Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, in that it is capable of storing high-definition, the plastic disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional Blu-ray Disc discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual layer discs being the standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple layers are available for BD-XL re-writer drives, the name Blu-ray refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs. The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as films and physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4. Besides the hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats, high-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution, at up to 60 frames per second. DVD discs had been limited to a resolution of 480p or 576p.
The BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, and the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its release in June 2006. During the high definition disc format war, Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the company that supported HD DVD, conceded in February 2008. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the US were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales, Blu-ray faces competition from video on demand and the continued sale of DVDs. As of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband households had a Blu-ray player, the information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used. Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, Sony started two projects in collaboration with Philips applying the new diodes, UDO, and DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would eventually become Blu-ray Disc.
The core technologies of the formats are similar, the first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the Blue Disc logo was filed February 9,2001, on February 19,2002, the project was officially announced as Blu-ray Disc, and Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members. The first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10,2003, the Sony BDZ-S77, but there was no standard for prerecorded video, and no movies were released for this player. On October 4,2004, the name Blu-ray Disc Founders was officially changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, the Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004
As Uncle Joe, he took over as proprietor of the Shady Rest Hotel following the 1968 real-life death of Bea Benaderet, who had played Kate Bradley. In 1969, in the episode Kathy Jos First Birthday Party, he appeared with his real-life son, william Edgar Buchanan, born in Humansville, moved with his family to Oregon when he was seven. Buchanan earned a DDS degree from North Pacific College School of Dentistry, like his father before him, he was a successful dentist. He and his wife Mildred, classmates in school, were married in 1928. They had one child, a son named Buck, in 1939, they moved from Eugene, Oregon, to Altadena, where they moved their dental practice. He joined the Pasadena Playhouse as an actor and he appeared in his first film in 1939, at the age of 36, after which he turned his dentistry practice over to his wife. He was a member of Theta Chi Fraternity and a Freemason, with John Wayne, Move Over, Darling with Doris Day and James Garner, and Benji. In 1956, Buchanan portrayed the lead in the 39-episode syndicated Western television series, Judge Roy Bean, set in Langtry and filmed in color in California.
The series popularized Beans claim to having been The Only Law West of the Pecos, from 1960 to 1962, he appeared four times on the NBC Western series Laramie, with John Smith and Robert Fuller. Buchanan made two guest appearances on Perry Mason, in 1958 as a coroner in The Case of the Perjured Parrot. Buchanan and another star from Petticoat Junction appeared together in the movie Benji, the star was Higgins, the unnamed dog from the sitcom. Higgins had been found in a shelter and trained by Frank Inn, who trained Arnold Ziffel and the other animals used on The Beverly Hillbillies, Petticoat Junction. Buchanan died from a stroke complicated by pneumonia in Palm Desert, Edgar Buchanan at the Internet Movie Database Edgar Buchanan at the TCM Movie Database Edgar Buchanan at AllMovie Edgar Buchanan at Find a Grave
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
George Cooper Stevens was an American film director, producer and cinematographer. Among his most notable films are A Place in the Sun, Giant and he was born in Oakland and his family included his father Landers Stevens and his mother Georgie Cooper, both stage actors. His uncle was drama critic Ashton Stevens and he had two brothers and writer Aston Stevens. He learned about the stage from his parents and worked and toured with them on his path to filmmaking and he broke into the movie business as a cameraman, working on many Laurel and Hardy short films, such as Night Owls. His first feature film was The Cohens and Kellys in Trouble in 1933, in 1934 he got his first directing job, the slapstick Kentucky Kernels. His big break came when he directed Katharine Hepburn in Alice Adams in 1935 and he went on in the late 1930s to direct several Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire movies, not only with the two actors together, but on their own. In 1940, he directed Carole Lombard in Vigil in the Night, and the film has an ending for European audiences in recognition of World War II.
During World War II, Stevens joined the U. S. Army Signal Corps and headed a unit from 1943 to 1946. Stevens helped prepare the Duben and Dachau footage and other material for presentation during the Nuremberg Trials, in 2008, his footage was entered into the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as an essential visual record of World War II. One result of his World War II experiences was that his subsequent films became more dramatic, the motion picture I Remember Mama from 1948 was the last movie that he made with comic scenes. He was responsible for such films as A Place in the Sun, The Diary of Anne Frank, Giant. He ended his career with the 1970 film The Only Game in Town with Warren Beatty. In the same year, he was head of the jury at the 20th Berlin International Film Festival, in 1973 he was a member of the jury at the 8th Moscow International Film Festival. Stevens was the father of television and film writer-producer-director George Stevens, Jr. the first CEO, George Jr.
Stevens died following a heart attack on March 8,1975, on his ranch in Lancaster, north of Los Angeles. He is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles, as a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army, Stevens headed the U. S. Army Signal Corps unit that filmed the Normandy landings and the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp. For these contributions, he was awarded the Legion of Merit, Stevens has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1701 Vine Street. He won the Academy Award for Best Director twice, in 1951 for A Place in the Sun and he was nominated in 1943 for The More the Merrier, in 1954 for Shane, and in 1959 for The Diary of Anne Frank. The moving image collection of George Stevens is held at the Academy Film Archive, the film material at the Academy Film Archive is complemented by material in the George Stevens papers at the Academy’s Margaret Herrick Library
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Lux Radio Theatre
Lux Radio Theatre, sometimes spelled Lux Radio Theater, a long-run classic radio anthology series, was broadcast on the NBC Blue Network, CBS Radio, and NBC Radio. Initially, the series adapted Broadway plays during its first two seasons before it began adapting films and these hour-long radio programs were performed live before studio audiences. The series became the most popular anthology series on radio, broadcast for more than 20 years. The primary sponsor of the show was Unilever through its Lux Soap brand, broadcasting from New York, the series premiered at 2,30 p. m. October 14,1934, on the NBC Blue Network with a production of Seventh Heaven starring Miriam Hopkins, the host was the shows fictional producer, Douglass Garrick. Doris Dagmar played another character, Peggy Winthrop, who delivered the Lux commercials. Each show featured a session with Garrick talking to the lead actors. Anthony appeared as Garrick from the premiere 1934 episode until June 30,1935, Garrick was portrayed by Albert Hayes from July 29,1935 to May 25,1936, when the show moved to the West Coast.
DeMille took over as the host on June 1,1936 and that initial episode with DeMille featured Marlene Dietrich and Clark Gable in The Legionnaire and the Lady. On several occasions, usually when he was out of town, he was replaced by various celebrities. Lux Radio Theatre strove to feature as many of the stars of the original stage and film productions as possible. In 1936, when sponsor Lever Brothers moved the show from New York City to Hollywood, the first Lux film adaptation was The Legionnaire and the Lady, with Marlene Dietrich and Clark Gable, based on the film Morocco. That was followed by a Lux adaptation of The Thin Man, featuring the stars, Myrna Loy. Though the show focused on film and its performers, several classic radio regulars appeared in Lux Radio Theatre productions. Jim and Marian Jordan, better known as Fibber McGee and Molly, appeared on the show twice, made a few Lux appearances as well. Bandleader Phil Harris, a regular on Jack Bennys radio program and his wife Alice Faye.
Fred Allen, Jack Benny, George Burns and Gracie Allen were among the radio stars who were invited to do Lux presentations as well. At least once Lux Radio Theatre offered a presentation without any known performers, a famous urban legend claimed that actor Sonny Tufts was slated to appear as a guest alongside Joan Fontaine for a production of The Major and the Minor on Lux Radio Theatre
Wallis Hensman Clark was a stage and film actor. Clark was born in Bolton, England, the son of William Wallis Clark, prior to acting, Clark was an engineer. He began his career in Margate, Kent, in 1908. He moved to America two years and acted in plays before transitioning to the screen in 1932. Along with actors Franklyn Farnum and Bess Flowers, Clark holds the record for the second most appearances in films that have won the Academy Award for Best Picture and he appeared in supporting roles in 136 films between 1931 and 1954. Five of these films won Best Picture, It Happened One Night, Mutiny on the Bounty, The Great Ziegfeld, You Cant Take It with You, in four of these five films, Clark was uncredited. In Mutiny on the Bounty, he is credited in the role of Morrison, Clark had one son, Wallis H. Clark, Jr. He died in North Hollywood, California, USA
Viacom, Inc. is an American media conglomerate with interests primarily in cinema and cable television. It is currently the sixth largest broadcasting and cable company in terms of revenue—behind Comcast, The Walt Disney Company, Time Warner, and CBS Corporation. Voting control of Viacom is held by National Amusements, Inc. a privately owned theater company controlled by the billionaire Sumner Redstone, Redstone holds – via National Amusements – a controlling stake in CBS Corporation. The current incarnation of Viacom was created on December 31,2005 as a spin-off from the incarnation of Viacom. CBS Corporation currently retains control of the broadcasting, TV production, subscription pay television and publishing assets. Predecessor firms of the original Viacom included Gulf+Western and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in addition, the company was facing issues after MTV was banned from producing any more Super Bowl halftime shows after the Super Bowl Halftime Show controversy of 2004. Redstone was set to retire in the future, and a split was seen as a creative solution to the matter of replacing him.
A new company, the present Viacom, was created and was headed by Freston and it comprises BET Networks, MTV Networks, and Paramount Pictures Corporation. In June 2005, Viacom announced its purchase of Neopets, a virtual pet website, along with GameTrailers, GoCityKids and that December, Paramount announced it would acquire DreamWorks. On February 1,2006, Paramount completed its acquisition of DreamWorks. On April 24, Viacom obtained Xfire, in August, just hours before announcing its most recent quarterly earnings, Viacom announced that it had acquired Atom Entertainment for $200 million. In September, Viacom acquired game developer Harmonix for $175 million, in February 2007, Viacom ordered leaked copyrighted video clips be taken off the videosharing service YouTube for copyright reasons. On February 21, Viacom publicly announced they would be offering free access to their own material through Silicon Valleys distributor Joost thanks to a thorough content licensing deal. All future Viacom content for India and new ventures such as a Hindi entertainment channel, on December 19,2007, Viacom signed a five-year, $500 million contract with Microsoft that included content sharing and advertisement.
The deal allowed Microsoft to license many shows from Viacom owned cable television and film studios for use on Xbox Live, the deal made Viacom a preferred publisher partner for casual game development and distribution through MSN and Windows. On the advertisement side of the deal, Microsofts Atlas ad-serving division became the provider of previously unsold advertising inventory on Viacom owned web sites. Also, Microsoft purchased a large amount of advertising on Viacom owned broadcasts, Microsoft will collaborate on promotions and sponsorships for MTV and BET award shows, two Viacom owned cable networks. On December 4,2008, Viacom announced layoffs of 850 personnel, at the end of the year, Time Warner Cable and Viacoms MTV Networks could not come to terms for the renewal of any Viacom channel beyond the end of year
Irene Dunne was an American film actress and singer of the 1930s, 1940s and early 1950s. Dunne was nominated five times for the Academy Award for Best Actress, for her performances in Cimarron, Theodora Goes Wild, The Awful Truth, Love Affair, in 1985, Dunne was given Kennedy Center Honors for her services to the arts. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Joseph John Dunn, an inspector for the United States government, and Adelaide Henry. Irene Dunne would write, No triumph of either my stage or screen career has ever rivalled the excitement of trips down the Mississippi on the boats with my father. She was fourteen when her father died on April 6,1913 and she saved all of his letters and often remembered and lived by what he told her the night before he died, Happiness is never an accident. It is the prize we get when we choose wisely from lifes great stores, following her fathers death, her mother, and her younger brother Charles moved to her mothers hometown of Madison, Indiana. Dunnes mother taught her to play the piano as a small girl.
According to Dunne, Music was as natural as breathing in our house, Dunne was raised as a devout Roman Catholic. Nicknamed Dunnie, she took piano and voice lessons, sang in local churches, Dunne earned a diploma to teach art, but took a chance on a contest and won a prestigious scholarship to the Chicago Musical College, where she graduated in 1926. With a soprano voice, she had hopes of becoming an opera singer, after adding an e to her surname, turned to musical theater. She toured several cities in 1921–22 playing the lead role in the popular play Irene. The following year, Dunne played a season of opera in Atlanta. Though in her own words Dunne created no great furor, by 1929 she had a successful Broadway career playing leading roles, grateful to be at center stage rather than in the chorus line. On July 16,1927, Dunne married Francis Griffin, a New York dentist, despite differing opinions and battles that raged furiously, Dunne eventually agreed to marry him and leave the theater. She was discovered by Hollywood while starring with the company of Show Boat in 1929.
She signed a contract with RKO and appeared in her first movie in 1930, already in her thirties when she made her first film, she would be in competition with younger actresses for roles, and found it advantageous to evade questions that would reveal her age. Her publicists encouraged the belief that she was born in 1901 or 1904, Dunne moved to Hollywood with her mother and brother and maintained a long-distance marriage with her husband in New York until he joined her in California in 1936. That year, she re-created her role as Magnolia in what is considered the film version of the famous musical Show Boat
Cary Grant was a British-American actor, known as one of classic Hollywoods definitive leading men. He began a career in Hollywood in the early 1930s, and became known for his accent, debonair demeanor. He became an American citizen in 1942, Born in Horfield, Grant became attracted to theatre at a young age, and began performing with a troupe known as The Penders from the age of six. After attending Bishop Road Primary School and Fairfield Grammar School in Bristol, he toured the country as a stage performer and he established a name for himself in vaudeville in the 1920s and toured the United States before moving to Hollywood in the early 1930s. Along with the Arsenic and Old Lace and I Was a Male War Bride, having established himself as a major Hollywood star, he was nominated twice for the Academy Award for Best Actor, for Penny Serenade and None but the Lonely Heart. In the 1940s and 1950s, Grant forged a relationship with the director Alfred Hitchcock, appearing in films such as Suspicion, Notorious, To Catch a Thief.
Hitchcock admired Grant and considered him to have been the actor that he had ever loved working with. His comic timing and delivery made Grant what Premiere magazine considers to have quite simply. Grant was married five times, three of his marriages were elopements with actresses—Virginia Cherrill, Betsy Drake and Dyan Cannon and he has one daughter with Cannon, Jennifer Grant. After his retirement from acting in 1966, Grant pursued numerous business interests, representing cosmetics firm Fabergé. He was presented with an Honorary Oscar by his friend Frank Sinatra at the 42nd Academy Awards in 1970, in 1999, the American Film Institute named Grant the second greatest male star of Golden Age Hollywood cinema, after Humphrey Bogart. Grant was born Archibald Alec Leach on January 18,1904 at 15 Hughenden Road in the northern Bristol suburb of Horfield and he was the second child of Elias James Leach and Elsie Maria Leach. Elias, the son of a potter, worked as a tailors presser at a factory, while Elsie.
Grants elder brother, John William Elias Leach, died of tuberculous meningitis, Grant considered himself to have been partly Jewish. He had an upbringing, his father was an alcoholic. Wanting the best for her son, Elsie taught Grant song and dance when he was four and she would occasionally take him to the cinema where he enjoyed the performances of Charlie Chaplin, Chester Conklin, Fatty Arbuckle, Ford Sterling, Mack Swain and Broncho Billy Anderson. Grant entered education when he was four-and-a-half and was sent to the Bishop Road Primary School, another biographer, Geoffrey Wansell, notes that Elsie blamed herself bitterly for the death of Grants older brother John, and never recovered from it. Grant acknowledged that his experiences with his fiercely independent mother affected his relationships with women in life
Gary Cooper was an American film actor known for his natural and understated acting style and screen performances. His career spanned thirty-five years, from 1925 to 1960, and he was a major movie star from the end of the silent film era through the end of the golden age of Classical Hollywood. His screen persona appealed strongly to men and women, and his range of performances included roles in most major movie genres. Coopers ability to project his own personality onto the characters he played contributed to his appearing natural, the screen persona he sustained throughout his career represented the ideal American hero. Cooper began his career as an extra and stunt rider. After establishing himself as a Western hero in his silent films, Cooper became a movie star in 1929 with his first sound picture. In the early 1930s, he expanded his heroic image to include more characters in adventure films and dramas such as A Farewell to Arms. In the postwar years, he portrayed more mature characters at odds with the world in such as The Fountainhead.
In his final films, Cooper played non-violent characters searching for redemption in films such as Friendly Persuasion and he married New York debutante Veronica Balfe in 1933, and the couple had one daughter. Their marriage was interrupted by a three-year separation precipitated by Coopers love affair with Patricia Neal, Cooper received the Academy Award for Best Actor for his roles in Sergeant York and High Noon. He received an Academy Honorary Award for his achievements in 1961. He was one of the top ten film personalities for twenty-three consecutive years, the American Film Institute ranked Cooper eleventh on its list of the twenty five greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Frank James Cooper was born on May 7,1901, at 730 Eleventh Avenue in Helena, Montana to English immigrants Alice and his father emigrated from Houghton Regis and became a prominent lawyer and eventually a Montana Supreme Court justice. His mother emigrated from Gillingham and married Charles in Montana, in 1906, Charles purchased the 600-acre Seven-Bar-Nine cattle ranch about fifty miles north of Helena near the town of Craig on the Missouri River.
Frank and his older brother Arthur spent their summers there and learned to ride horses, hunt, in April 1908, the Hauser Dam failed and flooded the Missouri River valley along portions of the Cooper property, but Cooper and his family were able to evacuate in time. Cooper attended Central Grade School in Helena, at Dunstable, Cooper studied Latin and French, and took several courses in English history. While he managed to adapt to the discipline of an English school and learned the requisite social graces, he never adjusted to the class structure. After completing confirmation classes, Cooper was baptized into the Anglican Church on December 3,1911, Coopers mother accompanied her sons back to the United States in August 1912, and Cooper resumed his education at Johnson Grammar School in Helena