The Christian holy day of Pentecost, celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles. The holy day is called "White Sunday" or "Whitsunday" or "Whitsun" in the United Kingdom, where traditionally the next day, Whit Monday, was a public holiday. In German, Pentecost is called Pfingsten, developed through contracting the Greek term penkte, coincides with scholastic holidays and the beginning of many outdoor and springtime activities, such as festivals and organized outdoor activities by youth organizations; the Monday after Pentecost is a legal holiday in many European nations. In Eastern Christianity, Pentecost can refer to the entire fifty days of Easter through Pentecost inclusive. Since its date depends on the date of Easter, Pentecost is a "moveable feast". Pentecost is one of the Great Feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church, a Solemnity in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, a Festival in the Lutheran Churches, a Principal Feast in the Anglican Communion.
Many Christian denominations provide a special liturgy for this holy celebration. The term Pentecost comes from the Greek Πεντηκοστή meaning "fiftieth", it refers to the festival celebrated on the fiftieth day after Passover known as the "Feast of Weeks" and the "Feast of 50 days" in rabbinic tradition. The Septuagint uses the term Pentēkostē to refer to the "Feast of Pentecost" only twice, in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit and 2 Maccabees; the Septuagint writers used the word in two other senses: to signify the year of Jubilee, an event which occurs every 50th year, in several passages of chronology as an ordinal number. The term has been used in the literature of Hellenistic Judaism by Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. In Judaism the Festival of Weeks is a harvest festival, celebrated seven weeks and one day after the first Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread in Deuteronomy 16:9 or seven weeks and one day after the Sabbath referred to in Leviticus 23:16; the Festival of Weeks is called the feast of Harvest in Exodus 23:16 and the day of first fruits in Numbers 28:26.
In Exodus 34:22 it is called the "firstfruits of the wheat harvest." The date for the "Feast of Weeks" came the day after seven full weeks following the first harvest of grain. In Jewish tradition the fiftieth day was known as the Festival of Weeks; the actual mention of fifty days comes from Leviticus 23:16. During the Hellenistic period, the ancient harvest festival became a day of renewing the Noahic covenant, described in Genesis 9:8-17, established between God and "all flesh, upon the earth". By this time, some Jews were living in Diaspora. According to Acts 2:5-11 there were Jews from "every nation under heaven" in Jerusalem visiting the city as pilgrims during Pentecost. In particular the hoi epidemountes are identified as "visitors" to Jerusalem from Rome; this group of visitors includes both Jews and "proselytes". The list of nations represented in the biblical text includes Parthians, Elamites, Judaea, Pontus, Phrygia, Egypt and those who were visiting from Rome. Scholars have speculated about a possible earlier literary source for the list of nations including an astrological list by Paul of Alexandria and various references to the Jewish diaspora by writers of the Second Temple era.
After the destruction of the temple in 70 AD offerings could no longer be brought to the Temple and the focus of the festival shifted from agriculture to the giving of the law on Sinai. It became customary to gather at synagogue and read the Book of Ruth and Exodus Chapters 19 and 20; the term Pentecost appears in the Septuagint as one of names for the Festival of Weeks. The biblical narrative of the Pentecost includes numerous references to earlier biblical narratives like the Tower of Babel, the flood and creation narratives from the Book of Genesis, it includes references to certain theophanies, with certain emphasis on God's incarnate appearance on biblical Mount Sinai when the Ten Commandments were presented to Moses. Theologian Stephen Wilson has described the narrative as "exceptionally obscure" and various points of disagreement persist among bible scholars; some biblical commentators have sought to establish that the οἶκος given as the location of the events of in Acts 2:2 was one of the thirty halls of the Temple, but the text itself is lacking in specific details.
Richard C. H. Lenski and other scholars contend that the author of Acts could have chosen the word ἱερόν if this meaning were intended, rather than "house"; some semantic details suggest that the "house" could be the "upper room" mentioned in Acts 1:12-26, but there is no literary evidence to confirm the location with certainty and it remains a subject of dispute amongst scholars. The events of Acts Chapter 2 are set against the backdrop of the celebration of Pentecost in Jerusalem. There are several major features to the Pentecost narrative presented in the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles; the author begins the narrative by noting that the disciples of Jesus "were all together in one place" on the "day of Pentecost" (ημέρα
Belper railway station serves the town of Belper in Derbyshire, England. The station is located on the Midland Main Line from Derby to Leeds, 135 miles 55 chains north of London St Pancras. Access to the station can be gained via a narrow alleyway from King Street beside the Poundland store, from the Field Lane car park and across the rear of the supermarket, from Bridge Street via Wellington Court and via alleyways from Field Lane and Albert Street; the station is served by one operator, East Midlands Railway, with local services from Newark Castle via Nottingham and Derby to Matlock along the Derwent Valley Line. Services are hourly Monday to Saturday, two-hourly on Sundays, are formed using diesel multiple units of Classes 153, 156 or 158. A few early and late trains start/terminate at Derby rather than Newark Castle. A single weekday return journey to/from Sheffield is provided, departing Belper at 07:29 and returning at 18:06. Interchange with services to many local and national destinations including Leicester, Sheffield and London can be made at Derby or Nottingham.
The line was surveyed by George Stephenson for the North Midland Railway Company, opened in 1840. The Strutt family who had built cotton mills and had become the primary landowner, were great supporters of the line and had invested in it, they feared, that it would interfere with the water supply to the mill and affect both theirs and their employees' livelihood, so suggested in 1835 that the line should proceed by Holbrook. This proved unsatisfactory and, in the 1836 Act authorising the line, the proposed route took it to the east of the Derwent through Milford to the west past Belper; this "Milford Deviation" was still not acceptable, so a revised Act was approved in 1837. This entailed the building of Milford Tunnel and entailed a long cutting, at enormous expense, with eleven bridges in the space of a mile; the cutting, lined with gritstone, is now a grade 2 listed building. North of Belper, the engineers paid the penalty of following a river valley, with two long bridges over Belper Pool, plus two more, before reaching Ambergate.
The original station was built on the south side of Belper, just before the cutting, designed by Francis Thompson in an Italianate design. A coach, or omnibus, ran to it from the Lion Hotel in Bridge Street; however this proved so unpopular that the Midland Railway built a new station in 1878 within the cutting, at the town centre, next to King Street. This had platforms with access ramps for each of the two lines, both provided with waiting rooms, in the standard Midland Railway design; the booking office and other facilities were at street level. Since the new station lacked sidings, the old station remained in use for many years for the processing of goods traffic; the station was a stop on the Midland Railway's main line from London St Pancras to Manchester Central which travelled through the Peak District. When this line was truncated to its present terminus at Matlock in the late'sixties and following withdrawal of the Manchester trains, the station became unmanned and in 1973 the station buildings were demolished.
The bridge carrying King Street over the line was widened to make room for a number of shops, including a supermarket, Fine Fare and has subsequently had a number of occupiers Poundland. In 2005 the station was refurbished with new shelters, train indicators and rubbish bins by a consortium of local volunteers, work experience trainees provided by The Groundwork Trust and the local councils, with the active support of Network Rail and Central Trains. In April 2012 a group called Transition Belper adopted the station with the help of the Derwent Valley Line Community Rail Partnership, East Midlands Trains, Network Rail and Belper Town Council. During June–July 2009, an automatic ticket machine was installed on the Derby-bound platform; this enables passengers to buy tickets. In December 2009, Belper became a Penalty fare station; the penalty fare applies on northbound mainline services. Ambergate to Matlock is not part of the penalty fare scheme. Where the local authority provides a discount, if the vending machine is unable to issue them, they are bought on the train.
The notices at the station, give the impression that penalty fares are applicable to all destinations. Pixton, B. North Midland: Portrait of a Famous Route, Cheltenham: Runpast Publishing The North Midland Railway Guide, Republished 1973, Leeds: Turntable Enterprises Naylor, P. An Illustrated History of Belper and its Environs Belper: M. G. Morris Train times and station information for Belper railway station from National Rail "Picture the Past" Original Station at Belper "Picture the Past" Belper Station circa 1910 "Picture the Past" Station building c.1955
Ron Estay is a former defensive lineman for the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League. After graduating from Louisiana State University in 1972, he was selected by the Denver Broncos in the 8th round of the 1972 NFL Draft, he moved to Canada and played for the British Columbia Lions in 1972 and Edmonton from 1973–82, helped lead the team to five straight Grey Cup championships from 1978–82 as a key member of the "Alberta Crude" defense. He played in 1983 for the Washington Federals of the United States Football League. Estay was a two time CFL All-Star in 1977 and 1980 and Western All-Star four times in 1973, 1977, 1978 and 1980, he played in nine Grey Cup championships. One of Estay's biggest games was the 1977 Grey Cup known as the'Staples Game'. In that game, Estay recalls how, due to the nature of the game he'tried every pair of shoes that we had'. Estay is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame, the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame, the Eskimos Hall of Fame.
From 2001 to 2008, Estay was the defensive line coach for the Saskatchewan Roughriders. In 2008, Estay was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which went into remission after 3 months of chemotherapy