Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County and the largest city on the Illinois River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 115,007, making it the eighth-most populated in Illinois, the second-largest city in Central Illinois after the state capital and the third largest outside the Chicago metropolitan area, it is the principal city of the Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area in Central Illinois, consisting of the counties of Marshall, Stark and Woodford, which had a population of 373,590 in 2011. The Peoria Metro Area is the third largest MSA in Illinois after Metro East. Established in 1691 by the French explorer Henri de Tonti, Peoria is the oldest European settlement in Illinois. Known as Fort Clark, it received its current name when the County of Peoria organized in 1825; the city was named after a member of the Illinois Confederation. On October 16, 1854, Abraham Lincoln made his Peoria speech against the Kansas-Nebraska Act. A major port on the Illinois River, Peoria is a trading and shipping center for a large agricultural area that produces maize and livestock.
Although the economy is well diversified, the city's traditional manufacturing industries remain important and produce earthmoving equipment, metal products, lawn-care equipment, steel towers, farm equipment, building materials, steel and chemicals. Until 2018, Peoria was the global and national headquarters for heavy equipment and engine manufacturer Caterpillar Inc. one of the 30 companies composing the Dow Jones Industrial Average, listed on the Fortune 100. During January 2018, OSF Healthcare and Caterpillar Inc. excited the community with the announcement of the regional healthcare giant's planned rehab and headquarters relocation into a historic downtown landmark building designed for a large downtown department store (Shipper & Block, Block & Kuhl's and lastly Carson Pirie, Scoott & Co. Such consolidation of hundreds of scattered administrative employees is planned as a major catalyst for further central business district revitalization; the city is associated with the phrase "Will it play in Peoria?", which originated from the vaudeville era and was popularized by Groucho Marx.
Museums in the city include the Pettengill-Morron House, the John C Flanagan House, the Peoria Riverfront Museum. The Caterpillar Museum on the riverfront; the Peoria Symphony Orchestra is the 14th oldest in the United States, Peoria has hosted the Heart of Illinois Fair annually from 1949. The Spirit of Peoria is a riverboat. Peoria is the oldest settlement in Illinois, as explorers first ventured up the Illinois River from the Mississippi; the lands that would become Peoria were first settled by Europeans in 1680, when French explorers René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti constructed Fort Crevecoeur. This fort would burn to the ground, in 1813, Fort Clark, Illinois was built; when the County of Peoria was organized in 1825, Fort Clark was named Peoria. Peoria was named after a member of the Illinois Confederation; the original meaning of the word is uncertain. A 21st-century proposal suggests a derivation from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning "to dream with the help of a manitou."Peoria was incorporated as a village on March 11, 1835.
The city did not have a mayor, though they had a village president, Rudolphus Rouse, who served from 1835 to 1836. The first Chief of Police, John B Lishk, was appointed in 1837; the city was incorporated on April 21, 1845. This was the end of a village president and the start of the mayoral system, with the first mayor being William Hale. Peoria, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, was named after Peoria, Illinois because the two men who founded it in 1890 − Joseph B. Greenhut and Deloss S. Brown − wished to name it after their hometown. For much of the twentieth century, a red-light district of brothels and bars known as the Merry-Go-Round was part of Peoria. Betty Friedan recalled driving through the neighborhood on dares during her high school years. Richard Pryor got his start as a performer on North Washington Street in the early 1960s. According to the 2010 census, Peoria has a total area of 50.23 square miles, of which 48.01 square miles is land and 2.22 square miles is water. Peoria has a humid continental climate, with cold, snowy winters, hot, humid summers.
Monthly daily mean temperatures range from 22.5 °F to 75.2 °F. Snowfall is common in the winter, averaging 26.3 inches, but this figure varies from year to year. Precipitation, averaging 36 inches, peaks in the spring and summer, is the lowest in winter. Extremes have ranged from −27 °F in January 1884 to 113 °F in July 1936; the city of Peoria is home to the Peoria Civic Center. The world headquarters for Caterpillar Inc. was based in Peoria for over 110 years until announcing their move to Deerfield, Illinois in late 2017. Medicine has become a major part of Peoria's economy. In addition to three major hospitals, the USDA's National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research called the USDA Northern Regional Research Lab, is located in Peoria; this is one of the labs. Grandview Drive, which Theodore Roosevelt purportedly called the "world's most beautiful drive" during a 1910 visit, runs through Peoria and Peoria Heights. In addition to Grandview Drive, the Peoria Park District c
Benjamin Russell Murphy was an American athlete and athletics administrator during the early 20th century. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, he coached at numerous schools in several sports including football and track. Murphy was the first basketball coach at Johns Hopkins University, he is one of the few college football coaches to resign during the middle of his first year of coaching at a school. Murphy grew up in Millville, New Jersey and attended Millville High School before transferring to Peddie Institute. While at Peddie he excelled in multiple sports, he played left tackle on the football team for three years and was named captain of the 1908 squad coached V. R. Ford, a former star lineman from Colgate University. In this season Peddie finished 2–3 with victories over Drexel Institute and Roman Catholic High School both of Philadelphia and losses to The Hill School, Blair Academy and Bordentown Cadets, he played guard and center on the basketball team including being named captain of the 1907–08 team under coach John Plant.
As a basketball player Murphy was known for his accurate passing and for his quickness for his five feet ten inches tall and 200 lbs body. In his senior season his overall play including five field goals helped Peddie beat the Roman Catholic High School, the basketball champions of Philadelphia, 33–16; as a track and field athlete he participated in the hammer throw. In 1907 he finished. Murphy graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. During his freshman year at Penn, Murphy was elected captain of the freshman football team, he excelled as a member of the freshman basketball and track team. He lettered basketball in 1911 under head coach Charles Keinath, helping Penn to a 15–8 record including 5–3 mark in the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League. Murphy served as coach, both as a head coach and assistant coach, at numerous schools including Union College, University of Pennsylvania, Peddie Institute, St. Charles College, Johns Hopkins University, his coaching duties included multiple sports including football and track.
At Union College he served as athletic director as well as coaching both the basketball and track teams. In 1916 Johns Hopkins Athletic Board picked Murphy as coach for the 1917 football team. At the time of selection he was serving as the athletic director of the Gilman Country School, was student in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to his football duties, he was responsible for rebuilding of the entire athletic department at Johns Hopkins. Murphy coached three years at Johns Hopkins. In his first year, the 1917 team finished with a 1–6–2 record, defeating only Western Maryland College; the next year the team finished.500 with a 1–1–1 record. In his last year his 1919 team once again finished with a.500 record at 4–4–1. Murphy was the first basketball coach at Johns Hopkins, he coached the 1919–20 squad to a 6–7 record including victories over Dartmouth and Lehigh and losses to Virginia Tech and Virginia. In March 1923, Murphy was named the 17th head football coach at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
Murphy was named head of the Physical Training Department at Dickinson. He replaced future College Football Hall of Fame inductee Glenn Killinger as head football coach. Killinger had unexpectedly resigned; the official reason for the resignation was never given, but speculation was that the college administration did not like that he was coaching a semi-pro team. Murphy did several things before the season to help with the transition, he brought in the new players from high school and prep school to fall camp early so they could learn the system. Several football alumni were brought in to assist him in getting the team in shape, he provided a training table at a local hotel. Murphy only coached all losses. Dickinson lost to a team from the United States Third Army and Muhlenberg. In those three games Murphy's team gave up 42 points while only scoring 7; these games were marked by lack of communication with his assistant coaches and player discontent. In the Navy game his players refused to use Murphy's plays, instead using former coach Killinger's offense.
Due to these problems the Dickinson College athletic committee appointed Joseph Lightner as Field Coach which caused Murphy to resign. He was replaced by Lightner as head coach, who completed the season and went on to coach at Dickinson until the end of the 1925 season. Murphy's overall coaching record at Dickinson was 0–3 Since the NCAA only recognizes games played against four-year degree-granting colleges, his official record at Dickinson is 0–2 This ranks him last at Dickinson in terms of total wins and winning percentage. Murphy's contributions included writing "Athletics in the Army" and his membership in early rules committees and as a football official in the early days of the sport. * Does not include the loss to a team US Third Army since the NCAA only recognizes games played against four-year degree-granting colleges† incomplete B. Russell Murphy at Find a Grave
The Yeshiva is an English translation by Curt Leviant of the Yiddish novel Tsemakh Atlas by Chaim Grade. It was published in two volumes in Yiddish and in translation, it was published in a Hebrew translation, with the same title as the Yiddish. The first volume was published as if it were standalone, with no volume number and no mention of a continuation; the second volume was subtitled "Volume II: Masters and Disciples." The second volume, books by Grade explicitly refer to the first volume as "Volume I" in their "by the same author" lists. The main protagonist is Tsemakh Atlas, who at the beginning of the novel is a junior Novaredker rabbi sent out to open his own yeshiva in a small town, he grapples with his uninspired devotion, atheist-leaning doubts, frequent disapproval of most everybody's behavior, based on the tenets of the Musar movement. The character of Reb Avraham-Shaye the Kosover is closely based on Reb Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz from Kosova known as the Chazon Ish; as is common, the rabbi is known by the title of his most famous work.
The title Chazon Ish is Hebrew for Vision of Man, but "ish" in Hebrew can be understood as an acronym for Avraham Yeshaya, that is, the title is Vision of Avraham Yeshaya. In the novel, the fictional Kosover's most famous work is The Vision of Avraham; the character of Chaikl Vilner is closely based on Grade himself. The name is one Grade had used as his persona in poetry: Chaikl is the diminutive of Chaim and a Vilner is someone who hails from Vilna. In the novel, further similarities are that Chaikl is the son of a Hebrew teacher and maskil, as was Grade, Chaikl's father is named Shlomo-Motte, a Yiddish corruption of Grade's father's name Shlomo Mordechai, just like Grade learned extensively with the Chazon Ish, so too does Chaikl learn extensively with Reb Avraham-Shaye. Tsemakh Atlas is an advanced Talmudic student/teacher in Nareva, committed to the Musar philosophy, which puts him at odds with most of his fellow Jews, observant or not, learned or not, he spends his time recruiting children from the Soviet Union without their parents' permissions, smuggles them into Lithuania.
After the death of Rav Yosef-Yoizl Hurwitz, his rabbi sends Tsemakh to Amdur to found a new yeshiva, knowing this mission will not succeed. Tsemakh ends up engaged to the plain, quiet daughter of an Amdur storekeeper, but he is told by townspeople that the man is vicious and cruel, lying about the dowry, he flees to his hometown where his aunt and uncle live. Their three sons work for Volodya Stupel, a wealthy flour merchant who fondly remembers Tsemakh from childhood school days, but whose arrogance offends Tsemakh. Tsemakh meets Volodya's sister Slava, a wild and vivacious beauty, so impressed by Tsemakh that she decides to break up with her married lover and instead to marry Tsemakh; when he doesn't return, after a few days Slava befriends Tsemakh's aunt and pays her own visit, impressing Tsemakh with her displays of ordinary kindness. Tsemakh becomes irreligious, but he can't stop rebuking everyone in the Musar style, including customers of Volodya, to Volodya's financial horror. Tsemakh returns to religion and studying Talmud again, grows distant from Slava.
Volodya's brother takes on a Jewish maid. As plans are made to dump her in some gentile village, Slava pays what turns out to be a curt visit to her ex-lover. Tsemakh learns of the maid's plight, threatens to expose the whole sordid mess if the Stupels can't find a Jewish home for the maid, they can't. The maid flees, Tsemakh leaves Lomzhe to set up his own yeshiva in Valkenik, he tells Slava not to make peace with her family. In Vilna, Tsemakh recruits three boys, Melechke and Hertzke. In each case, fatherly opposition must be overcome, sometimes with great difficulty. Tsemakh recruits an old Hebrew teacher to be his partner. In Valkenik, Tsemakh faces several challenges and conflicts without any effect, he must resist the attractive Rokhshte, the married daughter of the yeshiva's cook, whose husband is home only twice a year. He must rebuke a student whose charming friendliness with Leitshe, the unmarried daughter, has led to better food for him, the reputation the two are engaged, scandal when he gets engaged to a rich man's daughter, fails badly when the student dismisses it, half thinking he can blackmail Tsemakh for his broken engagement from Amdur.
The estranged parents of Hertzke show up, the father from Vilna, the mother from Argentina, to take the boy away, creating a public spectacle, ending with Hertzke going with his mother, rejecting his father and Judaism. There is sharp disagreement regarding the successor to the town's rabbi, regarding whom Tsemakh refuses to take sides, and to the surprise of everyone, Slava shows up, impressing the townspeople with her beauty and her kind and wealthy bearing, but finds she and Tsemakh are still too far apart mentally, so she returns to Lomzhe. During the Passover holiday, Tsemakh makes an attempt to convince Ronya's husband to stay on as a third yeshiva teacher, only annoying him; the yeshiva boys return to their families, Chaikl invites his father, Shlomo-Motte to join him in Valkenik for his health. Chaikl and his father end up staying with the Vorobey family, mother Freyda, daughter Kreyndl, son Nokhemka, who live in disgrace because the father Bentzye has abandoned his family to live with a gentile woman in a nearby village.
The town's rabbi and his wife retire, leaving for the