Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel
The Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel is a tunnel through Kittatinny Mountain in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. It is one of seven tunnels completed for the Pennsylvania Turnpike, one of four still in use today; the Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel is 4,727 feet in length, is located 600 feet west of the Blue Mountain Tunnel, separated by the Gunter Valley. The Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel's western portal is featured on the first postcard during the opening sequence of National Lampoon's Vacation. Map: 40°09′10″N 77°40′14″W
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Pennsylvania General Assembly
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the legislature of the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The legislature convenes in the State Capitol building in Harrisburg. In colonial times, the legislature was known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly and was unicameral. Since the Constitution of 1776, the legislature has been known as the General Assembly; the General Assembly became a bicameral legislature in 1791. The General Assembly has 253 members, consisting of a Senate with 50 members and a House of Representatives with 203 members, making it the second-largest state legislature in the nation and the largest full-time legislature. Senators are elected for a term of four years. Representatives are elected for a term of two years; the Pennsylvania general elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. A vacant seat must be filled by special election, the date of, set by the presiding officer of the respective house. Senators must be at least 25 years old, Representatives at least 21 years old.
They must be citizens and residents of the state for a minimum of four years and reside in their districts for at least one year. Individuals who have been convicted of felonies, including embezzlement and perjury, are ineligible for election. No one, expelled from the General Assembly may be elected. Legislative districts are drawn every ten years, following the U. S. Census. Districts are drawn by a five-member commission, of which four members are the majority and minority leaders of each house; the fifth member, who chairs the committee, is appointed by the other four and may not be an elected or appointed official. If the leadership can not decide on a fifth member, the State Supreme Court may appoint her. While in office, legislators may not hold civil office. If a member resigns, the Constitution states that he or she may not be appointed to civil office for the duration of the original term for which he or she was elected; the General Assembly is a continuing body within the term. It convenes at 12 o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January each year and meets throughout the year.
Both houses adjourn on November 30 in even-numbered years, when the terms of all members of the House and half the members of the Senate expire. Neither body can adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other; the governor may call a special session. As of 2017, only 35 special sessions have been called in the history of Pennsylvania; the Assembly meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol, completed in 1906. Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, the Assembly must meet in the City of Harrisburg and can move only if given the consent of both chambers. During the mid-19th century, the frustration of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the severe level of corruption in the General Assembly culminated in a constitutional amendment in 1864 which prevented the General Assembly from writing statutes covering more than one subject; the amendment was so poorly written that it prevented the General Assembly from undertaking a comprehensive codification of the Commonwealth's statutes until another amendment was pushed through in 1967 to provide the necessary exception.
This is why today, Pennsylvania is the only U. S. state. Pennsylvania is undertaking its first official codification process in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai President pro tem of the Senate: Joseph B. Scarnati 2005 Pennsylvania General Assembly pay raise controversy Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, for the General Assembly before 1776 Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus Pennsylvania General Assembly Legislative Process
The Mon–Fayette Expressway is a tolled freeway, planned to link Interstate 68 near Morgantown, West Virginia with Interstate 376 near Monroeville, Pennsylvania. The ultimate goal of the highway is to provide a high speed north-south connection between Morgantown and the eastern side of Pittsburgh while revitalizing the economically distressed towns in Fayette and Washington counties, serving as an alternative to Interstate 79 to the west, as well as relieving the PA 51 alignment from Pittsburgh to Uniontown. Although it is being built to Interstate Highway standards, there is debate as to whether or not the freeway will become part of the Interstate Highway System. At least one proposal was to give it the Interstate 97 designation, while others have been to make it a spur route of I-68. In the interim, the highway uses state highway designations instead, as it does not parallel an existing U. S. Route for its entire length, though it does parallel and at times run concurrent with U. S. Route 40 and U.
S. Route 119 for portions of its length; the route, in its three jurisdictions, uses the number 43 for familiarity-based reasons, is thus known as West Virginia Route 43, Pennsylvania Route 43, PA Turnpike 43. Most of the route is maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, while the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation maintains small portions of the highway near Uniontown, the West Virginia Division of Highways maintains the short section in West Virginia. Despite the numerous agencies overseeing the highway, it is one continuous highway. South of Jefferson Hills, the Mon–Fayette Expressway is complete. Construction to complete the highway to Duquesne is scheduled to begin in 2021, with plans existing to extend the road further to Monroeville; the Mon–Fayette Expressway begins at a diamond interchange with I-68 in Cheat Lake in Monongalia County, West Virginia, heading north as a four-lane freeway signed as WV 43. The highway passes near some residential development and comes to an interchange with Bowers Lane that provides access to County Route 857.
Following this, WV 43 runs through forested areas, turning to the north. The Mon–Fayette Expressway crosses the state line into Pennsylvania, where it becomes PA Turnpike 43, maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission; the freeway heads through Springhill Township in Fayette County, passing through forested areas with some fields. The first interchange in the state is at Gans Road, which provides access to US 119 to the west and PA 857 to the east. Here, PA Turnpike 43 becomes a toll road and continues northeast through more rural areas, where it crosses into Georges Township and comes to a diamond interchange with Rubles Mill Road that accesses PA 857 a short distance to the east. Past this interchange, the highway comes to the Fairchance mainline toll plaza before it curves north and northwest; the route passes to the west of an industrial park before reaching an interchange with Big Six Road which provides access to US 119 and PA 857. At this point, the Mon–Fayette Expressway becomes toll-free and maintained by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, signed as PA 43.
The roadway woodland as it bypasses Fairchance to the west. Farther north, PA 43 comes to an interchange with US 119 and the northern terminus of PA 857, at which point the road becomes US 119. PA 43 continues as an unsigned concurrency with US 119 for 4 miles around Uniontown, with a sign saying that 43 traffic should follow signs for US 119 through Uniontown. A short distance US 119 and the unsigned PA 43 cross together into South Union Township and reach an interchange with the US 40 freeway, at which point US 40 merges with US 119 and the unsigned PA 43, joining the concurrency; the three routes bypass Uniontown to the west on the freeway, running between farmland and woods to the west and residential neighborhoods to the east. The highway comes to a diamond interchange with Walnut Hill Road, where it curves northwest and passes near more homes. US 40/US 119/unsigned PA 43 curves northeast and reaches a trumpet interchange providing access to PA 21 in a commercial area. A short distance the freeway comes to an interchange with the western terminus of US 40 Business, at which point US 40 splits to the northwest.
US 119 and the unsigned PA 43 continue northeast on the freeway into North Union Township, where they run between rural areas to the northwest and residential areas to the southeast. The unsigned concurrency ends as PA Turnpike 43, again a toll road maintained by the PTC, splits from US 119 at an interchange that serves PA 51; the Mon–Fayette Expressway heads northwest through rural areas with some nearby development. The highway reaches a diamond interchange with Old Pittsburgh Road which provides connections to US 40 and PA 51. Past this interchange, the tollway crosses into Menallen Township and runs through a mix of farmland and woodland. Farther northwest, PA Turnpike 43 comes to an interchange at Keisterville-Upper Middletown Road, which provides access to US 40 to the southwest; the Mon–Fayette Expressway enters Redstone Township, where it reaches the Redstone mainline toll plaza. The highway continues northwest through rural land and comes to a diamond interchange with US 40. Following this, the toll road heads northwest through rural areas to the south of Brownsville, crossing the Dunlap Creek into Luzerne Township.
Here, PA Turnpike curves to the northwest. The Mon–Fayette Expressway crosses the Monongahela River on the Mon–Fayette Expressway Bridge into Centerville in Washington County, where it curves north and comes to an interchange with PA 88. At this point, the road becomes toll-free again, t
A Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and/or freight transportation, first used to describe an open-source vactrain design released by a joint team from Tesla and SpaceX. Drawing from Robert Goddard's vactrain, a hyperloop is a sealed tube or system of tubes through which a pod may travel free of air resistance or friction conveying people or objects at high speed while being efficient. Elon Musk's version of the concept, first publicly mentioned in 2012, incorporates reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on air bearings driven by linear induction motors and axial compressors; the Hyperloop Alpha concept was first published in August 2013, proposing and examining a route running from the Los Angeles region to the San Francisco Bay Area following the Interstate 5 corridor. The Hyperloop Genesis paper conceived of a hyperloop system that would propel passengers along the 350-mile route at a speed of 760 mph, allowing for a travel time of 35 minutes, faster than current rail or air travel times.
Preliminary cost estimates for this LA–SF suggested route were included in the white paper—US$6 billion for a passenger-only version, US$7.5 billion for a somewhat larger-diameter version transporting passengers and vehicles—although transportation analysts had doubts that the system could be constructed on that budget. The Hyperloop concept has been explicitly "open-sourced" by Musk and SpaceX, others have been encouraged to take the ideas and further develop them. To that end, a few companies have been formed, several interdisciplinary student-led teams are working to advance the technology. SpaceX built an 1-mile-long subscale track for its pod design competition at its headquarters in Hawthorne, California; some experts are skeptical, saying that the proposals ignore the expenses and risks of developing the technology and that the idea is "completely impractical". Claims have been made that the Hyperloop is too susceptible to disruption from a power outage or terror attacks to be considered safe.
The general idea of trains or other transportation traveling through evacuated tubes dates back more than a century, although the atmospheric railway was never a commercial success. Musk first mentioned that he was thinking about a concept for a "fifth mode of transport", calling it the Hyperloop, in July 2012 at a PandoDaily event in Santa Monica, California; this hypothetical high-speed mode of transportation would have the following characteristics: immunity to weather, collision free, twice the speed of a plane, low power consumption, energy storage for 24-hour operations. The name Hyperloop was chosen. Musk envisions. In May 2013, Musk likened the Hyperloop to a "cross between a Concorde and a railgun and an air hockey table". From late 2012 until August 2013, a group of engineers from both Tesla and SpaceX worked on the conceptual modeling of Hyperloop. An early system design was published in the Tesla and SpaceX blogs which describes one potential design, function and cost of a hyperloop system.
According to the alpha design, pods would accelerate to cruising speed using a linear electric motor and glide above their track on air bearings through tubes above ground on columns or below ground in tunnels to avoid the dangers of grade crossings. An ideal hyperloop system will be more energy-efficient and autonomous than existing modes of mass transit. Musk has invited feedback to "see if the people can find ways to improve it"; the Hyperloop Alpha was released as an open source design. The word mark "HYPERLOOP", applicable to "high-speed transportation of goods in tubes" was issued to SpaceX on April 4, 2017. In June 2015, SpaceX announced that it would build a 1-mile-long test track to be located next to SpaceX's Hawthorne facility; the track would be used to test pod designs supplied by third parties in the competition. By November 2015, with several commercial companies and dozens of student teams pursuing the development of Hyperloop technologies, the Wall Street Journal asserted that "The Hyperloop Movement", as some of its unaffiliated members refer to themselves, is bigger than the man who started it."The MIT Hyperloop team developed the first Hyperloop pod prototype, which they unveiled at the MIT Museum on May 13, 2016.
Their design uses electrodynamic suspension for eddy current braking. On January 29, 2017 one year after phase one of the Hyperloop pod competition, the MIT Hyperloop pod demonstrated the first low-pressure Hyperloop run in the world. Within this first competition the Delft University team from the Netherlands achieved the highest overall competition score; the awards for the "fastest pod" and the "best performance in flight" were won by the team TUM Hyperloop from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology placed third overall in the competition, judged by SpaceX engineers; the second Hyperloop pod competition took place from August 25–27, 2017. The only judging criteria being top speed provided. TUM Hyperloop from the Technical University of Munich won the competition by reaching a top speed of 324 km/h and therefore breaking the previous record of 310 km/h for hyperloop prototypes set by Hyperloop One. Developments in high-speed rail have been impeded by the difficulties in managing friction and air resistance, both of which become substantia
The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. A controlled-access highway, it runs for 360 miles across the state; the turnpike begins at the Ohio state line in Lawrence County, where the road continues west into Ohio as the Ohio Turnpike. It ends at the New Jersey border at the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge over the Delaware River in Bucks County, where the road continues east as the Pearl Harbor Memorial Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike; the highway runs east–west through the state, connecting the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia areas. It crosses the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania; the turnpike is part of the Interstate Highway System. The road uses a ticket system of tolling between the Neshaminy Falls toll plazas. An additional eastbound toll plaza is located at Gateway, near the Ohio border, while a cashless westbound toll gantry using toll-by-plate is located at the Delaware River Bridge.
E-ZPass, a form of electronic toll collection, is accepted at all toll plazas. During the 1930s the Pennsylvania Turnpike was designed to improve automobile transportation across the mountains of Pennsylvania, using seven tunnels built for the abandoned South Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1880s; the road opened on October 1940, between Irwin and Carlisle. It was one of the earlier long-distance limited-access highways in the United States, served as a precedent for additional limited-access toll roads and the Interstate Highway System. Following World War II, the turnpike was extended east to Valley Forge in 1950 and west to the Ohio border in 1951. In 1954, the road was extended further east to the Delaware River; the mainline turnpike was finished in 1956 with the completion of the Delaware River Bridge. During the 1960s an additional tube was bored at four of the two-lane tunnels, while the other three tunnels were bypassed. Improvements continue to be made to the road: rebuilding the original section to modern standards, widening portions of the turnpike to six lanes, adding interchanges.
Most in 2018, an ongoing interchange project saw the redesignation of the easternmost three miles of the road from I-276 to I-95. Though still considered part of the turnpike mainline, it is no longer signed with turnpike markers; the turnpike runs east–west across Pennsylvania, from the Ohio state line in Lawrence County to the New Jersey state line in Bucks County. It passes through the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia areas, along with farmland and woodland; the highway crosses the Appalachian Mountains, in the central part of the state, through four tunnels. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, created in 1937 to construct, finance and maintain the road, controls the highway. Five members comprise the commission, including the secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation and four other members appointed by the governor of Pennsylvania. In 2015, the roadway had an annual average daily traffic count ranging from a high of 120,000 vehicles between Norristown and I-476 to a low of 12,000 vehicles between the Ohio border and I-79/US 19.
As part of the Interstate Highway System, the turnpike is part of the National Highway System. The Pennsylvania Turnpike is designated a Blue Star Memorial Highway honoring those who have served in the United States Armed Forces. In addition to the east–west Pennsylvania Turnpike, the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission operates the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, the Beaver Valley Expressway, the Mon-Fayette Expressway, the Amos K. Hutchinson Bypass, the Southern Beltway; the Pennsylvania Turnpike begins at the Ohio state line in Lawrence County, beyond which it continues west as the Ohio Turnpike. From the state line, the turnpike heads southeast as a four-lane freeway designated as I-76 through the rural area south of New Castle. A short distance from the Ohio border, the eastbound lanes come to the Gateway toll plaza; the highway crosses into Beaver County, where it reaches its first interchange with I-376 in Big Beaver. After this interchange, the turnpike reaches the exit for PA 18 in Homewood before crossing the Beaver River on the Beaver River Bridge.
The road enters Butler County, where it comes to Cranberry Township. Here, an interchange serves U. S. Route 19 and I-79; the turnpike continues through a mix of rural land and suburban residential development north of Pittsburgh into Allegheny County. The road approaches the Warrendale toll plaza, where toll ticketing begins, continues southeast to an interchange with PA 8 in Hampton Township; the turnpike comes to the Allegheny Valley exit in Harmar Township, which provides access to PA 28 via Freeport Road. East of this interchange, the road heads south and crosses the Allegheny River on the six-lane Allegheny River Turnpike Bridge. After the Allegheny River crossing the turnpike returns to four lanes, passing through the Oakmont Country Club; the highway heads southeast to an eastern suburb of Pittsburgh. East of Monroeville, the turnpike continues through eastern Allegheny County befor