Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
A newsagent's shop or newsagent's, newsagency or newsstand is a business that sells newspapers, cigarettes and items of local interest. In Britain and Australia, these businesses are termed newsagents. Newsagents operate in busy public places like city streets, railway stations and airports. Racks for newspapers and magazines can be found in convenience stores and supermarkets; the physical establishment can be either part of a larger structure. In Canada and the United States, newsstands are open stalls in public locations such as streets, or in a transit terminal or station. In Brazil, newsagents' shops are known as "bancas de jornal" or "bancas de revistas" and are family-owned free standing kiosks that only deal in periodical publications, telephone cards, bus tickets and the occasional book and cut-price DVD. In suburban areas and villages they are housed in a shop selling stationery and sweets as well as periodicals. A newsagent is the manager of the newspaper department of the shop also the owner of a newsagent shop.
Newsagencies conduct. When they first started in Australia is unknown; the number of newsagent shops are falling in recent years and this decline is expected to continue. In 2000, there was estimated about 5,000, by 2007/8 there were 4,635 newsagencies, by 2016/7 there are 3,150 newsagencies and in 2021/22 there are expected to be 2,856 newsagencies. Retail newsagencies offer a comprehensive range of newspapers and magazines as well as stationery and greeting cards. Distribution newsagencies offer home delivery of a comprehensive range of newspapers and magazines, These can be quite large and sophisticated businesses. If authorised, they are fully computerized, they have a territory, protected by contracts with most of the Australian Newsagents' Federation recognised publishers/distributors. These recognised publishers/distributors include ACP Publishing, News Limited, Fairfax Publications, Rural Press, The West Australian and Australian Provincial Newspapers; these monopolies have been a major source of contention between newsagents and the Australian Consumer Affairs.
In Italy, newsagents' shops are known as edicola and are family-owned, free standing kiosks that only deal in periodical publications, bus tickets and the occasional book and cut-price DVD. In suburban areas and villages they are housed in a shop selling stationery and sweets as well as periodicals. In Japan, newsagents' shops are called kiosks, are found in or around railway or subway stations. In addition to newspapers and magazines, they sell beverages, snack foods, postage stamps and many other kinds of merchandise. Ekiben boxed. In the United Kingdom, newsagents' shops are small shops selling newspapers as well as magazines and tobacco. Opening times vary according to the owners' preferences. Many shops are family-owned; these family owned shops may carry purchasing group or wholesaler group branding such as SPAR, Today's, "Local Shop" or NISA. Alternatively the private owner choosing to do his own purchasing may carry advertising for a local paper, national news group or soft drinks brand externally.
Prior to the banning of advertising of tobacco products this was the most common form of external advertising. The primary employers association aimed towards looking after the interests of independent newsagents in the UK and Republic of Ireland is the National Federation of Retail Newsagents. Others are part of national chains such as Co-operative Group and WH Smiths. Mini-marts, off-licences and supermarkets may act as newsagents. In Greece, newsagents' shops are called Periptera and they are selling newspapers and magazines but other goods like beverages, tobacco. Opening times vary, they are found on the side of the road in crowded public areas. On street corners in New York City, for instance, they are shacks constructed of steel beams and aluminium siding or roofing tin. Other New York newsstands are located inside airports and office buildings - and beneath street level in underground concourses or on subway platforms. Hudson News, the most iconic newsstand brand created in New York City, is operated by retailer Hudson Group, with more than 500 stores around the world.
This brand was created in 1987, became more popular in the 1990s, during a time when newsstands in commuter terminals were being reevaluated and reopened to better serve customers and the spaces with the most commuter foot traffic. Prior to this, newsstands caused limited visibility for officers patrolling the subway stations, as well as impeding crowd movement. "Yesterday's News", The New York Times article
Adamsdown is an inner city area and community in the south of Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Adamsdown is located between Newport Road, to the north and the mainline railway to the south; the area includes Cardiff Prison, Cardiff Magistrates' Court, Cardiff Royal Infirmary, a University of South Wales campus, many streets of residential housing. In mediaeval times, Adamsdown lay just outside the east walls of Cardiff and was owned by the lords of Glamorgan; the area may be named after an Adam Kygnot, a porter at Cardiff Castle around 1330 AD. The Welsh name Waunadda derives from the personal name Adda; this name appears to be a recent creation, there is no evidence that Adam Kygnot was called'Adda'. Y Sblot Uchaf is the Welsh name of Upper Splott, a farm that stood on the site of the Great Eastern Hotel on the corner of Sun Street and Metal Street. According to an 1824 map, Adamsdown was a 270-acre farm. A replacement for a prison, located on St Mary Street opened in the area in 1832, a cemetery in 1848.
In the following year, an outbreak of cholera affected the area. As the cemetery became full, it was converted into a park. In 1883 the "South Wales and Mounmouthsire Infirmary" was opened at a cost of £23,000. Many were refused from the hospital, such as those with infectious diseases and women in the advanced stages of pregnancy. In 1923, the hospital became the Cardiff Royal Infirmary; the Newtown area of Adamsdown was the first new area to be developed, where many Irish immigrants settled. Streets built in the period had their names drawn from astronomy or precious stones; the Church of St German of Auxerre, on Star Street, was designed by London architects Bodley & Garner and built 1881–84. It is described as "tall and elegant" with a contemporary school house; the church is Grade I listed. Cardiff's first municipal secondary school was established at Howard Gardens in 1884, which became a Grammar School in 1941 and was destroyed by bombing in World War II, where a Cardiff Metropolitan University campus now stands.
Until the 1970s, Roath Cattle Market and Slaughterhouse were located in Adamsdown where one could obtain meats off the ration during World War II. Regeneration of Adamsdown in the 20th century saw Victorian buildings demolished for 1960s and 70s tower blocks, the highest of, Brunel House, at the eastern gateway to Cardiff city centre; the Vulcan Hotel was an historic hotel and public house located in Adamsdown. Built in 1853, it was located close to the joint-railway station of Queen Street, but on the southside of the Newport Road in the working class area of the suburb, it remained unchanged from its Victorian created structure. Adjoining Victorian buildings were redeveloped around it. In 2012, Brains Brewery confirmed that they were to terminate their lease on the property. Marcol Asset Management agreed to donate the building to the St Fagans National History Museum. From July 2012, the building was taken down by contractors and preservationists, to allow brick by brick movement to St Fagans.
It was expected that the building would reopen at the museum in 2014, styled in a "between the wars" 1920-1930s period. Cardiff Magistrates' Court, Cardiff Prison, Cardiff Royal Infirmary, the Cardiff School of Creative and Cultural Industries of the University of South Wales, a Reform synagogue, several Sikh temples can be found in this district and a mosque is under construction. Adamsdown is one of the older, working class suburbs of Cardiff. With thriving independent shopping, great community spirit it's a diverse and up-and-coming neighbourhood, it is about 10 minutes' walk from the commercial Cardiff city centre. It is a residential area but has a well renowned Dance School Rubicon Dance and great family run businesses from Las Amazonas to Pipins the greengrocer. There are leisure facilities such as the Rubicon dance centre and the refurbished Star Centre in nearby Splott. Adamsdown has undergone regeneration, in particular the shopping area of Clifton Street, where the traditional stone buildings such as Roath Police station have been sandblasted and renovated, most of the shop fronts have been replaced and updated, the pavements have been widened and a new one-way traffic system has been introduced.
The aim of this was to attract more shoppers to the area. The Adamsdown electoral ward falls within the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff Central, it is bounded by the wards of Penylan to the north east. In the 2016 local elections Nigel Howells and Owen Llewellyn Jones were elected Councillors. Cardiff Queen Street station is on the western fringe of Adamsdown; the station is on the Valley Lines urban rail network. The area is served by Cardiff Bus. Services stopping outside the Cardiff Royal Infirmary, which all go to City Centre in the reverse direction are: 61 30 44/45 49/50 The 11 route runs through the heart of the area connecting it with Tremorfa/Splott to the east and the City Centre to the west; the 1/2 Bay Circle route serves some parts of the area. The busy and commercial Newport Road runs through northern Adamsdown, leading towards the M4 motorway to the east and the city centre to the west. City Road leads to northern districts of Cardiff. Royal Oak, Cardiff Adamsdown Community Forum
Grangetown is a district and community in the south of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It is one of the largest districts in the south of the city and is bordered by Riverside and Butetown; the River Taff winds its way through the area. Adjacent to the city's Cardiff Bay area, Grangetown is benefitting from the nearby developments and is experiencing a period of gentrification and improvements in its infrastructure, its population as of 2011 was 19,385 in 8,261 households. One of the "five towns of Cardiff", the others are Butetown, Crockherbtown and Temperance Town. Grangetown is a diverse and multiracial district and has a significant population of Somali and mixed-race residents, it is various mosques including the newly built Abu Bakkar mosque. Until the mid-19th-century Grangetown was an area of marshy land used for farming, it appears to have been granted to the Cistercian abbey of Margam Abbey sometime at the end of the twelfth century. The monks established a monastic grange there which they held until they were expelled in around 1290 by Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan.
They were held them until the dissolution of the monasteries. The grange was named after the'moor' or saltmarsh upon which it stood, giving rise to English forms such as'More Grange' and'Grangemoor' and French equivalents such as'La Grange de Mora'. By the fifteenth century the grange was being farmed to laymen; the last farmer was a landowner called Lewis ap Richard, known as a patron of the Welsh-language poet Rhys Brychan. After the dissolution, the grange remained in the hand of Lewis's descendants. Lewis's son, Edward Lewis a noted patron of Welsh poets, settled at the Van near Caerphilly; the grange remained in the hands of the Lewises of the Van when they moved to St Fagans Castle during the 1610s. The Lewis estates passed through an heiress into the hands of Other Lewis Windsor, 4th Earl of Plymouth; the grange was farmed by a succession of tenants into the twentieth century. The farmhouse, known as Grange Farm, still exists today but is now surrounded by streets of terraced brick houses, which were built to house the many workers who moved to Cardiff to work in the industrial boom of the 19th century centered on the docks.
The farmhouse dates in part from the sixteenth century. The name Grangetown is the usual form in Welsh; the variants Y Grange and Y Grênj are sometimes seen. Owen John Thomas has used the form Y Grange Mawr; the names Trelluest and Trefynach appear to be recent coinages. Gwyddoniadur Cymru, the Welsh-language version of the Encyclopaedia of Wales, uses Grangetown, but notes the existence of Trelluest. Grangetown developed after 1850, the year Penarth Road and the bridges over the River Taff and River Ely were constructed, linking Cardiff with Penarth. In 1857 Baroness Windsor obtained an Act of Parliament to build housing in the area, intending to call it The Grange. Grangetown became a suburb of Cardiff in 1875; the area was low subject to flooding. In 1883 the sea flooded parts of Grangetown to a depth of five feet. Samuel Arthur Brain, the founder of Brains Brewery, was elected to Cardiff Council in 1885 to represent Grangetown. Grangetown's original public library on Redlaver Street was built 1900–1901 in the Tudor Gothic style.
It has now been converted into flats. Cardiff's popular pastries, Clark's Pies, arrived in Grangetown in 1955 when Dennis Dutch opened a shop in Bromsgrove Street; the shop still trades today. The Grangetown electoral ward returns three local councillors to Cardiff Council. Grangetown is part of the Cardiff South and Penarth constituency which returns one MP to the UK Parliament and one AM to the National Assembly for Wales. Grangetown has at least ten Christian places of worship including Grangetown Baptist Church and the Salvation Army citadel as well as a Hindu temple on Merches Place, mosque called Masjid Abu Bakr on Clydach Street and newly built Masjid called Markaz At-Tawheed on Penarth road; the church of St Paul, Paget Street, was built between 1889 and 1902 at the expense of Lord Windsor. It uses an "eccentric" palette of materials including pennant rubble, pink sandstone and Portland cement; the architect was a distinguished Arts & Crafts designer. St Patrick's Church is the Roman Catholic place of worship for the neighbourhood.
St Dyfrig and St Sampson, Pentre Gardens, dates from 1911. The number of Grangetown residents over three years old who speak Welsh has grown from 1,217 in the 2001 UK Census to 1,867 in the 2011 UK Census; this equates to over 15% of the total increase in Welsh speakers in Cardiff, despite Grangetown having only 5.6% of Cardiff's population. Grangetown was the location of the first Welsh-medium primary school class in Cardiff and the former county of Glamorgan; this class opened in 1949 with 8 pupils in what is now Ninian Park Primary School, an event commemorated by a plaque in the school's foyer. A Welsh-medium primary school, Ysgol Tan-yr-eos, was opened on the same site in 2006; this school was closed in 2013 and children in Welsh-medium education will be schooled in either Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch or Ysgol Gymraeg Treganna, both in Canton. Plans for a new Welsh-medium school in Grangetown were withdrawn by Cardiff Council in July 2013. A Cardiff music and entertainment venue that opened in October 2015.
The Tramshed is housed in a
In landscaping, an avenue, or allée, is traditionally a straight path or road with a line of trees or large shrubs running along each side, used, as its Latin source venire indicates, to emphasize the "coming to," or arrival at a landscape or architectural feature. In most cases, the trees planted in an avenue will be all of the same species or cultivar, so as to give uniform appearance along the full length of the avenue; the French term allée is used for avenues planted in parks and landscape gardens, as well as boulevards such as the Grande Allée in Quebec City and Karl-Marx-Allee in Berlin. The avenue is one of the oldest ideas in the history of gardens. An avenue of sphinxes still leads to the tomb of the pharaoh Hatshepsut. Avenues defined by guardian stone lions lead to the Ming tombs in China. British archaeologists have adopted specific criteria for "avenues" within the context of British archaeology. In Garden à la française Baroque landscape design, avenues of trees that were centered upon the dwelling radiated across the landscape.
See the avenues in the Gardens of Versailles or Het Loo. Other late 17th-century French and Dutch landscapes, in that intensely ordered and flat terrain, fell into avenues. In order to enhance the approach to mansions or manor houses, avenues were planted along the entrance drive. Sometimes the avenues are in double rows on each side of a road. Trees preferred for avenues were selected for their height and speed of growth, such as poplar, beech and horse chestnut. In the American antebellum era South, the southern live oak was used, because the trees created a beautiful shade canopy. Sometimes tree avenues were designed to direct the eye toward some distinctive architectural building or feature, such as a chapels, gazebos, or architectural follies. Avenue as a street name in French and other languages implies a large straight street in a city created as part of a large scheme of urban planning such as Baron Haussmann's remodelling of Paris or the L'Enfant Plan for Washington D. C.. This pattern is often followed in the United States, indeed all the Americas, but in the United Kingdom this sense is less strong and the name is used more randomly for suburban streets developed in the 20th century, though Western Avenue, London is a main traffic artery out of the city, if not straight.
In cities which have a grid-based naming system, such as the borough of Manhattan in New York City, there may be a convention that the streets called avenues run parallel in one direction – north–south in the case of Manhattan – while "streets" run at 90 degrees to them across the avenues. In Washington, DC the avenues radiate from the centre running diagonally across the grid of streets, which follows typical French usage of the name. In Phoenix, Arizona, "the avenues" can colloquially mean "the west side of town", due to the numbered north–south-running roads being called "Avenues" in the western part of the city, separated from the eastern "Streets" by a "Central Avenue". "the avenues" in San Francisco, California refers to the Richmond District and the Sunset District, the two neighborhoods on the Pacific coast and south of Golden Gate Park, respectively. In Anglophone urban or suburban settings, "avenue" is one of the usual suite of words used in street names, along with "boulevard", "circle", "court", "drive", "lane", "place", "road", "street", "terrace", "way" and so on, any of which may carry connotations as to the street's size, importance, or function.
Alley — a narrow lane, or path Alameda Avenue of honour Garden design Garden features Hedges Landscape design history Shade tree Southern live oak Media related to Avenues at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Streets called avenues at Wikimedia Commons
Caerau is a community in the west of Cardiff, capital city of Wales. Considered part of Wenvoe by gully, Heol Trelai is the main road or avenue, lined with large trees. Dominated by private housing, it has the Western Leisure Centre, supermarkets and churches. Caerau, named after the Welsh language word for'Fort', sits at the base of a hill slope on the edge of Cardiff. In 2012, Caerau Hillfort underwent a dig by archaeological television programme Time Team; the research showed that the Iron Age site consists of a substantial hilltop surrounded by multi-vallate earthworks that have been cut through at the southeastern extent by a major road. It uncovered that Caerau was a tribal capital for the Silures, who were powerful local people who resisted Roman incursions into their land; the dig unearthed pottery and armoury that dated back to 1,000 B. C. In 1894, a Roman villa was discovered on the Racecourse and excavations were carried out in 1922; the results showed. The former village of Caerau became part of Cardiff in 1922.
Many homes and schools were built on the old Ely Racecourse, although enough of it was preserved to become Trelai Park. The historic parish church of St. Mary is now in an advanced state of ruin. Caerau features numerous shopping parades. Two large supermarkets are located just off Cowbridge Road West on nearby Treseder Way; the area has a large Lidl store and a small Lloyds Pharmacy on Careau Lane. Other amenities include a laundrette, pet supply store and multiple newspaper and convenience stores. Caerau Rugby Football Club won the Mallet Cup in 2000 and 2007, Caerau Football Club was formed in 1955. Primary Schools: Millbank Primary School Pencaerau Primary School Trelai Primary School Ysgol Gymraeg Nant CaerauSecondary Schools: Glyn Derw High School Mary Immaculate High School The district is on Cardiff Bus's Capital City Red bus route, with high frequency articulated buses operating on routes 17 and 18 through Caerau. Services 12 and 13 run along Cowbridge Road West, along the northern edge of Caerau, the main road for the area, linking it to Culverhouse Cross to the west and Ely and the city centre to the east.
The electoral ward of Caerau falls within the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff West. It is bounded by Ely to the northwest. Caerau has been represented by Labour councillors Peter Bradbury and Elaine Simmons since May 2012. Prior to this, the ward had been represented by Liberal Democrat councillors, including previous Lord Mayor Jacqui Gasson who'd served the ward for 24 years. Noel Sullivan, member of early 2000s pop group Hear'Say. Jason Mohammad, BBC Wales newsreader. Nicky Piper, Super middleweight and light heavyweight boxer, his career was at its peak in the 1990s. Henry Morgan, 16th century pirate www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Caerau and surrounding area
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the