsylvania in the western part of the state to consist of eight companies of infantry from Bedford, Westmoreland Counties. Colonel Aeneas Mackay, Lieutenant Colonel George Wilson, Major Richard Butler were appointed by Congress to lead the battalion. Quartermaster Ephraim Douglass, Commissary Ephraim Blaine, Adjutant Michael Huffnagle, Paymaster John Boyd, Chaplain David McClure rounded out the staff positions, though McClure never assumed his duties; the eight captains were Moses Carson, Wendel Oury, David Kilgore, Andrew Mann, Samuel Miller, Eliezer Myers, James Piggott, Van Swearingen. Carson defected to the British during the war. By 16 December 630 men enrolled in the battalion; the unit was assigned to General George Washington's main army on 23 November 1776. On 4 December 1776 the order arrived from Congress to join the main army in Philadelphia. Not only did the soldiers dislike being called away from their homes, but they faced a mid-winter march without tents and uniforms.
On 1 January 1777 the unit was redesignated the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment. On 6 January the unit began a march of 300 miles across the mountains and hills of Pennsylvania, with their supplies on pack horses. A number of men went home, their food supply was stretched out by hunting game in the woods. In February the regiment went into camp. Within a short time, one-third of the regiment was on the sick list and 50 men died, including both senior officers and Wilson; the unit was in action near New Jersey on 23 February during the Forage War. In the brilliant Battle of Spanktown, the Americans surprised a reinforced British brigade under Charles Mawhood and chased it back to Amboy. On 27 March Colonel Daniel Brodhead IV transferred from the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment to take command of the 8th. Butler was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Mackay's son-in-law Stephen Bayard was appointed major; the 8th Pennsylvania fought at the Battle of Bound Brook on 13 April 1777 under the command of Butler. In this action the 8th formed the main part of a 500-man outpost under the command of Major General Benjamin Lincoln, together with militia and an artillery detachment from the Proctor's Pennsylvania State Artillery Regiment.
These troops observed the 8,000 British and Hessians in and around Brunswick, New Jersey, only 7 miles away. On the 13th, Lord Charles Cornwallis attempted to envelop Lincoln's small outpost. Though the password was supposed to have been compromised, surprise was achieved because the militia pickets were not alert. Cornwallis and Major General James Grant with 3,000 to 4,000 troops marched along both banks of the Raritan River. Colonel Carl von Donop led the center with two Hessian grenadier battalions. Two battalions of British light infantry and one of grenadiers advanced on the left, while the Hessian jägers, Sir George Osborn's grenadier company of the Brigade of Guards, the light cavalry moved up on the right; the plan miscarried when Captain Johann von Ewald's jäger company was pinned down under "murderous fire" and Donop's troops were committed before the enveloping columns could get behind the Americans. Lincoln's men fought well and the bulk of them evaded the trap. Henry Knox admitted losing six killed and 20 to 30 captured, while the British claimed to have taken 80 prisoners.
The light cavalry seized three brass 3-pound cannons from the Americans. The loss of their senior officers and the defeat at Bound Brook caused "distracted" behavior in the ranks. In General Orders of 28 April at Morristown, New Jersey, Private Samuel Philips was sentenced to be reprimanded, Private Henry Randall and Ensign McKee were acquitted, Lieutenant Simrall was cashiered for refusing to do his duty. Washington appended the following note; the Commander in Chief is pleased to suspend the execution of the Sentences of Alexander McKay, David Livinston, John Dilworth, John Edgar, Jacob Knight, John McClaugherry, William Roach, Daniel Clark, John Kirckendal, Jacob Wilker -- Privates of that Battalion,'till the proceedings of the Court are reported to him. On 22 May 1777 the 8th Pennsylvania was assigned to the 2nd Pennsylvania Brigade. In June, Lieutenant Colonel Butler, Captain Swearingen, 139 men of the regiment were detached to Colonel Daniel Morga
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795. He is best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of his cousin Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he died before assuming the post. Henry Clinton was born on April 16 in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date propagated in modern biographic summaries. Willcox notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. Historian John Fredriksen claims. Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain.
They were well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. In 1739 his father stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York, he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle. He did not go to New York until 1743, he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. Henry's career would benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. Records of the family's life in New York are sparse, he is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745; the next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, he was assigned to garrison duty at the captured Fortress Louisbourg. In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career.
It was two years. His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, renamed the Grenadier Guards, was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London; the 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760. Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761 under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld.
His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs. In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position, it was after this engagement that the unit lost its commanding officer, General Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a colonel, was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton wounded forcing him to quit the field; this and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship.
During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling", he formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, William Phillips. He made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died; as the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere, his mother, who had a history of mental instability and