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In Greek mythology, Pentheus was a king of Thebes. His father was the wisest of the Spartoi, his mother was Agave, the daughter of Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, the goddess Harmonia. His sister was Epeiros. Much of what is known about the character comes from the interpretation of the myth in Euripides' tragic play, The Bacchae; the story of Pentheus' resistance to Dionysus and his subsequent punishment is presented by Euripides as follows. Cadmus, the king of Thebes, abdicated due to his old age in favor of his grandson Pentheus. Pentheus soon banned the worship of the god Dionysus, the son of his aunt Semele, did not allow the women of Cadmeia to join in his rites. An angered Dionysus caused Pentheus' mother Agave and his aunts Ino and Autonoë, along with all the other women of Thebes, to rush to Mount Cithaeron in a Bacchic frenzy; because of this, Pentheus imprisoned Dionysus, thinking the man a follower, but his chains fell off and the jail doors opened for him. Dionysus, disguised as a woman, lured Pentheus out to spy on the Bacchic rites, where Pentheus expected to see sexual activities.

The daughters of Cadmus thought him to be a wild animal. They tore him limb from limb; when his true identity was discovered, officials exiled the women from Thebes. Some say that his own mother was the first to attack him, tearing his arm off and tearing off his head, she placed the head on a stick and took it back to Thebes, but only realized whose head it was after meeting her father Cadmus. The name "Pentheus", as Dionysus and Tiresias both point out, means "Man of Sorrows" and derives from πένθος, pénthos, sorrow or grief the grief caused by the death of a loved one, his name appeared to mark him for tragedy. Pentheus was succeeded by his uncle Polydorus. Before or after Pentheus was killed, his wife gave birth to a son named Menoeceus, who became the father of Creon and Jocasta, he became the grandfather of Oedipus. The story of Pentheus is discussed by Ovid in his Metamorphoses. Ovid's version diverges from Euripides' work in several areas. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, King Pentheus is warned by the blind seer Tiresias to welcome Bacchus or else "Your blood poured out and defile the woods and your mother and her sisters..."

Pentheus ignores his warnings. As Thebes succumbs to the "dementia and the delirium of the new god", Pentheus laments the fall of his kingdom and demands the arrest of Bacchus, his guards instead arrest Acoetes of Maeonia, a sailor who confirms the divinity of Bacchus and tells how the crew of his ship ended up being turned into dolphins after trying to kidnap the young god. Pentheus, convinced that Acoetes is lying, tries to throw him in jail, but when the guards try to shackle Acoetes, the chains fall off. In a rage, Pentheus ran to deal with Bacchus himself, he charged through the woods straight into a bacchanal. Driven to a frenzy the participants attacked him, his mother was the first one to spear him and the group tore his flesh apart with their bare hands. All acknowledged Bacchus as a god. Euripides; the Bacchae. Ovid. Cadmus. Media related to Pentheus at Wikimedia Commons

Kilmarnock and Troon Railway

The Kilmarnock and Troon Railway was an early railway line in Ayrshire, Scotland. It was constructed to bring coal from pits around Kilmarnock to coastal shipping at Troon Harbour, passengers were carried, it opened in 1812, was the first railway in Scotland to obtain an authorising Act of Parliament. It was a plateway. In 1841, when more modern railways had developed throughout the West of Scotland, the line was converted from a plateway to a railway and realigned in places; the line became part of the South Western Railway system. Much of the original route is part of the present-day Kilmarnock to Barassie railway line, although the extremities of the original line have been lost. By the early years of the nineteenth century, William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Marquess of Titchfield had acquired extensive lands and other properties in Ayrshire and elsewhere; when his father died in 1809, he became the 4th Duke of Portland. He owned coal workings at Kilmarnock, in these early years transport of minerals to market required the use of coastal shipping.

In 1790, about 40% of the 8,000 tons annual production went by horse and cart to the sea at Irvine. Kilmarnock is ten miles or so from the sea, about 1806 he started to make a harbour at The Troon, he had earlier considered a canal connection to there from Kilmarnock, but had changed his intention to a railway. He approached other landowners in the district to obtain their consent, participation, in making a railway connection between Kilmarnock and the harbour, saying, "The plan to which I allude is for the purpose of making an iron rail road or railway from the Troon Point to Kilmarnock."Evidently these approaches were successful in obtaining the landowners' consent, although little financial commitment: The Marquess of Titchfield: 67 shares Lady Harriet Margaret Bentinck: 10 shares Lord Montgomerie: 1 share The Earl of Eglinton: 1 share Colonel John Boyle of Shewalton: 1 shareThe total subscribed capital was £38,500. Bentinck appointed William Jessop as the engineer for the construction of the line.

Bentinck evidently thought it prudent to get the authorisation of an Act of Parliament for his line. Bentinck got his Act on 27 May 1808, when the Troon Railway was incorporated; the line thus became the first railway in Scotland to be authorised by Act of Parliament. On the same day he got his Act for improving Troon Harbour. Jessop's estimate for the construction of the line was £38,167 10s 0d. With the exception of Laigh Milton Viaduct at Gatehead, soft ground at Shewalton Moss, the engineering works on the line were light; the line was engineered "as a plateway at a time when other Scottish lines were using the edge rail". The choice of the older technology may be due to the employment of William Jessop as engineer, he had built the Surrey Iron Railway a plateway. The wrought iron rails were L-shaped, the upstand guided the wagons; the plates were three feet long, with a three-inch upstand. Highet says, "These plates or rails were joined with a square joint and were nailed to the foundation stones through small square holes formed half-way in each end of the rail."

The plates were carried on sleeper blocks. The gauge of the line was 4 ft; the route was nine miles six furlongs in length. Carter describes the line as "Laid with a wooden plateway... its wooden rails were replaced with iron ones in 1815", but this seems to diverge from other accounts. In January 1812, the Scots Magazine described the line not quite finished, it would have a gentle gradient of about 1 in 660 falling towards Troon: The total rise of the ground, from the Troon Harbour to Kilmarnock, is 80 or 84 feet, divided over the whole course of the road, so as to form it into an inclined plane, having a declivity of nearly eight feet, every mile. The track is described in more detail: The iron rails are 3 feet in length, 40 lbs in weight each, their horizontal base, on which the carriage wheels run, is 4 inches in breadth, the ledge or parapet, rising perpendicular in the inner side of the rail, is about 4 inches in height, raised in the centre, declining at both ends of each rail, to add to its strength


Teip is a Chechen and Ingush tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor or geographic location. There are about 150 Chechen teips. Teips played and continue to play significant role in the socioeconomic life of the Chechen and Ingush peoples. Common teip rules and some features: The right of communal land tenure. Common revenge for murder of a teip member or insulting of the members of a teip. Unconditional exogamy. Election of a teip representative. Election of a headman. Election of a military leader in case of war. Open sessions of the Council of Elders; the right of the teip to depose its representatives. Representation of women by male relatives; the right of the adoption of outside people. The transfer of property of departed to members of the teip; the teip has a defined territory. The teip constructed a teip tower or another building or natural monument convenient as a shelter, e.g. a fortress. The teip had its own taip cemetery. Below is a list of teips with the tukkhum.

Cheberloy tukkhum. If non-Chechen minorities living in Chechen lands wanted to take part in the political processes of the Chechen nation and integrate into it, they would request admittance as an ethnic teip, they would continue, for a time, to speak their other languages, but learned Chechen. Due to the encouragement of teip exogamy, as the generations passed, they would intermarry with others of the Chechen nation and, as a result, be assimilated culturally and linguistically. A notable modern example of the formation of an ethnic teip is the ethnic Germans, who lived among the Chechens during their joint exiles in Kazakhstan and Siberia: during this period of 13 years, the Germans decided to join the teip system; the new "German" taip was founded by M. Weisert, whose extended family still lived chiefly in Germany. Tukkhum History of Chechnya Teips on Russia and Eurasia Review Traditional social organisation of the Chechens - A complete list of all Chechen Teips

New Galilee (the Sixth Epoch)

The New Galilee is the name given in the Western Wisdom Teachings to ‘a new heaven and a new earth’ mentioned in the Bible. From the viewpoint of these Christian esoteric teachings, the New Galilee represents the future Sixth Epoch in mankind's evolutionary path and will see the transition of humanity to the etheric region of the Earth, where “sorrow and pain will cease and he will have entered the path to the city of peace--Jer-u-salem, the future New Jerusalem to be established within, the heavenly ‘bride’ of the Christ's Race in the making.” According to the Rosicrucian writings of Max Heindel the sixth sub-race of the current Aryan Epoch has evolved among the Slavic peoples and the seventh sub-race is now evolving from this sixth sub-race. Heindel refers that the United States is the melting pot to form the last race in human evolution that will exist at the beginning of the Sixth Epoch, the New Galilee: Matthias wrote that a seventh sub-race will generate the Sixth Epoch as the United States extends its influence across the planet, forming a New Galilee, in opposition to the reptilian forces.

The next phase of this development will be the identification of the possibilities for the transition to this epoch, through the Matthias harmonics. Second Coming Last Judgment The New Earth Rays from the Rose Cross: Christ is the Divine Messenger

Kanagasaki Castle

Kanegasaki Castle was a Kamakura period yamashiro-style Japanese castle located in what is now part of the city of Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Honshu, Japan. It was known as Tsuruga Castle; the site has been protected by the central government as a National Historic Site since 1934. Kanegasaki Castle is located on a small hill 86 meters above sea level, in the northeastern part of the city of Tsuruga. A fortification was first constructed here by Taira no Michimori while fighting against Kiso Yoshinaka in the Genpei War. All that remains at present are the remnants of stone and earthen enclosures and the foundations of the central building and gate. A Shinto shrine, the Kanegasaki-gu was built near the base of the hill during the Meiji period During the Siege of Kanegasaki, forces loyal to Nitta Yoshisada was trapped for three months at Kanegasaki Castle by Ashikaga Takauji. Nitta's ally Uryū Tamotsu was forced back to the Somayama Castle in March 1337, Nitta Yoshisada joined him soon afterwards.

A failed counter-attack from Somayama Castle failed to lift the siege against Kanegasaki, whose defenders were reduced to eating horseflesh to survive, resorted to cannibalism before surrendering. Nitta Yoshiaki, Prince Takanaga, some 300 partisans of the Southern Court were killed or committed suicide when the castle fell. Another battle was the Siege of Kanegasaki when the Oda Nobunaga led a failed attack against the forces of the Asakura clan. Toyotomi Hideyoshi known as “Kinoshita Hideyoshi” fought a celebrated rear-guard action by which Nobunaga was able to escape the defeat. List of Historic Sites of Japan JCastle site Fukui prefecture official home page

Desnoeufs Island

Desnœufs Island is an island in Seychelles, lying at the southern edge of the Amirantes group, in the Outer Islands, with a distance of 321 km south of Victoria, Seychelles. The origin of the name seems to be its French meaning, "one of nine", as it is one of the nine main islands of the Amirantes. Desnœufs Island is the southernmost island of the Amirantes chain, is a nearly circular island with a high rim surrounding a central depression, it is up to 5.5 m high. Most of the land is exposed sandstone; the island has a fringing reef, the reef flat is narrow. Landing can be difficult, with heavy swells sweeping round the island during the calmest sea conditions; the island belongs to Outer Islands District. Being an island with a small population, there are not any government services. For many services, people have to go to Victoria, a difficult task; the occasional villagers of Marie Louise Island used to poach eggs illegally on the island when the island was a base for the commercial exploitation of seabirds the eggs of the sooty tern.

Recent years the island was made a reservation, is visited once a year shortly by IDC members and scientists from Mahe. There are ruins on the island from the time of the poaching; the terrestrial vegetation on the island is limited because of the high number of seabirds. The island is treeless and is covered by grasses and other low-growing plants, it has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports a breeding population of 430,000 pairs of sooty terns, a large number of boobies. Green and hawksbill sea turtles nest there; the island is known for its rich fish life. National Bureau of Statistics 2010 Sailing directions