Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Interstate 81 in Pennsylvania
Interstate 81 is an 854.89-mile-long north–south Interstate Highway, stretching from Dandridge, Tennessee to Fisher's Landing, New York at the United States/Canadian border. In the state of Pennsylvania, I-81 runs for 232.63 miles from the Maryland state line near Greencastle to the New York state line near Hallstead and is called the American Legion Memorial Highway. It is the longest north–south Interstate in Pennsylvania. I-81 enters Pennsylvania at the Maryland state line about 13 miles south of Chambersburg. In Chambersburg at exit 16, it meets U. S. Route 30. About a mile north of Carlisle at exit 52, it meets U. S. Route 11, which takes passengers to the Pennsylvania Turnpike/ Interstate 76, since I-81 has no direct interchange with I-76; the stretch of US 11 connecting I-81 to I-76 is known locally as the "Miracle Mile" since it contains plenty of traveler services including restaurants, gas stations, truck stops, etc. From here, I-81 travels in an precisely east–west direction for the next 37 miles.
At exit 59, it has an interchange with the western terminus of Pennsylvania Route 581. I-81 becomes the Capital Beltway from exit 59 to exit 70; as passengers approach exit 67, a major complex interchange is seen. The interchange consists of U. S. Route 22 and U. S. Route 322. S. Route 322 merges with Interstate 81. Exit 70 is the eastern terminus of the US 322 concurrency and the northern terminus of Interstate 83, is located in Colonial Park. For the entire segment between the Mason–Dixon line and Interstate 78, I-81 runs through the Great Valley. North of Harrisburg between Interstate 83/U. S. Route 322 and Interstate 78, the highway passes near Fort Indiantown Gap. At mile marker 89, I-81 meets the western terminus of I-78, I-78 picks up the eastward route through the Great Valley and heads toward Allentown and New York City, while I-81 turns back northward, cutting through the Blue Mountain at Swatara Gap. From mile marker 141 to mile marker 146, I-81 passes near the city of Hazleton. At exit 151, I-81 meets Interstate 80.
As motorists enter Wilkes-Barre at mile marker 165, Interstate 81 merges with Pennsylvania Route 309 for 5 miles. At exit 175, I-81 meets with Pennsylvania Route 315, which will lead passengers to the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. In Scranton at mile marker 185, there is a short freeway called the Central Scranton Expressway, which will lead passengers into downtown Scranton. At mile marker 187, I-81 is at the Throop Dunmore Interchange, which consists of Interstate 84, Interstate 380, U. S. Route 6. US 6 merges with I-81 for 7 miles from mile marker 187 to mile marker 194. At mile marker 194 is the northern terminus of Interstate 476 and the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike; the last exit in Pennsylvania is exit 230, Pennsylvania Route 171 near Hallstead. 4 miles north of exit 230 is the New York state line. A toll highway along the present-day I-81 corridor through Pennsylvania was planned in the 1950s; the section from Scranton to the New York State line was planned as a continuation of the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
A new extension of the turnpike Between Harrisburg and Scranton was proposed. After the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 was passed, plans were changed to build a freeway rather than a toll road; the first section to be built ran from PA 347 in Dunmore to US 11 in northern Scranton. This section opened in 1960. All of I-81 in Pennsylvania was completed by the 1970s. Construction cost nearly $443 million. On May 9, 2013, a tanker crashed and caught fire at the interchange between I-81 and US 22/US 322 in Harrisburg; the fire damaged the bridges carrying westbound US 22/US 322 and a ramp over I-81. At least one of those bridges, carrying US 22 eastbound over I-81 and several ramps, another, the ramp carrying traffic from I-81 northbound to US 22/US 322 westbound, would have to be demolished and replaced; the fire resulted in about ten miles of I-81 being closed in both directions, with traffic being diverted along the southern portion of the Capital Beltway. The highway would not be reopened to traffic until the evening of May 13.
On April 28, 2016, plans were announced for a Scranton Beltway to use the Pennsylvania Turnpike Northeast Extension as a bypass for I-81 around the congested segment through Scranton and its suburbs. The turnpike between the two I-81 interchanges carries an average of 10,000 vehicles per day vs. 80,000 on the parallel segment of I-81. This project will build two high-speed connections between I-476 and I-81: one south of Scranton in Dupont and one north of Scranton in South Abington Township. Tolls on the connections will be paid with E-ZPass or toll-by-plate. Construction on this project, expected to cost $160 million, could begin as soon as 2021. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal Throop Dunmore Interchange Interstate 81 exits in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation oversees transportation issues in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The administrator of PennDOT is the Pennsylvania Secretary of Transportation Leslie Richards. Presently, PennDOT supports over 40,500 miles of state roads and highways, about 25,000 bridges, as well as new roadway construction, the exception being the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, although they follow PennDOT policies and procedures. In addition, other modes of transportation are supervised or supported by PennDOT; these include aviation, rail traffic, mass transit, intrastate highway shipping traffic, motor vehicle safety & licensing, driver licensing. PennDOT supports the Ports of Philadelphia and Erie; the current budget is $3.8 billion in federal and state funds. The state budget is supported by the motor vehicle fuels tax, dedicated to transportation issues. In recent years, PennDOT has focused on intermodal transportation; this is a broad attempt to enhance public transportation.
PennDOT employs 11,000 people. PennDOT has extensive traffic cameras set up throughout various parts of major cities in the state, such as Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Erie and Wilkes Barre/Scranton; the latter's cameras are fed through to a television channel for Service Electric cable customers in Wilkes-Barre. These cameras are installed for ITS purposes, not for law enforcement; the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation was created from the former Department of Highways by Act 120, approved by the legislature on May 6, 1970. The intent of the legislation was to consolidate transportation-related functions performed in the Departments of Commerce, Community Affairs and Waters, Military Affairs and other state agencies. PennDOT is responsible for constructing and maintaining a system of roads at the sole expense of the state, it controls more than 41,000 miles of roadway. Townships control 51,376 miles of roads and streets. In all, there are more than 118,226 miles of public roads and toll roads in the Commonwealth.
Greatest growth in the state highway system occurred in 1931 when 20,156 miles of rural roads were taken over by the Commonwealth. At that time, the Department of Highways, at the direction of Governor Gifford Pinchot, embarked upon an extensive program of paving rural roadways, well known as the "get the farmer out of the mud" program; the Federal Government in 1916 instituted grants to the states for highway construction. These grants continue today and now comprise the key element in determining the size of the state's roadbuilding programs. State payments to local communities for road maintenance have continued to expand so that they average $170 million annually; the agency went into well-noted organizational decline. An effort to bring quality management principles to PENNDOT over an extended period—four changes of state governor—accomplished a great deal. PennDOT is responsible for registration along with issuing driver licenses. Through a system of decentralized, privatized providers, driver services are available at over 1700 sites statewide.
The privatized system of providers sometimes referred to as auto tag agents or private DMV offices has existed for over 45 years. This revolution of private DMV Offices has been followed by only five other states. However, Pennsylvania is the only state to separate motor vehicle offices from driver license offices. Driver license centers to this day are all run and owned by PennDOT, unlike motor vehicle offices which are run and controlled by PennDOT however owned. An exception to this is at the PennDOT headquarters on Front St. in Harrisburg, which has a large room for all motor vehicle transactions and drivers' license transactions, with a separate room for photographing and issuing licenses to motorists. There are over 1700 card agents and full agents, in which 400 online messengers, each of these with incrementally increasing authority as dictated by law and all controlled by PennDOT. Online messengers exist throughout Pennsylvania with the same authorities as DMV offices in other states.
According to a 2011 study by Transportation for America, 26.5% of Pennsylvania's bridges were structurally deficient and the state led the United States with six metropolitan areas with a high percentage of deficient bridges. These figures would have been higher, but the state had undertaken a program to quadruple state funding for bridge repairs. Across the United States, 61,000 bridges are "structurally deficient," which means they need repairs, contain a piece rated as "poor," and might have a weight limit; the term structurally deficient does not mean. In Pennsylvania, eight of the top ten most traveled structurally deficient bridges are located in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania has the highest number of structurally deficient bridges in the U. S. Overall, the state has 25,000 bridges excluding owned bridges, the third-largest number of bridges in the U. S. Pennsylvania has launched a program called the Rapid Bridge Replacement project to increase the number of bridges it fixes; the project is a public-private partnership between PennDOT and the private firm Plenary Walsh Keystone Partners.
The project fixed 700 bridges in 2014. Administratively PennDOT is divided into engineering districts to localize engineering and maintenance; the following is a table of their associated headquarters. Th
Mount Union, Pennsylvania
Mount Union is a borough in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania 44 miles southeast of Altoona and 12 miles southeast of Huntingdon, on the Juniata River. In the vicinity are found bituminous coal, ganister rock, fire clay, some timber. A major Easter grass factory is located in the northern quadrant of the borough limits; the population was 2,447 at the 2010 census. Mount Union was influenced by industry, it was at one time the world's largest producer of refractory material, with three plants – General Refractories, United States Refractories, Harbison Walker. The refractory business in Mount Union lasted from 1899 to about 1972, with limited production into the early 1990s. Other industries included two tanneries, a tanning extract plant, coal yards, an explosives and munitions plant, foundry and machine shops. Mount Union was the northern terminus for the narrow gauge East Broad Top Railroad, connecting to the Main Line of the Middle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the EBT maintained a large dual-gauge yard and coal cleaning plant in Mount Union and supplied coal to the Refractory plants.
The EBT ceased operations in 1956 but the track is still in place and owned by the railroad. From 1998 to 2010, the Mount Union Connecting Railroad attempted to reactivate the EBT main track through Mount Union and rehabilitated it, but only a couple cars were serviced and none moved over the EBT trackage; the Mount Union Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994, with 300 significant historic structures and homes. The population tally in 1900 was 1,086 which rose to 3,338 in 1910; the culturally significant Thousand Steps of the Standing Stone Trail are located in the Jacks Narrows about 2 miles west of the town along U. S. Route 22; the annual Creation Festival is hosted locally. Mount Union is the site of the PA Lions Beacon Lodge Camp, a summer camp for people with visual impairments and special needs, founded by Carl Shoemaker in 1948. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which, 1.1 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water.
Huntingdon County Career and Technology Center – shared with the three other school districts Mount Union Area Senior High School Mount Union Area Junior High School Mapleton-Union Elementary School Shirley Township Elementary School Kister Elementary School Mount Union Borough Police Department Mount Union Ambulance Services Mount Union Fire Department Mount Union Area Medical Center Mount Union Post Office Mount Union Community Library Allenport Lions Club Mount Union Area Food Pantry As of the census of 2000, there were 2,504 people, 1,166 households, 684 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,221.6 people per square mile. There were 1,288 housing units at an average density of 1,142.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 86.50% White, 11.02% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.32% from other races, 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population. There were 1,166 households, out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families.
37.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.83. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 81.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $21,048, the median income for a family was $30,582. Males had a median income of $28,464 versus $21,719 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $13,419. About 25.5% of families and 28.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.0% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over. Chamber of Commerce Police department Mount Union Area School District
Pennsylvania Route 316
Pennsylvania Route 316 is a 16.6-mile-long state highway located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. The southern terminus is at the Maryland state line near Waynesboro, where the road continues into that state as Maryland Route 60; the northern terminus is at U. S. Route 11 in Chambersburg. PA 316 heads north from the state line through rural land to Waynesboro, where it forms a concurrency with PA 16. From here, the route continues through farmland, intersecting PA 914 south of New Franklin. PA 316 reaches Chambersburg and runs through developed area, coming to an interchange with Interstate 81 before ending at US 11. PA 316 was designated in 1928 between the Maryland border south of Waynesboro and US 11 in Chambersburg, following Anthony Highway, State Hill Road, Clayton Avenue to Waynesboro before picking up its current alignment. In 1937, the current alignment south of Waynesboro became a southern extension of PA 997 while PA 316 was extended north from Chambersburg to PA 944 south of Upper Strasburg.
In the 1940s, the route swapped alignments with PA 997 south of Waynesboro while the north end was cut back to US 11 in Chambersburg, with most of the former alignment north of Chambersburg removed for the Letterkenny Army Depot. PA 316 begins at the Maryland border in Washington Township, heading north on two-lane undivided Wayne Highway; the road continues south into Maryland as MD 60. From the state line, the route heads through a mix of farms and woods with some homes, making a turn to the northeast. PA 316 continues through open farmland before entering Waynesboro, where it becomes Potomac Street and passes homes and businesses. In the downtown area of Waynesboro, PA 316 intersects PA 16 and turns northwest to form a brief concurrency with that route on Main Street. PA 316 splits from PA 16 by heading north on Grant Street; the route makes a curve to the northwest and leaves Waynesboro for Washington Township, becoming Wayne Highway again as it heads into agricultural areas with scattered development.
The road continues into Quincy Township. Here, PA 316 reaches the community of Five Forks and turns to the north, continuing through more farmland as it passes through Elbrook; the road crosses a CSX's Lurgan Subdivision railroad line and passes through Jugtown and Altenwald, running a short distance to the west of the railroad tracks. The route heads farther from the Lurgan Subdivision as it turns northwest into Guilford Township and becomes Wayne Road, passing through a mix of farms and homes. PA 316 curves to the north as it comes to the PA 914 junction and passes through the residential community of New Franklin; the road comes to a bridge over the CSX line and passes more farms before heading into commercial areas and widening into a four-lane divided highway as it interchanges with I-81. After this, the road enters Chambersburg and becomes Wayne Avenue, a five-lane road with a center left-turn lane that passes more businesses. Farther northwest, PA 316 narrows into a two-lane road; the route comes to a bridge over Norfolk Southern's Lurgan Branch railroad line and passes near industrial establishments before heading north near more homes on 2nd Street and ending at northbound US 11.
When routes were legislated in Pennsylvania in 1911, what is now PA 316 was not given a number. PA 316 was designated in 1928 to run from the Maryland border south of Waynesboro north to US 11 in Chambersburg; the route followed Anthony Highway, State Hill Road, Clayton Avenue north to PA 16 in Waynesboro before it picked up its present alignment to Chambersburg. Upon designation, the route was paved between the state line and PA 16 and Waynesboro and between New Franklin and Chambersburg. By 1930, PA 316 was under construction between Elbrook. PA 316 was extended north from Chambersburg to PA 944 south of Upper Strasburg in 1937, running concurrent with US 11 to downtown Chambersburg and following US 30 west before heading northwest along Franklin Street and Edenville Road towards Upper Strasburg. At this time, the entire length of PA 316 was paved. In addition, the current route along Wayne Highway and Potomac Street south of Waynesboro became a southern extension of PA 997 in 1937, paved. In the 1940s, PA 316 and PA 997 switched alignments south of Waynesboro, with PA 316 routed to follow Wayne Highway and Potomac Street between MD 60 at the Maryland border and PA 16 in Waynesboro.
In addition, the north end of PA 316 reverted to US 11 in Chambersburg, with a portion of the former route north of Chambersburg becoming an unnumbered road while most of the road between Chambersburg and Upper Strasburg was removed to make way for the Letterkenny Army Depot. The entire route is in Franklin County. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal
McConnellsburg is a borough in Fulton County, United States. The population was 1,220 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Fulton County. The McConnellsburg Historic District was recognized by the United States Department of the Interior in 1993 when it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the district consists of 144 structures. Of notable meaning are the numerous taverns, automotive garages and other travel-related structures still in existence today, which includes the Fulton House, the Fulton County Courthouse, the log cabin of Daniel McConnell, who laid out the borough on April 20, 1786, it was further incorporated on March 26, 1814. McConnellsburg's largest economic driver is Oshkosh Corporation-owned JLG Industries, a major manufacturer of construction and maintenance access-related lifting equipment such as boomlifts, etc. McConnellsburg is located in eastern Fulton County at 39°55′58″N 77°59′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land.
The elevation in the center of town is 896 feet above sea level. The borough is located in the Ridge and Valley section of the Appalachian Mountains in southern Pennsylvania, it is situated in a 2-mile-wide valley between Tuscarora Mountain to the east and Little Scrub Ridge and Meadow Grounds Mountain to the west. U. S. Route 522 passes north-south through the center of town as Second Street; the main east-west street through the town center is Lincoln Way, or old U. S. Route 30. U. S. Route 30 now bypasses the borough on a limited access highway to the north; the west end of Pennsylvania Route 16 is in McConnellsburg, following Lincoln Way and the Buchanan Trail southeast out of town. Via US 522 it is 24 miles south to Hancock, 9 miles north to the Pennsylvania Turnpike. US 30 leads 19 miles west to Breezewood. PA 16 leads southeast 10 miles to Mercersburg and 20 miles to Greencastle; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,073 people, 506 households, 271 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,998.2 people per square mile.
There were 551 housing units at an average density of 1,539.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.02% White, 0.84% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 506 households, out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.4% were non-families. 42.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 21.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.72. In the borough the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 28.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.9 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $25,987, the median income for a family was $33,125. Males had a median income of $28,478 versus $20,577 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,884. About 14.9% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.7% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Newspaper: The Fulton County News WEEO-FM, 103.7 - talk radio format Toby Shaw, news presenter
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of