A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of the American one cent coin as well as the informal Irish designation of the 1 cent euro coin, it is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Canada, although one cent coins are no longer minted there. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig, it may be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen. The Carolingian penny was a 0.940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound. It was adopted by Offa of Mercia and other English kings and remained the principal currency in Europe over the next few centuries until repeated debasements necessitated the development of more valuable coins; the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797.

Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and throughout the British Commonwealth, the name remains in informal use. No penny is formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts. Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending; the etymology of the term "penny" is uncertain, although cognates are common across all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-, or *pand- with the individualizing suffix -ing. Common suggestions include that it was *panding as a Low Franconian form of Old High German pfant "pawn", it has been proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic pn, as the face of Carthaginian goddess Tanit was represented on nearly all Carthaginian currency. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked "new penny" until 1982 and 1985, respectively.

From the 16th century, the regular plural pennies fell out of use in England when referring to a sum of money, but continued to be used to refer to more than one penny coin. It remains common in Scottish English and is standard for all senses in American English, however, the informal "penny" is only used of the coins in any case, values being expressed in "cents"; the informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York State. In British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are written and spoken as a single word, as twopence or tuppence, threepence or thruppence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a sixpence. Thus, "a threepence" would be single coin of that value whereas "three pence" would be its value and "three pennies" would be three penny coins. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, such constructions were treated as single nouns.

Adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius. It followed the amount, e.g. "11d". It has been replaced since decimalization by p written without a space or period. From this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as "p". In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢. Elsewhere, it is written with a simple c; the medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, the Roman denarius. Forms of these seem to have reached as far as Sweden; the use of Roman currency in Britain seems to have fallen off after the Roman withdrawal and subsequent Saxon invasions. Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short instituted a major currency reform around AD 755, aiming to reorganise Francia's previous silver standard with a standardized.940-fine denier weighing 1⁄240 pound. Around 790, Charlemagne introduced a new.950 or.960-fine penny with a smaller diameter.

Surviving specimens have an average weight of 1.70 grams, although some estimate the original ideal mass at 1.76 grams. But despite the purity and quality of these pennies, they were rejected by traders throughout the Carolingian period in favor of the gold coins used elsewhere; some of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms copied the solidus, the late Roman gold coin. Around 641–670, there seems to have been a movement to use coins with a lower gold content; this decreased their value and may have increased the numbe

Gyro-Kopp-Ters Midnight Hawk

The Gyro-Kopp-Ters Midnight Hawk is an American autogyro, designed by Bob and Arden Kopp and produced by their company, Gyro-Kopp-Ters of Lake City, Florida. The aircraft is supplied as a complete ready-to-fly-aircraft; the Midnight Hawk features a single main rotor, a single-seat open cockpit with a windshield, tricycle landing gear with wheel pants and a four-cylinder, air-cooled, four-stroke, 90 hp Subaru EA-82 automotive conversion engine in pusher configuration. The engine is available as a direct drive version; the aircraft mounts a 25 ft diameter Dragon Wings main rotor made by Rotor Flight Dynamics, with a chord of 7 in. Standard equipment fitted includes a hydraulic pre-rotator; the propeller used is a three-bladed Powerfin composite, ground adjustable with a 5 ft diameter. The aircraft has an empty weight of 510 lb and a gross weight of 810 lb, giving a useful load of 300 lb; the company estimates the assembly time from the supplied kit as 60 hours. By November 2017 four examples had been registered in the United States with the Federal Aviation Administration.

Data from Bayerl and Gyro-Kopp-TersGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 12 ft 1 in Width: 5 ft 5 in Height: 8 ft 2 in Empty weight: 510 lb Gross weight: 810 lb Fuel capacity: 16 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Subaru EA-82 four cylinder, air-cooled, four stroke automotive engine, 90 hp Main rotor diameter: 25 ft 0 in Propellers: 3-bladed Powerfin composite, ground adjustable, 5 ft diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 85 mph Cruise speed: 50 mph Never exceed speed: 120 mph Rate of climb: 600 ft/min Official website Official photos

Board of Secondary Education, Odisha

The Board of Secondary Education, Odisha is a board of education for public and private schools under the state government of Odisha, India. The BSE was formed under the Odisha Education Act 1953; the board maintains all the necessary secondary education in the state of Odisha. Under this board various courses are offered to students for different occupations and to prepare the students for university; the BSE affiliates all state schools, private colleges in the state of Odisha. It established and manages the Secondary Board High School, Cuttack, as a model high school; this school shares the same campus as BSE's head office at Cuttack. The board conducts final examinations for various state sponsored courses. OTET HSC Examination CT C. P. Ed Prathama Madhyama NRTS In addition to the central zonal offices in Cuttack, there are 6 branch offices at Bhubaneswar, Baripada, Berhampur and Sambalpur; the revenue district under its jurisdiction includes offices situated at Jajpur, Kendrapara, Angul, Khurda, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Ganjam, Kandhamal Gajapati, Koraput, Malkanagir, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Baragarh, Sonepur and Nuapada.

Department of Higher Education, Odisha Council of Higher Secondary Education, Odisha Odisha Students Association Official website of BSE, Odisha