People's Army of Vietnam

The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, called Viet Cong or National Liberation Front.

However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history; the first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent; the PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam.

Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944. The first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks; the United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars. The group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945. In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U.

S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.

In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganised as the first five military regions, in the next two year

William Emerson (American architect)

William Emerson was an American architect and the first dean of the MIT School of Architecture from 1932 to 1939. He was instrumental in establishing a city planning department at MIT. Emerson was born in New York City, his parents, of English and Dutch descent, were Susan Tompkins and John Haven Emerson, a medical doctor. His father's family included the young Emerson's great uncle. Emerson graduated from Harvard College in 1895, where he was a Harvard Crimson editor and Hasty Pudding Club comedian, he completed architectural training at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He began his practice in 1899 in New York, focusing on social bank buildings. At the end of World War I, Emerson returned to Paris for two years as director of the Bureau of Construction of the American Red Cross. In 1919, Emerson returned to the United States and took a faculty appointment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1932 he became the dean of the newly formed School of Architecture.

In his first year, he oversaw the creation of a Department of City Planning, commissioning planner Thomas Adams to create its curriculum. In conjunction with the planning program, Emerson's seven-year deanship shifted the school from pure design practice to a broader focus on public policy and social issues. At MIT, his students included Robert Van Nice and I. M. Pei. Emerson served as the chair of the Unitarian Service Committee in the 1940s and as Vice President of the Byzantine Institute of America, he died on May 1957, in Cambridge. Emerson married Frances White, they resided at her grandfather's house on Brattle Street, she died shortly before him on March 10, 1957. They are buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts

Tonight (1957 TV programme)

Tonight is a British current affairs television programme, presented by Cliff Michelmore, broadcast on BBC live on weekday evenings from 18 February 1957 to 18 June 1965. The producers were the future Controller of BBC1 Donald Baverstock and the future Director-General of the BBC Alasdair Milne; the audience was seven million viewers. Tonight was, like Six-Five Special, created by the BBC to fill in the "Toddlers' Truce" closed period between 6.00pm and 7.00pm. Tonight began broadcasting from the Viking studio in Kensington, known by the BBC as "studio M", it transferred to one of the main studios in Lime Grove, Shepherd's Bush, west London. The programme covered the arts and sciences as well as current affairs. There was a mixture of incisive and light-hearted items: unscripted studio interviews, by Derek Hart, Geoffrey Johnson-Smith and Michelmore himself. Reporters included Alan Whicker, Fyfe Robertson, Kenneth Allsop, Chris Brasher, Julian Pettifer, Brian Redhead and Polly Elwes; the programme received the Guild of Television Producers and Directors award for best factual programme in 1957 and 1958.

The style was informal with no attempt to hide studio equipment. Michelmore gave a relaxed performance, sometimes perching on the edge of his desk unfazed by the ringing of his desk telephone letting him know about technical problems. There were regular appearances by Rory McEwen, Cy Grant, singing a "topical calypso", folk singers Robin Hall and Jimmie Macgregor. Michelmore became known for his catchphrase when closing the show, "That's all for tonight, the next'Tonight' will be tomorrow night; until good night!"It was during an edition of Tonight broadcast on the evening of Friday 22 November 1963 that BBC television broke the news of the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy to UK viewers, although Granada Television had broadcast the news in its northern ITV region. In 1964, Bob Dylan sang With God on Our Side. A new programme under the name, presented by Sue Lawley, Denis Tuohy and Donald MacCormick, was launched on BBC1 in September 1975, in a late evening slot; when Lawley left to have a baby, Valerie Singleton replaced her on the show, which continued until 1979.

Newsnight, on BBC2, was its replacement. BBC History of TV news in the 1950s Museum of Broadcast Communications: Tonight Whirligig TV, TV 1950s nostalgia: Tonight Tonight on IMDb