Merthyr Tydfil is a town in Wales, with a population of about 63,546, situated approximately 23 miles north of Cardiff. At one time the largest town in Wales, Merthyr Tydfil is today the fourth largest urban area by population. Situated in the county of Glamorgan, it is the main town in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough and is administered by Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council. Both the town and the county borough are often referred to as simply Merthyr, according to legend, the town is named after Saint Tydfil, a daughter of King Brychan of Brycheiniog. According to her legend, she was slain at Merthyr by pagans around 480, although merthyr generally means martyr in modern Welsh, the meaning here is closer to the Latin martyrium, the mausoleum or church built over the relics of a martyr. Similar examples, all from south Wales, include Merthyr Cynog, Merthyr Dyfan, the Cornish and Breton language equivalents, in place names, are merther and merzher. Peoples migrating north from Europe had lived in the area for thousands of years. The archaeological record starts from about 1000 BC with the Celts, from their language, the Welsh language developed. Hillforts were built during the Iron Age and the tribe that inhabited them in the south of Wales were called the Silures, according to Tacitus, the Romans arrived in Roman Wales by about 47–53 AD and established a network of forts, with roads to link them. They had to fight hard to consolidate their conquests, and in 74 AD they built a fortress at Penydarren. It covered an area of three hectares, and formed part of the network of roads and fortifications, remains were found underneath the football ground where Merthyr Tydfil FC play. A road ran north–south through the area, linking the southern coast with Mid Wales, parts of this and other roads, including Sarn Helen, can be traced and walked. The Silures resisted this invasion fiercely from their strongholds. In time, relative peace was established and the Penydarren fortress was abandoned by about 120 AD and this had an unfortunate effect upon the local economy, which had come to rely upon supplying the fortress with beef and grain, and imported items such as oysters from the coast. Intermarriage with local women had occurred and many auxiliary veterans had settled locally on farms, with the Decline of the Roman Empire, Roman legions were withdrawn around 380 AD. By 402 AD, the army in Britain comprised mostly Germanic troops and local recruits, sometime during this period, Irish Dalriadan and Picts attacked and breached Hadrians Wall. By about 490 AD hordes of Saxons invaded and settled in the east or lowland Britain, the Latin language and some Roman customs and culture became established before the withdrawal of the Roman army. The girl was considered a martyr after her death in around 480, Merthyr translates to Martyr in English, and tradition holds that, when the town was founded, the name was chosen in her honour
Artificial turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass. It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are played on grass. However, it is now being used on lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to use, such as in sports. Domed, covered, and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting enough sunlight to stay healthy. But artificial turf does have its downside, limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome. The specific product used was developed by Monsanto and called AstroTurf, AstroTurf remains a registered trademark, but is no longer owned by Monsanto. The first generation systems of the 1960s have been largely replaced by the second generation. That accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man responsible for major league baseball. Artificial turf was first installed in 1964 on a school recreation area in Rhode Island. The material came to prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston. The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the U. S. and Canada in the early 1970s, more than 11,000 artificial turf playing fields have been installed nationally. More than 1,200 were installed in the U. S. in 2013 alone, maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Artificial turf was first used in Major League Baseball in the Houston Astrodome in 1966, for most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on green-painted dirt and dead grass. The solution was to install a new type of grass on the field, ChemGrass. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available for the first home game, there was not enough for the entire outfield, but there was enough to cover the traditional grass portion of the infield. The outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Break, the team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, and on 19 July 1966, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed. The Chicago White Sox became the first team to install artificial turf in a stadium, as they used it in the infield
The Welsh Government is the executive of the devolved National Assembly for Wales. The government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend meetings, and ministers who do not. It is led by the first minister, usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly, the government is responsible for tabling policy in devolved areas for consideration by the assembly and implementing policy that has been approved by it. As initially established, the Welsh Government had no independent executive powers in law, following separation, the Welsh ministers exercise functions in their own right. Further transfers of functions from the British government can be made directly to the Welsh ministers by an Order in Council approved by the British parliament. Separation was designed to clarify the roles of the assembly. The result mirrored much more closely the relationship between the British government and British parliament and that between the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament. This separation between the two bodies took effect on the appointment of the First Minister by Queen Elizabeth II following the election on 3 May 2007. Separation was meant to clarify the roles of the assembly. The role of the government is to make decisions, develop and implement policy, exercise executive functions, Assembly measures can now go further than the subordinate legislation which the assembly had the power to make prior to 2007. The assemblys functions, including that of making subordinate legislation, in the main, a third body was also established under the 2006 Act from May 2007, called the National Assembly for Wales Commission. It employs the staff supporting the new National Assembly for Wales, the 2006 Act made new provision for the appointment of Welsh ministers. The First Minister is nominated by the Assembly and then appointed by Her Majesty the Queen, the First Minister then appoints the Welsh Ministers and the Deputy Welsh Ministers, with the approval of Her Majesty. The Act created a new post of Counsel General for Wales, the Counsel General is appointed by the Queen, on the nomination of the First Minister, whose recommendation must be agreed by the National Assembly. The Counsel General may be, but does not have to be, the Act permits a maximum of 12 Welsh Ministers, which includes Deputy Welsh Ministers, but excludes the First Minister and the Counsel General. Accordingly, the size of the Welsh Government is 14. Subject to limitations prescribed by the Government of Wales Act 2006, the government is composed of cabinet secretaries and ministers. The counsel general attends cabinet meetings, the current government is formed by Welsh Labour and also the sole Liberal Democrats Assembly Member, Kirsty Williams
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess, was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany. Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, he served in this position until 1941 and he was taken prisoner and eventually was convicted of crimes against peace, serving a life sentence, until his death by suicide. Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment as an infantryman at the outbreak of World War I and he was wounded several times over the course of the war, and won the Iron Cross, 2nd class, in 1915. Shortly before the war ended, Hess enrolled to train as an aviator and he left the armed forces in December 1918 with the rank of Leutnant der Reserve. Hess joined the NSDAP on 1 July 1920, and was at Hitlers side on 8 November 1923 for the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed Nazi attempt to seize control of the government of Bavaria. Whilst serving time in jail for this coup, Hess helped Hitler write his book, Mein Kampf. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, Hess was appointed Deputy Führer of the NSDAP and he was the third most powerful man in Germany, behind only Hitler and Hermann Göring. Hess continued to be interested in aviation, learning to fly the advanced aircraft that were coming into development at the start of World War II. On 10 May 1941 he undertook a flight to Scotland, where he hoped to arrange peace talks with the Duke of Hamilton. During much of the trial, he claimed to be suffering from amnesia, Hess was convicted of crimes against peace and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes and was transferred to Spandau Prison in 1947, where he served a life sentence. Repeated attempts by members and prominent politicians to win him early release were blocked by the Soviet Union. Still in custody in Spandau, he died by suicide in 1987 at the age of 93, after his death the prison was demolished to prevent it from becoming a neo-Nazi shrine. Hess, the oldest of three children, was born on 26 April 1894 in Alexandria, Egypt, into the ethnic German family of Fritz Hess, a merchant from Bavaria. His brother, Alfred, was born in 1897 and his sister, the family lived in a villa on the Egyptian coast near Alexandria, and visited Germany often from 1900, staying at their summer home in Reicholdsgrün in the Fichtel Mountains. Hess attended a German language Protestant school in Alexandria from 1900 to 1908, after a year there, Hess took an apprenticeship at a trading company in Hamburg. Within weeks of the outbreak of World War I, Hess enlisted in the 7th Bavarian Field Artillery Regiment and his initial posting was against the British on the Somme, he was present at the First Battle of Ypres. On 9 November 1914 Hess transferred to the 1st Infantry Regiment and he was awarded the Iron Cross, second class, and promoted to Gefreiter in April 1915. After additional training at the Munster Training Area, he was promoted to Vizefeldwebel, returning to the front lines in November, he fought in Artois, participating in the battle for the town of Neuville-Saint-Vaast
Cardiff Arms Park
Cardiff Arms Park, also known as The Arms Park and the BT Sport Cardiff Arms Park for sponsorship reasons from September 2014, is situated in the centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is primarily known as a union stadium, but it also has a bowling green. The Arms Park was host to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1958, the Arms Park also hosted the inaugural Heineken Cup Final of 1995–96 and the following year in 1996–97. The history of the ground begins with the first stands appearing for spectators in the ground in 1881–1882. Originally the Arms Park had a ground to the north. By 1969, the ground had been demolished to make way for the present day rugby ground to the north. The site also has a green to the north of the rugby ground, which is used by Cardiff Athletic Bowls Club. The National Stadium also hosted music concerts including Michael Jackson, David Bowie, Bon Jovi, The Rolling Stones. The Cardiff Arms Park site was called the Great Park. The hotel was built by Sir Thomas Morgan, during the reign of Charles I, Cardiff Arms Park was named after this hotel. From 1803, the Cardiff Arms Hotel and the Park had become the property of the Bute family, the Arms Park soon became a popular place for sporting events, and by 1848, Cardiff Cricket Club was using the site for its cricket matches. However, by 1878, Cardiff Arms Hotel had been demolished, the 3rd Marquess of Bute stipulated that the ground could only be used for recreational purposes. At that time Cardiff Arms Park had a ground to the north. 1881–2 saw the first stands for spectators, they held 300 spectators, the architect was Archibald Leitch, famous for designing Ibrox Stadium and Old Trafford, amongst others. In 1890, new standing areas were constructed along the length of the ground. By 1912, the Cardiff Football Ground, as it was known, had a new south stand and temporary stands on the north. The south stand was covered, while the terrace was initially without a roof. The improvements were funded by the Welsh Rugby Union
Merthyr Town F.C.
Merthyr Town Football Club is a Welsh semi-professional football club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. The club will play in the Southern Football League Premier Division, Merthyr Town were founded in 1909 and played in the Football League during the 1920s, but the club folded in 1934 and were replaced by new formed Merthyr Tydfil F. C. in 1945. In 2010, the club reformed again after Merthyr Tydfil FC was liquidated, after finishing third in 1911–12 the club were promoted to the first division, though they were relegated back to the second division in 1913–14. The Southern League did not operate during the First World War, in the summer of 1920 the Football League expanded with the creation of a new Third Division, which was made up entirely of the First Division of the Southern League from the previous season. Despite having finished bottom in season before, usually a relegation place. In their first season in the Football League, the club had a better season. This, however, proved to be their most successful league season, from then on the club declined further, and finished bottom of the Third Division in 1924–5. Although they finished 14th in 1925–6, in the seasons the club finished 17th, 21st, 20th and then bottom again. They were replaced by the ill-fated Thames, during their penultimate season in the Football League the club had their best season in the FA Cup, getting past the first round for the only time, before losing to Watford in the second round. The club dropped back into the Southern League, but lasted four seasons. In 2010, Merthyr Tydfil F. C. of the Southern Football League Premier Division were liquidated despite finishing the 2009–10 season 17th of 22 clubs. The club was reformed under the name of Merthyr Town and consequently were required to drop three divisions to begin the 2010–11 season in the Western Football League Division One. The club was forced to switch grounds, and left Penydarren Park to take Rhiw Dda’r. In their first season they won Division One and were promoted to the Western League Premier Division, the newly promoted club once again called Penydarren Park home. Their first match back at their ground was a 1–9 defeat to Welsh Premier League side Llanelli in a pre-season friendly in July 2011. However Merthyr went on to secure a consecutive championship and with it promotion to the Southern League. On 6 April 2015, Merthyr Town were promoted back to the Southern League Premier Division only five years after being expelled, the club is fully owned by the supporters trust. As of 02 February 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area. Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat. Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Merthyr Tydfil RLFC
Merthyr Tydfil Rugby League Football Club was a professional rugby league club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales playing in the Welsh League and Northern Union. Based at College Field, Merthyr Tydfil were one of the first professional Welsh teams, at the beginning of the 20th century, rugby union was the sport of choice for most villages and towns in Wales. The sport was strictly amateur, and players were not expected to receive any monies for taking part in the sport, if players were discovered taking payments, they and their club could be permanently suspended. Many rugby union clubs found their star players poached from them by the new Northern League, at the start of the 20th century the most successful rugby team in Merthyr was Merthyr Alexandria. At the clubs AGM in July 1907, E. M. Rees and he stated that not only had the secretary of Merthyr Alexandria, W. T. Jones, demanded £7 5s. To bring his team to play Aberdare, but also Merthyr paid players per match and these allegations prompted an investigation by the Welsh Rugby Union, the governing body of rugby union in Wales. At the AGM a proposal was made for Merthyr Alexandria to adopt professionalism and join the Northern Union, in July 1907 a Merthyr Tydfil rugby league team joined the Northern Union and the Northern Rugby League. Merthyr Tydfil played their first Northern Union match on 7 September 1907, Merthyr continued to struggle against the more established northern teams, losing ten games in succession, though they had close matches with Batley, Broughton Rangers and Bradford Northern. During their ten match losing run, they lost their first ever encounter, when Ebbw Vale beat them 2-0. Merthyrs first victory came on 16 November 1907, when they beat Runcorn at home, by the end of 1907 they had picked up more points in the Northern Rugby League, with wins over Widnes and Ebbw Vale, and a draw with Huddersfield. On 1 January 1908, the first true international rugby match took place. Played on Ynys Field in Aberdare, the game was contested by Wales and New Zealand. Merthyr supplied two of its players to the first Wales team, David Dai Davies, and Dai Tarw Jones, a rugby union international. As the season continued, Merthyrs performances on the improved, with wins over Huddersfield, York, Leigh, Wakefield Trinity. All the wins came at home, and their form was poor. They finished the season with eight wins and one draw out of thirty games, coming 23rd out of 27 clubs. Merthyr also managed to progress to the round of the Challenge Cup after wins over Beverley. A more worrying matter for the club than their position was the gate receipts
Jenner Park Stadium
Jenner Park is the premier sports stadium in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan and traditional home of football club, Barry Town United. During the 1980s, the council rebuilt Jenner Park, installing a synthetic running track. Then, in order to bring Jenner Park up to UEFA standards and this was increased to over 6,000 for the visits of Aberdeen and Manchester United in 1996 with the use of temporary bleachers behind each goal, a practice no longer permitted. Recent years have seen the addition of a viewing area for wheelchair users in the grandstand. Most recently, August 2015 saw work undertaken on installing a new, state-of-the-art 3G pitch, Wales manager Chris Coleman was on hand for the official opening. In 1928 the football club attempted to bring greyhound racing to Jenner Park, however on 26 August 1932 the plans were finally passed despite opposition from the local clergy. The first meeting place on 3 September 1932. The profits created by the racing enabled the survival of the team during a lean spell for the club before the World War II. After the war Jenner Park was bought by the Welsh Greyhound Association £5,000 with the proviso that football could continue, the football team were given free tenancy and a Saturday slot for their matches. The ownership switched to the Aberdare Greyhound Association in July 1955, list of stadiums in Wales by capacity Media related to Jenner Park at Wikimedia Commons
Brewery Field is an 8,000 capacity sports stadium in Bridgend, Wales 1,100 of which is seated capacity. It is the ground of the rugby union team Bridgend Ravens. Bridgend Athletic RFC often use the ground for their Division 1 matches, as well as the Ospreys who sometimes play at the ground, Bridgend Ravens moved to The Brewery Field in 1920 after their former home Quarella Ground was acquired for building purposes. Most of the fencing was laid to the ground, essential services including water, heating, lighting. Other repairs and building took place over several months and just in time for the 1957/8 season. Bridgend Town FC moved to the Brewery Field in 2009 after the consortium that the club was part of, the club had been without a home since leaving Coychurch Road in 2007 to make way for a supermarket development. They had ground-shared with Porthcawl Town F. C. until 2008, the club played their first game at the Brewery Field in September 2009, when they beat Aberaman Athletic 1-0. In 2013 the club merged with local rivals Bryntirion Athletic to form Pen-y-Bont FC and will be based out of Bryntirion Park, Celtic Warriors played most of their home matches at the ground in their only season in 2003–04. The team was formed during the advent of rugby at the top level of rugby union in Wales and was the partnership of Bridgend RFC. The ground hosted all but 3 of the home games. A then capacity-crowd of 10,000 saw the team host London Wasps in the Heineken Cup competition. The team was culled after just one season due to difficulties by the Welsh Rugby Union. Rugby league team Bridgend Blue Bulls played at the ground in 2005, winning all their home games, the ground also hosted the Harry Jepson Cup final, which the club reached and ran out 60-10 winners over Leeds Akkies. The club didnt remain at the ground beyond the 2005 season and are now based at Pyle RFC, Crusaders played their first four seasons of their existence at the ground, to which they had ownership of, between 2006 and 2009. They played their first Super League home game at the stadium on 21 February 2009 against Hull F. C, the Crusaders won their first Super League game at Brewery Field on 13 June 2009 with a shock win against the Wigan Warriors. They re-located to The Racecourse Ground in Wrexham at the end of 2009 and it was also the headquarters of Wales Rugby League and home of the Wales national rugby league team, but they have since re-located. The ground changed ownership in 2009, before this change the long-term lease was owned by the Crusaders and the Bridgend Ravens had to rent the ground from the Crusaders throughout the winter. The lease is now owned by a consortium - Brewery Field Ltd, in July 2010, a story was published that many misunderstood to mean Bridgend Ravens had sole ownership of the famous ground
Merthyr Tydfil F.C.
Merthyr Tydfil Football Club was a Welsh football club based at the Penydarren Park ground in Merthyr Tydfil. In 2010 the club was liquidated and reformed under the name Merthyr Town, the club was formed in 1945, and joined the Welsh League. In their first season, they finished as runners-up, and joined the Southern League, the club were immensely successful in their first few seasons, winning the championship in 1947–48, 1949–50, 1950–51, 1951–52 and 1953–54. In the 1947–48 championship-winning season, Merthyr only dropped one point at home, however, despite their success, the club failed to be elected to the Football League. The 1950–51 season ended with Merthyr winning the Southern League, the Welsh Cup, the Southern League Cup and this time, winning the championship meant promotion to the Football Conference, the fifth level of English football. The club finished ninth in their first two seasons, and then fourth, however, they then went into decline, and were relegated back to the Southern League in 1995, where they remained until reforming in 2010. They should have been relegated a season earlier, but were reprieved when Northern Premier League champions Marine failed to meet the criteria for the league. The clubs best FA Cup performance was reaching the second round, the only time the club managed to defeat a Football League club in the FA Cup was in the first round of the 1946–47 cup, when they beat Bristol Rovers 3–1. The club were more successful in the Welsh Cup, which they won on three occasions,1949,1951 and 1987. In addition, the finished as runners-up in 1947 and 1952. After winning the final in 1987, the club were allowed to enter the European Cup Winners Cup, in the first round, they were drawn against the Italian club Atalanta. The club managed a win in the first leg at home, however, the return leg was lost 2–0, and the club were out. Historically, the clubs biggest rivals are Gloucester City, the two clubs played over 120 times in their history, making it one of the most played Anglo-Welsh derbies in football. In the late 1990s and early 2000s Newport County were local rivals but the teams have not met in the same league for many years