A Google Doodle is a special, temporary alteration of the logo on Google's homepages intended to commemorate holidays, events and notable historical figures. The first Google Doodle honored the Burning Man festival in 1998, was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor until 2000, when Page and Brin asked public relations officer Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day. Since a team of employees called "Doodlers" have organized and published the Doodles. Doodles were neither animated nor hyperlinked—they were images with hover text describing the subject or expressing a holiday greeting. Doodles increased in both complexity by the beginning of the 2010s. In January 2010 the first animated Doodle honored Sir Isaac Newton; the first interactive Doodle appeared shortly thereafter celebrating Pac-Man, hyperlinks began to be added to Doodles linking to a search results page for the subject of the Doodle.
By 2014, Google had published over 2,000 regional and international Doodles throughout its homepages featuring guest artists and personalities. As well as celebrating many well-known events and holidays, Google Doodles celebrate artists and scientists on their birthdays, including Andy Warhol, Albert Einstein, Leonardo da Vinci, Rabindranath Tagore, Louis Braille, Ella Fitzgerald, Percival Lowell, Edvard Munch, Nikola Tesla, Béla Bartók, René Magritte, Norman Hetherington, John Lennon, Michael Jackson, Vladimir Dakhno, Robert Moog, Akira Kurosawa, Satyajit Ray, H. G. Wells, Freddie Mercury, Samuel Morse, Hans Christian Ørsted, Mahatma Gandhi, Dennis Gabor, Édith Piaf, Constantin Brâncuși, Antonio Vivaldi, Abdel Halim Hafez, Jules Verne, Leonhard Euler, Lucille Ball, Hedy Lamarr, James Welch, among over 9,000 others; the featuring of Lowell's logo design coincided with the launch of another Google product, Google Maps. Google Doodles are used to depict major events at Google, such as the company's own anniversary.
The celebration of historical events is another common topic of Google Doodles including a Lego brick design in celebration of the interlocking Lego block's 50th anniversary. Some Google Doodles are limited to Google's country-specific home pages while others appear globally; the illustrators and artists who design Google Doodles are called "Doodlers." These doodlers have included artists like Ekua Holmes, Jennifer Hom, Sophia Foster-Dimino, Ranganath Krishnamani, Dennis Hwang. In May 2010, on the 30th anniversary of the 1980 arcade game Pac-Man, Google unveiled worldwide their first interactive logo, created in association with Namco. Anyone who visited Google could play Pac-Man on the logo, which featured the letters of the word "Google" on the Pac-Man maze; the logo mimicked the sounds the original arcade game made. The "I'm Feeling Lucky" button was replaced with an "Insert Coin" button. Pressing this once enabled you to play the Pac-Man logo. Pressing it once more added a second player, Ms. Pac-Man, enabling two players to play at once, controlled using the W, A, S, D keys, instead of the arrows as used by Player 1.
Pressing it for a third time performed an "I'm Feeling Lucky" search. It was removed on May 23, 2010 replacing Pac-Man with the normal logo. On that day, Google released a permanent Google Pac-Man site, due to the popular user demand for the playable logo. Pac-Man Doodle drew an estimated 1 billion players worldwide. Since that time, Google has continued to post occasional interactive and video doodles: On October 8, 2010, Google ran its first video doodle, a short animation set to the music of "Imagine" to mark John Lennon's 70th birthday. Freddie Mercury's 65th birthday was celebrated on September 5, 2011, with an animated clip set to "Don't Stop Me Now". On April 15, 2011, Google sported the first live-action video doodle, commemorating Charlie Chaplin's 122nd birthday; this doodle was a black and white YouTube video that, when clicked upon, started playing before redirecting to the usual Google search featuring the doodle's special occasion. All parts in this short film were played by the Google Doodle team, special behind-the-scenes footage was to be found on the Google blog.
Google displayed an interactive electric guitar doodle starting June 9, 2011, to celebrate the 96th birthday of Les Paul. Apart from being able to hover the cursor over the doodle to strum the strings just like one of Les Paul's Gibson guitars, there was a keyboard button, which when enabled allowed interaction with the doodle via the keyboard; the doodle still maintained some resemblance to the Google logo. In the U. S, the doodle allowed the user to record a 30-second clip, after which a URL is created and can be sent to others; the doodle remained on the site an extra day due to popularity in the US. It now has its own page linked to the Google Doodles archives. On June 23, 2012, in commemoration of Alan Turing's 100th birthday, Google's logo became an interactive Turing Machine. On August 8, 2012, Google Displayed an interactive Basketball Game for the 2012 Summer Olympics. On November 23, 2013, Google's logo changed to a playable simplistic Doctor Who game in honor of the show's 50th anniversary.
On May 19, 2014, for the 40th anniversary of the Rubik's Cube, Google made an interactive virtual Rubik's Cube that people could try to solve. On April 14, 2015, for the 155th anniversary of the Pony Express, Google made a playable 2D side-scrolling doodle game in which the player collects mail, avoids obstacles, delivers up to 100 letters from California to Missouri. On December 17, 2015, a Google Doodle was featured honoring the 245th anniversary of Beethoven's baptism, it features an interact
William Wyon, was official chief engraver at the Royal Mint from 1828 until his death. Wyon was born in Birmingham and was apprenticed to his father, a die sinker, in 1809. In 1816, he went to London, he studied the works of John Flaxman, attended the schools of the Royal Academy, gained a gold medal from the Society of Arts for a copy of the head of Ceres, a second for an original group. In 1816 he was appointed assistant engraver to the mint, in 1828 chief engraver. In 1831 he was elected associate and in 1838 full member of the Royal Academy, he died in Brighton. Wyon is buried under a simple rectangular York stone slab at West Norwood Cemetery, he was the father of engraver Leonard Charles Wyon. Under the influence of Flaxman, a master of relief sculpture, Wyon was a visible proponent of the Neoclassicist vogue. In 1834 he modelled the head of Princess Victoria, 15 years of age at the time; this work was subsequently used for the City Medal struck in 1837 to celebrate Victoria's first visit to the City of London after her accession to the throne and another medal issued in 1837 commemorating her visit to the Guildhall.
The name of William Wyon is well known among coin and medal collectors because of his prodigious output and artistic skill. He designed the second and third effigies of George IV, the effigy of William IV in 1830, working from the bust by Sir Francis Chantrey, "The Young Head", which graced Victoria's coinage from 1838 to 1860 on the pennies and the rest of the coinage until 1887, he designed the Naval General Service Medal, of which 20,933 were issued. Notable among his medallic work are the obverse designs for the prize and other medals for The Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace in 1851, the year of his death in Birmingham. Wyon's City Medal was the model for the head on the line-engraved postage stamps of 1840–79, beginning with the Penny Black, the world's first adhesive postage stamp, the embossed stamps of 1847–54 and the postal stationery 1841–1901; the primary die used for the embossed issue was engraved by Wyon. His design influenced the surface-printed stamps first printed in 1855.
Nicholas Carlisle, A memoir of the life and works of William Wyon printed. On line. Biography - Royal Mint Museum
William Mulready was an Irish genre painter living in London. He is best known for his romanticizing depictions of rural scenes, for creating Mulready stationery letter sheets, issued at the same time as the Penny Black postage stamp. William Mulready was born in County Clare. Early in his life, in 1792, the family moved to London, where he was able to get an education and was taught painting well enough so that he was accepted at the Royal Academy School at the age of fourteen. In 1802, he married a landscape painter, she came from a family of established artists. Their three children, Paul Augustus and Michael became artists, his relationship with his wife however deteriorated over the years, detailed in papers stored at the library of the Victoria and Albert Museum. His strong Catholic beliefs prevented any chance of a divorce but they separated, he shied from providing details. In a letter to him in 1827 she blamed him for the collapse of their marriage, suggesting cruelty, pederastic activities and adultery were the reasons.
His son, William Mulready Junior, lived in London and maintained a career of a portrait painter and picture restorer. He had five children, they were trained as artists, but not all of them pursued the artistic career: Henry William and John described themselves as'house painters'. Augustus Edwin Mulready was the most successful of them and became known as a member of the Cranbrook Colony of artists. Many of his early pictures show landscapes, before he started to build a reputation as a genre painter from 1808 on, painting everyday scenes from rural life, he illustrated children's books including the first edition of Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare in 1807. Some of these were for the Juvenile Library of Mary Jane Clairmont. Mulready's paintings were popular in Victorian times, his first painting of importance, Returning from the Ale House, now in the Tate Gallery, under the title Fair Time, appeared in 1809. In 1815 he became an Associate of the Royal Academy and R. A. in 1816. In the same year, he was awarded the French "Légion d'honneur".
Mulready's most important pictures are in the Tate Gallery. In the former are 33, among them Hampstead Heath. In the latter are five, including a Snow Scene. In the National Gallery, are Young Brother and The Toy Seller, his Wolf and the Lamb is in Royal possession. In 1840, Mulready designed the illustrations for the postal stationery, known as Mulready stationery were introduced by the Royal Mail at the same time as the Penny Black in May 1840, they were issued in two forms. Stationery manufacturers, whose livelihood was threatened by the new lettersheet, produced many caricatures of Mulready's design. Only six days after their introduction, on May 12, Rowland Hill wrote that. Mulready's designs were a folly, he died at the age of 77 in Bayswater, London and is buried in the nearby Kensal Green Cemetery where a monument to his memory was erected. The monument lies on the north side of the main path, midway between the entrance and the main chapel, although not in the front line of graves it is spotted due to its unique form.
The tomb was designed by Godfrey Sykes. Letter sheet List of people on stamps of Ireland Mulready stationery Stephens, Memorials of Mulready 69 paintings by or after William Mulready at the Art UK site William Mulready William Mulready at Library of Congress Authorities, with 12 catalogue records County Clare Library Famous Artist Born in Ennis Emory University's Shakespeare Illustrated Mulready's Seven Ages of Man National Portrait Gallery, London Portraits of, by, William Mulready Tate Collection, UK Works by William Mulready Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections 1d Mulready Letter Sheet, 2d Mulready Letter Sheet Mulready Stationery Envelopes, Letter Sheets and Exhibit Pages National Postal Museum, Washington, D. C. Stamps That Changed the World Kensal Green Cemetery Tour Find the Mulready Tomb
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects. It is related to philately, the study of stamps, it has been one of the world's most popular hobbies since the late nineteenth century with the rapid growth of the postal service, as a never-ending stream of new stamps was produced by countries that sought to advertise their distinctiveness through their stamps. Stamp collecting is accepted as one of the areas that make up the wider subject of philately, the study of stamps. A philatelist may, but does not have to, collect stamps, it is not uncommon for the term philatelist to be used to mean a stamp collector. Many casual stamp collectors accumulate stamps for sheer enjoyment and relaxation without worrying about the tiny details; the creation of a large or comprehensive collection, however requires some philatelic knowledge and will contain areas of philatelic studies. Postage stamps are collected for their historical value and geographical aspects and for the many subjects depicted on them, ranging from ships and birds to kings and presidents.
Stamp collectors are an important source of income for some countries who create limited runs of elaborate stamps designed to be bought by stamp collectors. The stamps produced by these countries may exceed their postal needs, but may feature attractive topical designs that many collectors desire, it has been suggested that John Bourke, Receiver General of Stamp Dues in Ireland, was the first collector. In 1774 he assembled a book of the existing embossed revenue stamps, ranging in value from 6 pounds to half a penny, as well as the hand stamped charge marks that were used with them, his collection is preserved in Dublin. Postage stamp collecting began at the same time that stamps were first issued, by 1860 thousands of collectors and stamp dealers were appearing around the world as this new study and hobby spread across Europe, European colonies, the United States and other parts of the world; the first postage stamp, the Penny Black, was issued by Britain in May 1840 and pictured a young Queen Victoria.
It was produced without perforations and had to be cut from the sheet with scissors in order to be used. While unused examples of the Penny Black are quite scarce, used examples are quite common, may be purchased for $20 to $200, depending upon condition. People started to collect stamps immediately. One of the earliest and most notable was John Edward Gray. In 1862, Gray stated that he "began to collect postage stamps shortly after the system was established and before it had become a rage". Women stamp collectors date from the earliest days of postage stamp collecting. One of the earliest was Adelaide Lucy Fenton who wrote articles in the 1860s for the journal The Philatelist under the name Herbert Camoens; as the hobby and study of stamps began to grow, stamp albums and stamp related literature began to surface, by the early 1880s publishers like Stanley Gibbons made a business out of this advent. Children and teenagers were early collectors of stamps in the 1870s. Many adults dismissed it as a childish pursuit but many of those same collectors, as adults, began to systematically study the available postage stamps and publish books about them.
Some stamps, such as the triangular issues of the Cape of Good Hope, have become legendary. Stamp collecting is a less popular hobby in the early 21st century. In 2013, the Wall Street Journal estimated the global number of stamp collectors was around 60 million. Tens of thousands of stamp dealers supply them with stamps along with stamp albums and other publications. There are thousands of stamp clubs and organizations that provide them with the history and other aspects of stamps. Today, though the number of collectors is somewhat less, stamp collecting is still one of the world's most popular indoor hobbies. A few basic items of equipment are recommended for proper stamp collection. Stamp tongs help to handle stamps safely, a magnifying glass helps in viewing fine details and an album is a convenient way to store stamps; the stamps need to be attached to the pages of the album in some way, stamp hinges are a cheap and simple way to do this. However, hinging stamps can damage them. Issued in various sizes, these are clear, chemically neutral thin plastic holders that open to receive stamps and are gummed on the back so that they stick to album pages.
Another alternative is a stockbook, where the stamps drop into clear pockets without the need for a mount. Stamps should be stored away from light and moisture or they will be damaged. Stamps can be displayed according to the collector's wishes, by country, topic, or by size, which can create a display pleasing to the eye. There are no rules and it is a matter for the individual collector to decide. Albums can be downloaded or created by the collector. In the latter cases, using acid free paper provides better long-term stamp protection. Many collectors ask their family and friends to save stamps for them from their mail. Although the stamps received by major businesses and those kept by elderly relatives may be of international and historical interest, the stamps received from family members are of the definitive sort. Definitives seem mundane but, considering their variety of colours, paper differences and printing errors, they can fill many pages in a collection. Introducing either variety or specific focus to a collection can require the purchasing of stamps, either from a dealer or online.
Online stamp collector clubs conta
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
Sir Henry Cole was a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Cole is credited with devising the concept of sending greetings cards at Christmas time, introducing the world's first commercial Christmas card in 1843. Henry Cole was born in Bath the son of Captain Henry Robert Cole of the 1st Dragoon Guards, his wife Lætitia Dormer, he was sent in 1817 to Christ's Hospital, upon leaving school in 1823 became clerk to Francis Palgrave, a sub-commissioner under the Record Commission. Cole was employed in transcribing records, but found time to study water-colour painting under David Cox, exhibited sketches at the Royal Academy, he lived with his father in a house belonging to the novelist Thomas Love Peacock, who retained two rooms in it, became a friend of young Cole. Cole drew for him, helped him in writing critiques of musical performances, was introduced by him to John Stuart Mill, Charles Buller, George Grote.
The friends used to meet at Grote's house in Threadneedle Street for discussions twice a week. A new Record Commission was issued in 1831, in 1833 Cole was appointed a sub-commissioner; the secretary, Charles Purton Cooper, quarrelled with the commission, with Cole, who applied to Charles Buller for protection. A committee of the House of Commons was appointed upon Buller's motion in 1836, which reported against the existing system, the commission lapsed on the death of William IV on 20 June 1837. Cole wrote many articles in support of Buller, he was appointed by Lord Langdale, who, as Master of the Rolls, administered the affairs of the commission, to take charge of the records of the exchequer of pleas. The record office was constituted in 1838 under the Public Record Office Act 1838, Cole became one of the four senior assistant-keepers, he ranged a large mass of records in the Carlton House Riding School, where he was placed for the purpose 2 November 1841. His reports upon the unsuitability of this place contributed to bring about the erection of the building in Fetter Lane.
Cole's duties at the record office did not absorb his whole energy. In 1838, with the leave of his superiors, he became secretary to a committee for promoting postal reform, he edited their organ, the Post Circular, suggested by himself, of which the first number appeared 14 March 1838. He got up petitions and meetings with such energy that Cobden offered to him in 1839 the secretaryship of the Anti-Cornlaw League. Parliament granted power to carry out the new postal scheme in August 1839, the treasury offered premiums for the best proposals as to stamps. Cole gained one of the premiums. From 1837 to 1840, he worked as an assistant to Rowland Hill and played a key role in the introduction of the Penny Post, he is sometimes credited with the design of the Penny Black. In 1843, Cole introduced the world's first commercial Christmas card, commissioning artist John Callcott Horsley to make the artwork. Cole was interested in industrial design, under the pseudonym Felix Summerly designed a number of items which went into production, including a prize-winning teapot manufactured by Minton.
As Felix Summerly, he wrote a series of children's books, including The home treasury. Through his membership of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, Cole lobbied government for support for his campaign to improve standards in industrial design; the backing of Prince Albert was secured, in 1847 a royal charter was granted to the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce. Under the patronage of Prince Albert, Cole organised a successful Exhibition of Art Manufactures in 1847, with enlarged exhibitions following in 1848 and 1849. Cole visited the 1849 11th Quinquennial Paris Exhibition and noticed the lack of an exhibition open to international participants, he saw that the RSA's planned exhibitions for 1850 and 1851 could be adapted into a larger international exhibition, he secured the backing of Queen Victoria to establish in 1850 the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to manage the new exhibition, under the Presidency of Prince Albert. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, from 1 May to 15 October 1851, was an enormous popular and financial success due to the astute management of Henry Cole.
As one of the Commissioners, Cole was instrumental in the decision that the £186,000 surplus from the Great Exhibition would be used for improving science and art education in the United Kingdom. Land was purchased in the South Kensington area and developed as the centre for a number of educational and cultural institutions, known half-jokingly as "Albertopolis". Henry Cole was appointed the first General Superintendent of the Department of Practical Art, set up by the government to improve standards of art and design education in Britain with reference to their applicability to industry. In this capacity he was instrumental in the development of the Victoria and Albert Museum which had begun as the Museum of Ornamental Art in Marlborough House. Cole oversaw its move to its current site, became first director of what was called South Kensington Museum from 1857 to 1873. In 1
£sd is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae and denarii. In the United Kingdom, one of the last to abandon the system, these were referred to as pounds and pence; this system originated in the classical Roman Empire. It was re-introduced into Western Europe by Charlemagne, was the standard for many centuries across the continent. In Britain, it was King Offa of Mercia who adopted the Frankish silver standard of librae and denarii in the late 8th century, the system was used in much of the British Commonwealth until the 1960s and 1970s, with Nigeria being the last to abandon it in the form of the Nigerian pound on 1 January 1973. Under this system, there were 20 shillings, or 240 pence, in a pound; the penny was subdivided into 4 farthings until 31 December 1960, when they ceased to be legal tender in the UK, until 31 July 1969 there were halfpennies in circulation.
The advantage of such a system was its use in mental arithmetic, as it afforded many factors and hence fractions of a pound such as tenths, eighths and sevenths and ninths if the guinea was used. When dealing with items in dozens and division are straightforward; as countries of the British Empire became independent, some abandoned the £sd system while others retained it as long as the UK itself. Australia, for example, only changed to using a decimal currency on 14 February 1966. Still others, notably Ireland, decimalised only; the UK abandoned the old penny on Decimal Day, 15 February 1971, when one pound sterling became divided into 100 new pence. This was a change from the system used in the earlier wave of decimalisations in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, in which the pound was replaced with a new major currency called either the "dollar" or the "rand"; the British shilling was replaced by a 5 new pence coin worth one-twentieth of a pound. For much of the 20th century, £sd was the monetary system of most of the Commonwealth countries, the major exceptions being Canada and India.
Similar systems based on Roman coinage were used elsewhere. In the classical Roman Empire, standard coinage was established to facilitate business transactions. 12 denarii were rated equal to 1 gold solidus – a 4th-century Roman coin, rare but which still circulated. Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, new currencies were introduced in Western Europe though Roman currencies remained popular. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the currencies evolved away from the solidi and denarii. In the eighth century, Charlemagne re-introduced and refined the system by decreeing that the money of the Holy Roman Empire should be the silver denarius, containing 22.5 grains of silver. As in the old Roman Empire, this had the advantage that any quantity of money could be determined by counting coins rather than by weighing silver or gold. Different monetary systems based on units in ratio 20:1 & 12:1 were used in Europe in medieval times; the English name pound is a Germanic adaptation of the Latin phrase libra pondo'a pound weight'.
There were several ways to represent amounts of money in writing and speech, with no formal convention. Spoken, unless there was cause to be punctilious, "two pound and six". Whether "pound" or "pounds" was used depended upon the speaker, varying with class and context. 1/–, colloquially "a bob". 11d. 1 1⁄2d. As spoken, the lf in halfpenny and halfpence was always silent. 3d, with reference to the above, this became thruppence referred to as a "threepenny bit". 6d known as half a shilling. 2/– 2/6 4/3 5/– £1.10s.– £1/19/11 3⁄4d. £14.8s.2d Halfpennies and farthings were represented by the appropriate symbol after the whole p