Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc known as Shell, is a British-Dutch oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas "supermajors" and the fifth-largest company in the world measured by 2018 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, transport and marketing, power generation and trading, it has renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, energy-kite systems, hydrogen. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. As of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its principal subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol.
Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom. Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shell's business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016. Shell is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £185 billion at the close of trading on 30 December 2016, by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange and among the highest of any company in the world. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 2013, Shell's largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9.85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6.89%. The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the United Kingdom, it was a move driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan, North Sumatra, led by August Kessler, Hugo Loudon, Henri Deterding; the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch, which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells, after which the company "Shell" took its name. For various reasons, the new firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence, but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes.
The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British. National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies; the Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production and manufacture. The British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force, it was the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army's TNT. It volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty; the German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw. In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. In 1929, Shell Chemicals was founded. By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world's leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world's crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.
Shell Mex House was completed in 1931, was the head office for Shell's marketing activity worldwide. In 1932 in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell-Mex and BP, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the 1930s saw. After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao. In 1945 Shell's Danish headquarters in Copenhagen, at the time being used by the Gestapo, was bombed by Royal Air Force Mosquitoes in Operation Carthage. Around 1952, Shell was the first company to use a computer in the Netherlands; the computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amste
7-Eleven Inc. is a Japanese-owned American international chain of convenience stores, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The chain was known as Tote'm Stores until it was renamed in 1946, its parent company since 2005, Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd. operates and licenses 67,480 stores in 17 countries as of December 2018. Seven-Eleven Japan is headquartered in Chiyoda and held by Seven & I Holdings Co. Ltd.. The most recent franchise agreement gives up to 59% of a franchise's gross profit to the company; the company's first outlets were named "Tote'm Stores" because customers "toted" away their purchases. Some stores featured genuine Alaskan totem poles in front of the store. In 1946, the chain's name was changed from "Tote'm" to "7-Eleven" to reflect the company's new, extended hours, 7:00 am to 11:00 pm, seven days per week. In November 1999, the corporate name of the US company was changed from "The Southland Corporation" to "7-Eleven Inc." In 1927, Southland Ice Company employee John Jefferson Green began selling eggs and bread from one of 16 ice house storefronts in Dallas, with permission from one of Southland's founding directors, Joe C.
Thompson, Sr. Although small grocery stores and general merchandisers were available, Thompson theorized that selling products such as bread and milk in convenience stores would reduce the need for customers to travel long distances for basic items, he bought the Southland Ice Company and turned it into Southland Corporation, which oversaw several locations in the Dallas area. In 1928, Jenna Lira brought a totem pole as a souvenir from Alaska and placed it in front of the store; the pole served as a marketing tool for the company. Soon, executives added totem poles in front of every store and adopted an Alaska Native-inspired theme for their stores. On, the stores began operating under the name "Tote'm Stores". In the same year, the company began constructing gasoline stations in some of its Dallas locations as an experiment. Joe Thompson provided a distinct characteristic to the company's stores, training the staff so that people would receive the same quality and service in every store. Southland started to have a uniform for its ice station service boys.
This became the major factor in the company's success as a retail convenience store. In 1931, the Great Depression affected the company; the company continued its operations through re-organization and receivership. A Dallas banker, W. W. Overton Jr. helped to revive the company's finances by selling the company's bonds for seven cents on the dollar. This brought the company's ownership under the control of a board of directors. In 1946, in an effort to continue the company's post-war recovery, the name of the franchise was changed to 7-Eleven to reflect the stores' new hours of operation, which were unprecedented at the time. In 1963, 7-Eleven experimented with a 24-hour schedule in Austin, after an Austin store stayed open all night to satisfy customer demand. On, 24-hour stores were established in Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas, as well as Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1971, Southland acquired convenience stores of the former Pak-A-Sak chain owned by Graham Allen Penniman, Sr. of Shreveport, Louisiana.
With the purchase in 1964 of 126 Speedee Mart franchised convenience stores in California, the company entered the franchise business. The company signed its first area licensing agreement in 1968 with Garb-Ko, Inc. of Saginaw, which became the first U. S. domestic area 7-Eleven licensee. In the late 1980s, Southland Corporation was threatened by a rumored corporate takeover, prompting the Thompson family to take steps to convert the company into a private model by buying out public shareholders in a tender offer. In December 1987, John Philp Thompson, the chairman and CEO of 7-Eleven, completed a $5.2 billion management buyout of the company. The buyout suffered from the effects of the 1987 stock market crash and after failing to raise high yield debt financing, the company was required to offer a portion of stock as an inducement to invest in the company's bonds. Various assets, such as the Chief Auto Parts chain, the ice division, hundreds of store locations, were sold between 1987 and 1990 to relieve debt incurred during the buyout.
This downsizing resulted in numerous metropolitan areas losing 7-Eleven stores to rival convenience store operators. In October 1990, the indebted Southland Corp. filed a pre-packaged Chapter 11 bankruptcy in order to transfer control of 70% of the company to Japanese affiliate Ito-Yokado. Southland exited bankruptcy in March 1991, after a cash infusion of $430 million from Ito-Yokado and Seven-Eleven Japan; these two Japanese entities now controlled 70% of the company, with the founding Thompson family retaining 5%. In 1999, Southland Corp. changed its name to 7-Eleven, Inc. citing the divestment of operations other than 7-Eleven. Ito-Yokado formed Seven & I Holdings Co. and 7-Eleven became its subsidiary in 2005. In 2007, Seven & I Holdings announced that it would be expanding its American operations, with an additional 1,000 7-Eleven stores in the United States. For the 2010 rankings, 7-Eleven climbed to the No. 3 spot in Entrepreneur Magazine's 31st Annual Franchise 500, "the first and most comprehensive ranking in the world".
This was the 17th year 7-Eleven was named in the top 10. In 2010, the first "green" 7-Eleven store opened in DeLand, Florida; the store features U. S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Environmental Design elements; the environmentally-friendly design brings the store savings in energy costs. That same year, 7-Eleven went mobile with the launch of the Slurpee drink's iPhone and An
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Chaparral Cars was a pioneering American automobile racing team and race car developer that engineered and raced cars from 1963 through 1970. Founded in 1962 by American Formula One racers Hap Sharp and Jim Hall, it was named after the roadrunner, a fast-running ground cuckoo known as a chaparral bird. Dick Troutman and Tom Barnes were builders of the original Chaparral race cars. Jim Hall purchased two Chaparral 1s to race; when Hall and Sharp began building their own cars, they asked Troutman and Barnes if they could continue to use the Chaparral name. That is. Despite winning the Indianapolis 500 in 1980, they left motor racing in 1982. Chaparral cars featured in the SCCA/CASC Can-Am series and Endurance racing. Jim Hall was a leader in the innovation and design of spoilers and ground effects. A high point was the 1966 2E Can-Am car; the 2J Can-Am "sucker car" was the first "ground-effects" car. The development of the Chaparral chronicles the key changes in race cars in the 1960s and 1970s in both aerodynamics and tires.
Hall's training as an engineer taught him to approach problems in a methodical manner, his access to the engineering teams at Chevrolet and at Firestone was instrumental in changing race car aerodynamics and handling from an art to an empirical science. The embryonic data acquisition systems created by the GM research and development group aided these efforts. An interview with Hall by Paul Haney illustrates many of these developments. In 1957, Hall raced the front-engined Chaparral through 1962, bought from Barnes. Hall and Hap Sharp extensively modified their Chaparral and decided to build their own car, they obtained permission from Troutman and Barnes to use the Chaparral name, why all of Hall's cars are called Chaparral 2s. The first Chaparral 2-series was designed and built to compete in the United States Road Racing Championship and other races of the time the West Coast Pro Series that were held each fall. Hall had significant "under the table" assistance from GM, including engineering and technical support in the development of the car and its automatic transmission.
First raced in late 1963, the Chaparral 2 developed into a competitive car in the Can-Am series in 1966 and 1967. Designed for the 200-mile races of the Can-Am series, it was a winner in longer endurance races. In 1965 it shocked the sports car world by winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in a pouring rain storm, on one of the roughest tracks in North America; the Chaparral 2 featured the innovative use of fiberglass as a chassis material. The Chaparral 2C had a conventional aluminum chassis, it is difficult to identify all iterations of the car as new ideas were being tested continually. The 2A is the car as raced, featuring a conventional sharp edge to cut through the air, it featured a concave tail reminiscent of the theories of Wunibald Kamm. The first aerodynamic appendages began to appear on the 2A immediately to cure an issue with the front end being light at speed with a consequent impact on steering accuracy and driver confidence; as the car evolved, it changed shape. Most call these 2B and were raced through the end of 1965.
The 2C introduced the innovative in-car adjustable rear wing. The integrated spoiler-wing was designed to lie flat for low drag on the straights and tip up under braking through the corners; the car's clutchless semi-automatic transmission kept the driver's left foot free to operate the wing mechanism. The 2C was based on a Chevrolet-designed aluminum chassis and was a smaller car in every dimension than the 2B. Without the natural non-resonant damping of the fiberglass chassis, Hall nicknamed it the EBJ — "eye ball jiggler". Alongside the development of aerodynamics was Hall's development of race tires. Jim Hall owned Rattlesnake Raceway, located adjacent to his race shop. A two-article series in Car and Driver magazine featured Hall's design theories, turning speculation about vehicle handling into applied physics. Hall's theories were the precursor to the elaborate data collection and management of current racing teams; the 2D was the first closed cockpit variant of the 2-series, designed for endurance racing in 1966.
It won at 1000 km Nürburgring in 1966 with Joakim Bonnier driving. It competed in the 1966 24 Hours of Le Mans, withdrawing after 111 laps; the Chaparral 2D was equipped with a 327 cubic-inch displacement aluminum alloy Chevrolet engine producing 420 horsepower. The 2E was based on the Chevrolet-designed aluminum 2C chassis and presented Hall's most advanced aerodynamic theories to the racing world in the 1966; the 2E established the paradigm for all racing cars built since. It was startling in appearance, with its radiators moved from the traditional location in the nose to two ducted pods on either side of the cockpit and a large pivoting variable-incidence wing mounted several feet above the rear of the car on struts; as opposed to an aircraft wing, it generated down force instead of lift and was attached directly to the rear suspension uprights, loading the tires for extra adhesion while cornering. A ducted nose channeled air from the front of the car upwards. By depressing a
A convenience store, convenience shop, or corner store is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries and magazines. In some jurisdictions, convenience stores are licensed to sell alcohol beer and wine; such stores may offer money order and wire transfer services, along with the use of a fax machine or photocopier for a small per-copy cost. They differ from general stores and village shops in that they are not in a rural location and are used as a convenient supplement to larger stores. A convenience store may be part of a gas/petrol station, so customers can purchase goods conveniently while filling their vehicle with fuel, it may be located alongside a busy road, in an urban area, near a railway or railroad station, or at another transport hub. In some countries, convenience stores have long shopping hours, some remain open 24 hours. Convenience stores charge higher prices than conventional grocery stores or supermarkets, as these stores order smaller quantities of inventory at higher per-unit prices from wholesalers.
However, convenience stores make up for this loss by having longer open hours, serving more locations, having shorter cashier lines. A convenience store may be called a c-store, cold store, party store, carry out, mini-market, mini-mart, corner shop, deli or milk bar, superette, depanneur or dep. Various types exist, for liquor stores, mini-markets, general stores or party stores. Confectionery, lottery tickets and magazines are sold although merchandise varies from store to store. Unless the outlet is a liquor store, the range of alcohol beverages is to be limited or non-existent. Most stores sell other tobacco products. Varying degrees of food and grocery supplies are available, from household products to prepackaged foods like sandwiches and frozen burritos. Automobile-related items—such as motor oil and car kits—may be sold. Toiletries and other hygiene products are stocked, as well as sanitary products and contraception. Stores may carry home furnishings, CDs and DVDs; some of these stores offer money orders and wire transfer services.
Convenience stores may carry small appliances as well as other household items such as coolers and backpacks. Convenience stores have been known to carry candles, stationery and crockery. Many convenience shops offer food ready-to-eat, such as breakfast fry-ups. Throughout Europe, it is now common for convenience stores to sell fresh French bread. A process of freezing parbaked bread allows baking in-store; some shops have a delicatessen counter, offering custom-made baguettes. Others have racks offering fresh baked doughnuts from local doughnut shops; some shops have a self-service microwave oven for heating purchased food. In the United States, some fast-food chains offer a counter in convenience stores. Instead of cooking food in the store, these counters offer a limited menu of items delivered several times a day from a local branch of the restaurant. Convenience stores may be combined with other services, such as general stores and pawn shops, a ticket counter for purchasing railway tickets, a post office counter, or gasoline pumps.
In Asian countries, like Japan or Taiwan, convenience stores are more common because of the higher population density. They are found with gasoline and train stations, but can be stand-alone stores. Here, items like soft drinks or snacks are sold. Hot dogs, hard boiled tea eggs, fish cakes can be found in stores. Delicatessens are absent, pre-made sandwiches can be bought. Non-food products like magazines are sold but to a lower degree. Many convenience stores have a fountain that offers a variety of beverages such as coffee, soft drinks and frozen beverages; the smaller convenience stores have few perishable items because it is not economically viable to rotate perishable items with such a low number of staff. Smaller convenience stores do not generate the business needed to sustain food spoilage rates typical of grocery stores or supermarkets; as such, products with a long shelf life are the rule unless a product is aimed at attracting customers on the chance they may buy something profitable too.
Although larger, newer convenience stores may have quite a broad range of items, the selection is still limited compared to supermarkets, in many stores only one or two choices are available. Prices in a convenience store are higher than those at a supermarket, mass merchandise store, or auto supply store, as convenience stores order smaller quantities of inventory at higher per-unit prices from wholesalers. However, there are some exceptions like milk and fuel which are priced similar to larger stores, as convenience stores traditionally do high volume in these goods and sometimes use them as loss leaders. Product containers in a convenience store are smaller with reduced product quantity, to allow more products on the store shelves; this reduces the apparent cost differences between full-size packaging in supermarkets. Smaller packaging reduces waste when a traveller such as a hotel guest does not want or is unable to carry the leftover product with
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of