The Pennsylvania State University is a public, land-grant, research university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania, Penn State conducts teaching and public service, its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. Its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township, it has two law schools: Penn State Law, on the school's University Park campus, Dickinson Law, located in Carlisle, 90 miles south of State College. The College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special mission campuses located across the state. Penn State has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies," a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the United States.
It has the world's largest dues-paying alumni association. The university's total enrollment in 2015–16 was 97,500 across its 24 campuses and online through its World Campus; the university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses. The university's research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year. Annually, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, the world's largest student-run philanthropy; this event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus. In 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The university's athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Penn State Nittany Lions, they compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports. The school was sponsored by the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society and founded as a degree-granting institution on February 22, 1855, by Pennsylvania's state legislature as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania; the use of "college" or "university" was avoided because of local prejudice against such institutions as being impractical in their courses of study.
Centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would acquire. In 1862, the school's name was changed to the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, with the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, Pennsylvania selected the school in 1863 to be the state's sole land-grant college; the school's name changed to the Pennsylvania State College in 1874. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, broadened the curriculum. Shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation. Atherton expanded the liberal arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Atherton's honor. Additionally, Penn State's Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton.
His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, marked by an engraved marble block in front of his statue. In the years that followed, Penn State grew becoming the state's largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. Around that time, a system of commonwealth campuses was started by President Ralph Dorn Hetzel to provide an alternative for Depression-era students who were economically unable to leave home to attend college. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, a college of medicine and hospital, was established in Hershey with a $50 million gift from the Hershey Trust Company. In the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution.
As such, it now belongs to the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. In 1975, the lyrics in Penn State's alma mater song were revised to be gender-neutral in honor of International Women's Year. In 1989, the Pennsylvania College of Technology in Williamsport joined ranks with the university, in 2000, so did the Dickinson School of Law; the university is now the largest in Pennsylvania, in 2003, it was credited with having the second-largest impact on the state economy of any organization, generating an economic effect of over $17 billion on a budget of $2.5 billion. To offset the lack of funding due to the limited growth in state appropriations to Penn State, the university has concentrated its efforts on philanthropy. In 2011, the university and its football team garnered major international media attention and criticism due to a sex abuse scandal in which university officials were alleged to have covered up incidents of child s
The Cyborg Foundation is a nonprofit organization created in 2010 by cyborg activists and artists Moon Ribas and Neil Harbisson. The foundation is a platform for the research and promotion of projects related to extending and creating new senses and perceptions by applying technology to the human body; the Cyborg Foundation was first housed in Tecnocampus Scientific Park and is based in New York City. It collaborates with several institutions and research centers around the world, their mission is to assist humans in becoming cyborgs, promote the use of cybernetics as part of the human body and defend cyborg rights. They have donated cyborg antennas to blind communities and has taught colour to blind children to help them develop the sense of colour; the foundation believes that some cybernetic extensions should be treated as body parts, not as devices. The foundation was created as a response to the growing number of letters and emails that Neil Harbisson received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.
Since its creation the foundation has kick-started several new-sense development projects and has donated cyborg antennas to blind communities in Europe and America. The first blind person to try out an eyeborg was Sabriye Tenberken followed by blind students from Braille Without Borders in Tibet and members of the Sociedad de Ciegos de Pichincha in Ecuador. In 2010, the foundation was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Mataró. In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival's Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition. In 2016, Cyborg Foundation together with Parsons School of Design, The New School, Sensorium Works and Pioneer Works launched Cyborg Futures, a cyborg residency program in New York designed to further the Cyborg Foundation’s mission to support the use of cybernetics as part of the body and begin to introduce the diverse possibilities for artistic practices that utilize extended sensory capabilities.
A number of collaborations exist with Ecuador, since its president Lenin Moreno announced that his government would collaborate with the Cyborg Foundation to create new sensory organs. In 2012, the Cyborg Foundation signed a partnership to create new cybernetic extensions in collaboration with Universidade de Pernambuco in Brazil. In 2016, together with Mesa & Cadeira, a group of people created “Design Yourself” – a visual identity and website for the Foundation; the site explores the different human relationships with technology, offers tools for expanding senses and abilities, in the process, for becoming a cyborg. The group developed a dental implant, that uses bluetooth technology and morse code to communicate; the first demonstration of the Transdental Communication System was presented in Sao Paulo. In 2014, the Cyborg Foundation participated in the European Union commission for Robotic Laws. In 2016 together with electronic civil rights and civil liberties researcher and activist Rich MacKinnon, a list of Cyborg Civil Rights were proposed at South by Southwest.
This list described the redefinition and defense of cyborg civil liberties and the sanctity of cyborg bodies. It foresaw a battle for the ownership and control of augmented and synthetic anatomies. Cyborg Foundation website TED Global: "Listening to Picasso" La Vanguardia: "Nace una fundación dedicada a convertir humanos en ciborgs" The New York Times: "A surgical implant for seeing colors through sound" Cyborg Foundation Rafel Duran Torrent Foundation Guide
Marco Pinotti is an Italian former road racing cyclist, who competed as a professional between 1999 and 2013. An individual time trial specialist, Pinotti was a six-time Italian Time Trial Champion; as an amateur he won 28 races before turning professional in 1999 with the Lampre–Daikin team. He won the Grand Prix d'Europa in 1999 together with his teammate Raivis Belohvoščiks and the 5th stage of the 2000 Tour de Pologne. In 2001 he finished second in stage 15 of the Tour de France behind Belgian Rik Verbrugghe, he had surgery on his ulna in November 2001 and started training again only in February 2002. He returned to competition in April 2002; the 2003 season brought some victories as he won the 4th stage in the Tour of the Basque Country and the King of the Mountains classification. In the Bici Vasca he broke his pelvis, forcing recuperation, he has since recovered. His speciality is in individual time trials. Pinotti joined the newly formed Spanish team Saunier Duval–Prodir team in 2005, he won the Italian National Time Trial Championship in 2005.
Pinotti came second to Luca Ascani in the 2007 Italian National time trials but Ascani was found to have tested positive for EPO and Pinotti was awarded the jersey. Pinotti retained the title in 2008. At the 2007 Giro d'Italia, Pinotti placed second in stage six to Spoleto and took over the leader's pink jersey, he held it for four stages. In 2008, he won the final stage time trial, again in 2012. In 2009 and 2011, he help his teams win the team time trial; the result in 2011 helped him take over the pink jersey for one day. In 2008, Pinotti joined team Highroad, which became Columbia HighRoad in 2009 and HTC-Columbia in 2010. Pinotti joined the BMC Racing Team for 2012 following the disbanding of the HTC–Highroad team. At the end of the year, he released a book. In October 2013 Pinotti announced that he would retire from racing after competing in the Tour of Beijing and Chrono des Nations, transitioning to a position in the Sports Science division of BMC Racing Team. Grand Tour general classification results timeline Media related to Marco Pinotti at Wikimedia Commons Fan website Marco Pinotti at Cycling Archives