Indian termination policy
Indian termination was the policy of the United States from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s. It was shaped by a series of laws and policies with the intent of assimilating Native Americans into mainstream American society. Assimilation was not new; the belief that indigenous people should abandon their traditional lives and become "civilized" had been the basis of policy for centuries. But what was new was the sense of urgency, that with or without consent, tribes must be terminated and begin to live "as Americans". To that end, Congress set about ending the special relationship between tribes and the federal government; the intention was to grant Native Americans all the rights and privileges of citizenship, reduce their dependence on a bureaucracy whose mismanagement had been documented, eliminate the expense of providing services for native people. In practical terms, the policy ended the U. S. government's recognition of sovereignty of tribes, trusteeship over Indian reservations, exclusion of state law applicability to native persons.
From the government's perspective Native Americans were to become taxpaying citizens, subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which they had been exempt. From the native standpoint, Northern Cheyenne former U. S. Senator from Colorado Ben Nighthorse Campbell said of assimilation and termination in a speech delivered in Montana: If you can't change them, absorb them until they disappear into the mainstream culture.... In Washington's infinite wisdom, it was decided that tribes should no longer be tribes, never mind that they had been tribes for thousands of years; the policy for termination of tribes collided with the Native American peoples' own desires to preserve native identity, reflected in an activism that increased after World War II and survived through the anti-collectivism era of Joseph McCarthy. The termination policy was changed in the 1960s and rising activism resulted in the ensuing decades of restoration of tribal governments and increased Native American self-determination.
Termination began with a series of laws directed at dismantling tribal sovereignty. From June 1940 until September 1950, six laws were passed that gave states criminal or limited-criminal jurisdiction over tribes and reservations within those states. In 1949, the Hoover Commission Report, recommending integration of native peoples into mainstream society, the 1952 House Report, investigating the Bureau of Indian Affairs, both portrayed termination as cost effective and benign in its effects; the House concurrent resolution 108 of 1953 announced the federal policy of termination and called for the immediate ending of the Federal relationship with a selected group of tribes. The resolution established. Most such acts included the cessation of federal recognition and all the federal aid that came along with that designation. Between 1953 and 1964, the government terminated recognition of more than 100 tribes and bands as sovereign dependent nations; these actions affected more than 12,000 Native Americans or 3% of the total Native American population.
2,500,000 acres of trust land was removed from protected status during these years. Much was sold by individuals to non-Natives; the termination of these tribes ended federal government guardianship of and recognition of those tribal governments and US jurisdiction of tribal lands. In addition to ending the tribal rights as sovereign nations, the policy terminated federal support of most of the health care and education programs, utility services, police and fire departments available to Indians on reservations. Given the considerable geographic isolation of many reservations and inherent economic problems, not many tribes had the funds to continue such services after termination was implemented; the tribes selected for termination had been considered groups who were the most successful in the United States, in some cases, because of natural resources controlled by their reservations. A few tribes mounted legal challenges to maintain tribal government and the trust relationship with the federal government.
Through the Indian Claims Commission, tribes had the ability to file claims against the government for breaches of treaty or grievances. The five year dead-line for making a claim, August 1951, caused many tribes to file in the months preceding the end of the registration period. In some instances, pending claims cases with complex legal issues aided the tribes in preventing termination, while in others, tribes were taken advantage of by government agents and their associates. Federal policy up until the 1940s had held that the Federal Government had sole jurisdiction over Indians; the Kansas Act of 1940 was "trial" legislation granting state jurisdiction over most criminal offenses committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations. If successful, it was to be implemented elsewhere. Kansas had been exercising jurisdiction over offenses, including those listed in the Indian Major Crimes Act, their authority to do, called into question. To clarify the state's authority, they proposed the act to fill a perceived gap in jurisdiction.
None of the four federally recognized tribes living in Kansas: Potawatomi, Sac & Fox, Iowa, had tribal courts to deal with offenses, state jurisdiction did not extend to Indian lands. The law, passed on 8 June 1940, as Title 25 U. S. Code § 217a ch. 276, 54 Stat. 249 gave Kansas courts jurisdiction to try persons for conduct that violates state law if the federal government is able to try the offense under federal jurisdiction. Similar statutes were passed in North Dakota and New York, granting state jurisdiction over most offenses committed by or again
Miami is a city in and county seat of Ottawa County, United States, founded in 1891. Lead and zinc mining established by 1918, caused it to boom, it is the capital of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, after which it is named, the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Peoria Tribe of Indians and Shawnee Tribe. As of the 2010 census, it had 13,570 inhabitants, a one percent decline since 2000. Miami began compared to other towns in Indian Territory. Per the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture "... it was settled in a business-like way by men of vision who looked into the future and saw possibilities. It didn't just grow, it was planned."W. C. Lykins petitioned the U. S. Congress to pass legislation on March 1891 to establish the town, he met with Thomas F. Richardville, chief of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, who agreed to meet in turn with the U. S. Indian Commission and the Ottawa tribe; that meeting resulted in Congress authorizing the secretary of the Interior Department to approve the townsite purchase from the Ottawas.
Lykins and Manford Pooler, chief of the Ottawa, are identified in historical accounts as "fathers of Miami." Lykins' company, the Miami Town Company, bought 588 acres of land from the Ottawa for ten dollars an acre. On June 25–26, 1891 they held an auction of lots. In 1895, Miami had more than 800 residents; the discovery of rich deposits of lead and zinc under Quapaw land a few miles north, caused Miami to boom. In 1907, at the time of statehood its population was 1,893, which increased as mining was established to 6,802 by 1920, it is the capital of the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, after which it is named, the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Peoria Tribe of Indians and Shawnee Tribe. Miami is located near 36°53′1″N 94°52′34″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.8 square miles, of which 9.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, there were 13,570 people, 5,315 households, 3,337 families residing in the city.
A one percent decline from 13,704 at the 2000 census. The population density was 1,258.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.9% white, 1.3% African American, 17.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 2% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 4.8% of the population. There were 5,315 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 15% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. Single individuals living alone accounted for 31.9% of households and individuals 65 years of age or older living alone accounted for 14.7% of households. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 57.1% from 18 to 64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.8 years. The population was 46.8 % male. The median income for a household in the city was $34,561, the median income for a family was $42,313.
Males had a median income of $32,699 versus $25,320 for females. About 14.2% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Local government in Miami consists of four councilmen representing four Wards. Mayor – Rudy Schultz Ward One Councilman – Brian Forrester Ward Two Councilman – Doug Weston Ward Three Councilman – Ryan Orcutt Ward Four Councilman – Vicki LewisAs of 2015, the city is represented in the Oklahoma House of Representatives by Democrat Ben Loring, in the Oklahoma Senate by Democrat Charles Wyrick; the city lies within Oklahoma's 2nd congressional district, represented by Markwayne Mullin since 2013. Miami is home to the historic Coleman Theatre, located at 103 N. Main St. On April 18, 1929, the 1600 seat Coleman Theatre enjoyed a festive grand opening. Designed by the Boller Bros. Architectural Firm, Kansas City, built by George L. Coleman Sr. at a cost of $600,000, the elegant Louis XV interior includes gold leaf trim, silk damask panels, stained glass panels, marble accents, a carved mahogany staircase, Wurlitzer pipe organ, decorative plaster moldings, bronze railings.
In 1983 the Coleman Theatre was placed on the National Register of Historical Places. A local non-profit community group, Miami Little Theatre, established in 1959, performs five, large-scale productions on the Coleman stage every year. Public schools are managed by the Miami Public Schools school district; the high school is Miami High School. The Wardog is a mascot unique to Miami and has not been adopted as a mascot by any other school in the United States. Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College was accredited in 1925 by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, it is a two-year community college with about 2,000 students. Steve Owens – The 1969 Heisman Trophy winner Charles Banks Wilson – artist Keith Anderson – musician Carol Littleton – film editor Julie Rieger - President, 20th Century Fox Steve Gaines – musician Cassie Gaines – singer David Froman – Actor Charles R. Nesbitt – civil servant Moriss Taylor - Singer/TV Host Loni Hoots - Author/Poet National Register of Historic Places listings in Ottawa County, Oklahoma Miami Original Nine-Foot Section of Route 66 Roadbed City of Miami Miami Little Theatre City of Miami Economic Development Department The Miami News-Record Miami Public Schools A Tour of the Historic Coleman Theater in Miami, Oklahoma
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, autoimmune diseases. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both nonspecific components; the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain adaptive components; the innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self-substances and don't react; the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire.
The non-reaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise what is self is not spared. Innate immunity called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution, its genetic make-up, without an external stimulation or a previous infection, it is divided into two types: Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only; as a result, some races, particular individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases. Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in'naturally acquired' through chance contact with a disease-causing agent, whereas'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination.
Both and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong.'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Adaptive immunity can be divided by the type of immune mediators involved. Humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its antibodies, passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Cell-mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ T-cells are stimulated, passive when T cells come from another organism; the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that supernatural forces caused it, that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for "bad deeds" or "evil thoughts" visited upon the soul by the gods or by one's enemies. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific methods were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors.
Popular during this time before learning that communicable diseases came from germs/microbes was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air". If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, they could get a disease; the modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result"; the term "immunes", is found in the epic poem "Pharsalia" written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe's resistance to snake venom.
The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease-causing organism is Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity; the first scientist who developed a full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882. With Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease, the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further infections; the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous snakes. According to Jean de Male
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley. The Dhegiha Siouan-speaking tribe migrated from the Ohio Valley area to the west side of the Mississippi River and resettled in what is now the state of Arkansas; the Quapaw are federally recognized as the Quapaw Nation. The US federal government removed them to Indian Territory in 1834, their tribal base has been in present-day Ottawa County in northeastern Oklahoma; the number of members enrolled in the tribe was 3,240 in 2011. Algonquian-speaking people called the Quapaws /akansa/, the French called them Arcansas; the French named the territory and state of Arkansas for them. The Quapaw Nation is headquartered in Quapaw in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, in the northeast corner of the state, they have a 13,000-acre Quapaw tribal jurisdictional area. The Quapaw people elect the tribal chairman, who serves a two-year term; the governing body of the tribe is outlined in the governing resolutions of the tribe, which were voted upon and approved in 1956 to create a written form of government.
The Chairman is John L. Berrey. Of the 3,240 enrolled tribal members, 892 live in the state of Oklahoma. Membership in the tribe is based on lineal descent; the tribe operates a Tribal Police Department and a Fire Department, which handles both fire and EMS calls. They have their own housing authority; the tribe owns two smoke shops and motor fuel outlets, known as the Quapaw C-Store and Downstream Q-Store. They have both located in Quapaw. In 2012 the Quapaw Tribe's annual economic impact was measured at more than $225,000,000, they own and operate the Eagle Creek Golf Course and resort, located in Loma Linda, Missouri. The Tar Creek Superfund site has been listed by the Environmental Protection Agency for clean-up of environmental hazards. European-Americans leased lands for development; the traditional Quapaw language is part of the Dhegiha branch of the Siouan language family. There are few remaining native speakers, but Quapaw was well documented in fieldnotes and publications from many individuals, including George Izard in 1827, Lewis F. Hadley in 1882, 19th-century linguist James Owen Dorsey, Frank T. Siebert in 1940, by linguist Robert Rankin in the 1970s.
Classes in the Quapaw language are taught at the tribal museum. An online audio lexicon of the Quapaw language was created by editing old recordings of Elders speaking the language. Other efforts at language preservation and revitalization are being undertaken. In 2011 the Quapaw participated in the first annual Dhegiha Gathering; the Osage language program hosted and organized the gathering, held at the Quapaw tribe's Downstream Casino. Language-learning techniques and other issues were discussed and taught in workshops at the conference among the five cognate tribes; the Annual Dhegiha Gathering was held in 2012 at Downstream Casino. The Quapaw host cultural events throughout the year held at the tribal museum; these include Indian dice games, traditional singing, classes in traditional arts, such as finger weaving, shawl making, flute making. In addition, Quapaw language classes are held there; the tribe's annual dance is during the weekend of the Fourth of July. This dance started shortly after the American Civil War, 2011 was the 139th anniversary of this dance.
Common features of this powwow include gourd dance, war dance, stomp dance, 49s. Other activities take place such as Indian football, traditional footraces, traditional dinners, turkey dance, other dances such as Quapaw Dance, dances from other area tribes; this weekend is when the tribe convenes the annual general council meeting, during which important decisions regarding the policies and resolutions of the Quapaw tribe are voted upon by tribal members over the age of eighteen. The Quapaw Nation are descended from a historical group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the lower Ohio River valley area; the modern descendants of this group include the Omaha, Ponca and Kaw. The Quapaw and the other Dhegiha Siouan speaking tribes are believed to have migrated from the Ohio River valley after 1200 CE. Scholars are divided in whether they think the Quapaw and other related groups left before or after the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, in which the more powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois drove out other tribes from the Ohio Valley and retained the area for hunting grounds.
They arrived at their historical territory, the area of the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, at minimum by the mid-17th century. The timing of the Quapaw migration into their ancestral territory in the historical period has been the subject of considerable debate by scholars of various fields, it is referred to as the "Quapaw Paradox" by academics. Many professional archaeologists have introduced numerous migration scenarios and time frames, but none has conclusive evidence. Glottochronological studies suggest the Quapaw separated from the other Dhegihan-speaking peoples ranging between AD 950 to as late as AD 1513; the Illinois and other Algonquian-speaking peoples to the northeast referred to them as the Akansea or Akansa, meaning "land of the downriver people". As French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet met the Illinois before they did the Quapaw, they adopted this exonym for the more westerly people. English-speaking settlers who ar
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Peoria County, Illinois
Peoria County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. The 2010 United States Census listed its population at 186,494, its county seat is Peoria. Peoria County is part of IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Peoria County was formed in 1825 out of Fulton County, it was named for an Illiniwek people who lived there. It included most of the western valley of the Illinois River up to the Chicago river portage. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 631 square miles, of which 619 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the county is drained by Spoon River, Kickapoo Creek, Elbow Creek, Copperas Creek. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Peoria have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1884 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.50 inches in January to 4.17 inches in May. Illinois Route 174 Illinois Route 175 General Wayne A. Downing Peoria International Airport Greater Peoria Regional Airport Mount Hawley Auxiliary Airport - Peoria, Illinois As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 186,494 people, 75,793 households, 47,248 families residing in the county.
The population density was 301.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 83,034 housing units at an average density of 134.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.4% white, 17.7% black or African American, 3.1% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.6% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.3% were German, 14.8% were Irish, 10.4% were English, 5.5% were American. Of the 75,793 households, 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families, 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 36.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,747 and the median income for a family was $63,163. Males had a median income of $51,246 versus $32,881 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $28,157. About 10.3% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. Glasford crater Jubilee College State Park WMBD World's Most Beautiful Drive Forest Park Nature Center Peoria Heights Tower Park Rock Island Trail Lake Camelot Rome People from Peoria County other than in the city of Peoria: Chris Brackett, host of Arrow Affliction on The Sportsman Channel Mike Dunne, pitcher for several Major League Baseball teams Sam Kinison, Actor, Comedian. From 1992 onward, the county has backed the Democratic candidate in every presidential election, though never by a margin greater than 10 percent aside from 2008 when Illinoisan Barack Obama won it by nearly 14 points; this relative closeness in results was most evident in 2004 when the county backed John Kerry over George W. Bush by only 70 votes. National Register of Historic Places listings in Peoria County, Illinois Peoria Co.
IL Saving Graves