Merthyr Tydfil is a town in Wales, with a population of about 63,546, situated approximately 23 miles north of Cardiff. At one time the largest town in Wales, Merthyr Tydfil is today the fourth largest urban area by population. Situated in the county of Glamorgan, it is the main town in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough and is administered by Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council. Both the town and the county borough are often referred to as simply Merthyr, according to legend, the town is named after Saint Tydfil, a daughter of King Brychan of Brycheiniog. According to her legend, she was slain at Merthyr by pagans around 480, although merthyr generally means martyr in modern Welsh, the meaning here is closer to the Latin martyrium, the mausoleum or church built over the relics of a martyr. Similar examples, all from south Wales, include Merthyr Cynog, Merthyr Dyfan, the Cornish and Breton language equivalents, in place names, are merther and merzher. Peoples migrating north from Europe had lived in the area for thousands of years. The archaeological record starts from about 1000 BC with the Celts, from their language, the Welsh language developed. Hillforts were built during the Iron Age and the tribe that inhabited them in the south of Wales were called the Silures, according to Tacitus, the Romans arrived in Roman Wales by about 47–53 AD and established a network of forts, with roads to link them. They had to fight hard to consolidate their conquests, and in 74 AD they built a fortress at Penydarren. It covered an area of three hectares, and formed part of the network of roads and fortifications, remains were found underneath the football ground where Merthyr Tydfil FC play. A road ran north–south through the area, linking the southern coast with Mid Wales, parts of this and other roads, including Sarn Helen, can be traced and walked. The Silures resisted this invasion fiercely from their strongholds. In time, relative peace was established and the Penydarren fortress was abandoned by about 120 AD and this had an unfortunate effect upon the local economy, which had come to rely upon supplying the fortress with beef and grain, and imported items such as oysters from the coast. Intermarriage with local women had occurred and many auxiliary veterans had settled locally on farms, with the Decline of the Roman Empire, Roman legions were withdrawn around 380 AD. By 402 AD, the army in Britain comprised mostly Germanic troops and local recruits, sometime during this period, Irish Dalriadan and Picts attacked and breached Hadrians Wall. By about 490 AD hordes of Saxons invaded and settled in the east or lowland Britain, the Latin language and some Roman customs and culture became established before the withdrawal of the Roman army. The girl was considered a martyr after her death in around 480, Merthyr translates to Martyr in English, and tradition holds that, when the town was founded, the name was chosen in her honour
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation
Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council
Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council is the governing body for Merthyr Tydfil County Borough, one of the Principal Areas of Wales. Elections take place four years. The last election was 3 May 2012, the county borough is divided into 11 electoral wards returning 33 councillors. Some of these wards are coterminous with communities of the same name, the following table lists council wards, communities and associated geographical areas
Merthyr Town F.C.
Merthyr Town Football Club is a Welsh semi-professional football club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. The club will play in the Southern Football League Premier Division, Merthyr Town were founded in 1909 and played in the Football League during the 1920s, but the club folded in 1934 and were replaced by new formed Merthyr Tydfil F. C. in 1945. In 2010, the club reformed again after Merthyr Tydfil FC was liquidated, after finishing third in 1911–12 the club were promoted to the first division, though they were relegated back to the second division in 1913–14. The Southern League did not operate during the First World War, in the summer of 1920 the Football League expanded with the creation of a new Third Division, which was made up entirely of the First Division of the Southern League from the previous season. Despite having finished bottom in season before, usually a relegation place. In their first season in the Football League, the club had a better season. This, however, proved to be their most successful league season, from then on the club declined further, and finished bottom of the Third Division in 1924–5. Although they finished 14th in 1925–6, in the seasons the club finished 17th, 21st, 20th and then bottom again. They were replaced by the ill-fated Thames, during their penultimate season in the Football League the club had their best season in the FA Cup, getting past the first round for the only time, before losing to Watford in the second round. The club dropped back into the Southern League, but lasted four seasons. In 2010, Merthyr Tydfil F. C. of the Southern Football League Premier Division were liquidated despite finishing the 2009–10 season 17th of 22 clubs. The club was reformed under the name of Merthyr Town and consequently were required to drop three divisions to begin the 2010–11 season in the Western Football League Division One. The club was forced to switch grounds, and left Penydarren Park to take Rhiw Dda’r. In their first season they won Division One and were promoted to the Western League Premier Division, the newly promoted club once again called Penydarren Park home. Their first match back at their ground was a 1–9 defeat to Welsh Premier League side Llanelli in a pre-season friendly in July 2011. However Merthyr went on to secure a consecutive championship and with it promotion to the Southern League. On 6 April 2015, Merthyr Town were promoted back to the Southern League Premier Division only five years after being expelled, the club is fully owned by the supporters trust. As of 02 February 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area. Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat. Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to use, such as in sports. Domed, covered, and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting enough sunlight to stay healthy. But artificial turf does have its downside, limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome. The specific product used was developed by Monsanto and called AstroTurf, AstroTurf remains a registered trademark, but is no longer owned by Monsanto. The first generation systems of the 1960s have been largely replaced by the second generation. That accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man responsible for major league baseball. Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a school recreation area in Rhode Island. The material came to prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, more than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, for most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on green-painted dirt and dead grass. The solution was to install a new type of grass on the field, ChemGrass. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game, there was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield. The outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break, the team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, and on 19 July 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed. The Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in a stadium, as they used it in the infield
Merthyr Tydfil RLFC
Merthyr Tydfil Rugby League Football Club was a professional rugby league club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales playing in the Welsh League and Northern Union. Based at College Field, Merthyr Tydfil were one of the first professional Welsh teams, at the beginning of the 20th century, rugby union was the sport of choice for most villages and towns in Wales. The sport was strictly amateur, and players were not expected to receive any monies for taking part in the sport, if players were discovered taking payments, they and their club could be permanently suspended. Many rugby union clubs found their star players poached from them by the new Northern League, at the start of the 20th century the most successful rugby team in Merthyr was Merthyr Alexandria. At the clubs AGM in July 1907, E. M. Rees and he stated that not only had the secretary of Merthyr Alexandria, W. T. Jones, demanded £7 5s. To bring his team to play Aberdare, but also Merthyr paid players per match and these allegations prompted an investigation by the Welsh Rugby Union, the governing body of rugby union in Wales. At the AGM a proposal was made for Merthyr Alexandria to adopt professionalism and join the Northern Union, in July 1907 a Merthyr Tydfil rugby league team joined the Northern Union and the Northern Rugby League. Merthyr Tydfil played their first Northern Union match on 7 September 1907, Merthyr continued to struggle against the more established northern teams, losing ten games in succession, though they had close matches with Batley, Broughton Rangers and Bradford Northern. During their ten match losing run, they lost their first ever encounter, when Ebbw Vale beat them 2-0. Merthyrs first victory came on 16 November 1907, when they beat Runcorn at home, by the end of 1907 they had picked up more points in the Northern Rugby League, with wins over Widnes and Ebbw Vale, and a draw with Huddersfield. On 1 January 1908, the first true international rugby match took place. Played on Ynys Field in Aberdare, the game was contested by Wales and New Zealand. Merthyr supplied two of its players to the first Wales team, David Dai Davies, and Dai Tarw Jones, a rugby union international. As the season continued, Merthyrs performances on the improved, with wins over Huddersfield, York, Leigh, Wakefield Trinity. All the wins came at home, and their form was poor. They finished the season with eight wins and one draw out of thirty games, coming 23rd out of 27 clubs. Merthyr also managed to progress to the round of the Challenge Cup after wins over Beverley. A more worrying matter for the club than their position was the gate receipts
Merthyr Tydfil F.C.
Merthyr Tydfil Football Club was a Welsh football club based at the Penydarren Park ground in Merthyr Tydfil. In 2010 the club was liquidated and reformed under the name Merthyr Town, the club was formed in 1945, and joined the Welsh League. In their first season, they finished as runners-up, and joined the Southern League, the club were immensely successful in their first few seasons, winning the championship in 1947–48, 1949–50, 1950–51, 1951–52 and 1953–54. In the 1947–48 championship-winning season, Merthyr only dropped one point at home, however, despite their success, the club failed to be elected to the Football League. The 1950–51 season ended with Merthyr winning the Southern League, the Welsh Cup, the Southern League Cup and this time, winning the championship meant promotion to the Football Conference, the fifth level of English football. The club finished ninth in their first two seasons, and then fourth, however, they then went into decline, and were relegated back to the Southern League in 1995, where they remained until reforming in 2010. They should have been relegated a season earlier, but were reprieved when Northern Premier League champions Marine failed to meet the criteria for the league. The clubs best FA Cup performance was reaching the second round, the only time the club managed to defeat a Football League club in the FA Cup was in the first round of the 1946–47 cup, when they beat Bristol Rovers 3–1. The club were more successful in the Welsh Cup, which they won on three occasions,1949,1951 and 1987. In addition, the finished as runners-up in 1947 and 1952. After winning the final in 1987, the club were allowed to enter the European Cup Winners Cup, in the first round, they were drawn against the Italian club Atalanta. The club managed a win in the first leg at home, however, the return leg was lost 2–0, and the club were out. Historically, the clubs biggest rivals are Gloucester City, the two clubs played over 120 times in their history, making it one of the most played Anglo-Welsh derbies in football. In the late 1990s and early 2000s Newport County were local rivals but the teams have not met in the same league for many years
Merthyr RFC is a Welsh rugby union club based in Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. Merthyr RFC are members of the Welsh Rugby Union, playing in the Principality Premiership, the first recorded rugby game involving Merthyr was on 25 November 1876 against a side from Brecon. The result is believed to have been a draw, Merthyr RFC are recognised as one of the eleven clubs present on 12 April 1881 for the formation of the Welsh Rugby Union. The club, along with Brecon, Pontypool, Llandovery College, Lampeter College, during these early years Merthyr RFC played at the Plymouth Ground at Pentrebach and were known as Merthyr Alexandra. However, in 1948 a meeting governed by Cyril Williams, Monty Warrington and Ron Gethin was enthusiastically supported, the club played out of Dixs field, Danydarren, and then on to Glyndyrus field Abercanaid, before moving to the current ground, the Wern in Ynysfach in 1958. In September 1960 the New Clubhouse opened in Ynysfach, and two later, Merthyr Youth were formed. Promotion immediately followed from the fifth to the fourth, then the third to the first in successive years, Merthyr remained in the First Division for six seasons before being relegated to Division 2 following a players strike. It took three seasons to achieve back to the first division. In 2013-14, the Ironmen have achieved their most successful season to date, completing a Double, under the Captaincy of Steve Lang and coached by former Wales International Lee Jarvis. They won the League Division 1 East title, securing their promotion to the WRU Championship, Merthyr RFC won the WRU SWALEC Championship in 2015-16 and presently play in the WRU Principality Premiership