Peoria County, Illinois
Peoria County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 186,494, Peoria County is part of the Peoria, IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Peoria County was formed in 1825 out of Fulton County and it was named for the Peoria, an Illiniwek people who lived there. It included most of the valley of the Illinois River up to the Chicago river portage. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 631 square miles. The county is drained by Spoon River, Kickapoo Creek, Elbow Creek, average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.50 inches in January to 4.17 inches in May. The population density was 301.2 inhabitants per square mile, there were 83,034 housing units at an average density of 134.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74. 4% white,17. 7% black or African American,3. 1% Asian,0. 3% American Indian,1. 6% from other races, and 2. 8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3. 8% of the population, in terms of ancestry,28.
3% were German,14. 8% were Irish,10. 4% were English, and 5. 5% were American. The average household size was 2.39 and the family size was 3.00. The median age was 36.8 years, the median income for a household in the county was $49,747 and the median income for a family was $63,163. Males had an income of $51,246 versus $32,881 for females. The per capita income for the county was $28,157, about 10. 3% of families and 14. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21. 8% of those under age 18 and 7. 8% of those age 65 or over
Oklahoma History Center
The Oklahoma History Center is the history museum of the State of Oklahoma. Located on an 18 acres plot across the street from the Governors mansion at 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive in Oklahoma City and it preserves the history of Oklahoma from ancient Native American tribal nations to the present day. The Museum is open Monday through Saturday from 10,00 AM until 5,00 PM and it is closed on, New Years Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. The OHC Research Center is open to the public Tuesday through Saturday and it is closed on Sunday and all state holidays. The hours are 10,00 AM to 4,45 PM each day, the Learning Center covers 215,000 square feet. The OHC is affiliated with the Smithsonian and is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, the Inasmuch Foundation Gallery is located on the south end of the first floor. The gallery explores the breadth of Oklahoma’s artistic achievements as well as the impact of an extremely diverse immigrant population. The sections of the Inasmuch Foundation Gallery include and the arts, cultural diversity, images of Oklahoma, voice and television, vacuum tubes, this gallery houses rotating exhibits on cultural diversity and the arts.
The ONEOK Gallery is located on the end of the first floor. The ONEOK Gallery topics include, Indian lives, living ways, sovereignty, the Kerr-McGee Gallery is located on the south end of the third floor. The gallery offers a history of Oklahoma from our oil. The Kerr-McGee Gallery sections include, African American experience, military matters, natural resources, the oil and gas industry and pathways, the Noble Foundation Gallery is located on the north end of the third floor. Land runs and lotteries have played a role in our development and settlement as a state. Through artifacts and first-hand accounts of participants, visitors can relive the lives of those souls who settled our great plains and turned homesteads into farms. It was their survival of and adaptation to the extremes of weather and politics that enabled them to create this magnificent state. The Noble Foundation Gallery sections include, education and ranching, fashions and politics, the Dust Bowl, land runs and order, urban frontiers, and weather.
This exhibit explored the rock and roll artists, radio stations, venues, beyond the facts of each story, the exhibit showed how growing up in Oklahoma affected the music. These were displayed in a style to encourage visitor participation and to ensure that the visitor would take away a new perspective on the history of rock
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers made contact with living in a number of Mississippian cities, described their cultures. By the time of United States westward expansion two hundred years later, Native Americans were generally not knowledgeable about the civilizations that produced the mounds and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. At one time, the mound builder was applied to the people believed to have constructed these earthworks. In the 16th through 19th centuries and Americans generally thought that an other than one related to the historic Native Americans had built the mounds. The namesake cultural trait of the Mound Builders was the building of mounds and these burial and ceremonial structures were typically flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, and sometimes a variety of other forms.
They were generally built as part of villages that arose from more dense populations, with a specialization of skills. The early earthworks built in Louisiana c.3500 BCE are the ones known to be built by a hunter-gatherer culture. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at over 100 feet tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. At its peak about 1150 CE, Cahokia was a settlement with 20, 000-30,000 people. Some effigy mounds were constructed in the shapes or outlines of culturally significant animals, the most famous effigy mound, Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, ranges from 1 to just over 3 feet tall. 20 feet wide, over 1,330 feet long, many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures. The general term, mound builder, covered their shared architectural practice of earthwork mound construction and this practice, believed to be associated with a cosmology that had a cross-cultural appeal, may indicate common cultural antecedents.
The first mound building was a marker of political and social complexity among the cultures in the Eastern United States. Watson Brake in Louisiana, constructed about 3500 BCE during the Middle Archaic period, is the oldest dated mound complex in North America and it is one of eleven mound complexes from this period found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. We can conclude that these mound builders were very organized people, hundreds or even thousands of workers had to dig up tons of earth with the hand tools available. Then the dirt had to be moved long distances. The most complete reference for these earthworks is Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written by Ephraim G. Squier and it was published in 1848 by the Smithsonian
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central United States. Oklahoma is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States, the states name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning red people. The name was settled upon statehood, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged, on November 16,1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state to enter the union. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, or informally Okies, and its capital, a major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, and biotechnology. In 2007, it had one of the economies in the United States, ranking among the top states in per capita income growth. Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahomas primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With small mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, interior Highlands—a region especially prone to severe weather.
The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people, equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language used to describe Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was approved in 1890. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles and it is one of six states on the Frontier Strip and lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River, the Oklahoma panhandles Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is actually 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line, the border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd Meridian, in the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd Meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd Meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east and it was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd Meridian, cimarron County in Oklahomas panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states, New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The states lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level
On October 1,1812, Governor Clark organized the five administrative districts of the former Louisiana Territory into counties, which became the first five counties of the state of Missouri. The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 established the boundary of the Missouri Territory with the British territory of Ruperts Land at the 49th parallel north. This gave the Missouri Territory the Red River Valley south of the 49th parallel, the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established the southern and western boundaries of the territory with the Spanish territories of Tejas and Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The United States surrendered a significant portion of the Missouri Territory to Spain in exchange for Spanish Florida, the Convention of 1818 and the Adams–Onís Treaty would be the last significant losses of United States territory from the contiguous United States. The southeastern portion of the Missouri Territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri on August 10,1821, st. Louis was the capital of the Missouri Territory.
In 1834, the portion east of the Missouri River was attached to the Michigan Territory. Over time, various territories were created in whole or in part from its area, Minnesota and Nebraska, Colorado and Dakota, Montana. Historic regions of the United States History of Missouri Territorial evolution of the United States Peter J. Kastor, Making Missouri American, A crowded frontier in the age of Lewis and Clark
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Indian termination policy
Indian termination was the policy of the United States from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s. It was shaped by a series of laws and policies with the intent of assimilating Native Americans into mainstream American society, the belief that indigenous people should abandon their traditional lives and become civilized had been the basis of policy for centuries. But what was new was the sense of urgency, that with or without consent, tribes must be terminated, to that end, Congress set about ending the special relationship between tribes and the federal government. In practical terms, the policy ended the U. S. governments recognition of sovereignty of tribes, trusteeship over Indian reservations, and exclusion of state law applicability to native persons. From the governments perspective Native Americans were to become taxpaying citizens, subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from the native standpoint, Northern Cheyenne former U. S. The termination policy was changed in The Sixties and rising activism resulted in the decades of restoration of tribal governments.
Termination began with a series of directed at dismantling tribal sovereignty. From June 1940 until September 1950, six laws were passed that gave states criminal or limited-criminal jurisdiction over tribes, the House concurrent resolution 108 of 1953 announced the federal policy of termination and called for the immediate ending of the Federal relationship with a selected group of tribes. The resolution established that Congress would pass termination acts on a tribe by tribe basis, most such acts included the cessation of federal recognition and all the federal aid that came along with that designation. From 1953-1964, the government terminated recognition of more than 100 tribes and these actions affected more than 12,000 Native Americans or 3% of the total Native American population. Approximately 2,500,000 acres of trust land was removed from protected status during these years, much was sold by individuals to non-Natives. The termination of these tribes ended federal government guardianship of and recognition of tribal governments.
Given the considerable geographic isolation of many reservations and inherent economic problems, a few tribes mounted legal challenges to maintain tribal government and the trust relationship with the federal government. Through the Indian Claims Commission, tribes had the ability to file claims against the government for breaches of treaty or grievances, the five year dead-line for making a claim, August 1951, caused many tribes to file in the months preceding the end of the registration period. Federal policy up until the 1940s had mainly held that the Federal Government had sole jurisdiction over Indians, the Kansas Act of 1940 was trial legislation granting state jurisdiction over most criminal offenses committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations. If successful, it was to be implemented elsewhere, Kansas had been exercising jurisdiction over offenses, including those listed in the Indian Major Crimes Act, and their authority to do that was called into question. To clarify the authority, they proposed the act to fill a perceived gap in jurisdiction.
The law, passed on 8 June 1940, as Title 25 U. S. Code § 217a ch
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
The Dawes Act of 1887, adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship, the Dawes Act was amended in 1891, in 1898 by the Curtis Act, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The Act was named for its creator, Senator Henry Laurens Dawes of Massachusetts, individual household ownership of land and subsistence farming on the European-American model was seen as an essential step. The Dawes Commission, set up under an Indian Office appropriation bill in 1893, was created to try to persuade the Five Civilized Tribes to agree to allotment plans and this commission registered the members of the Five Civilized Tribes on what became known as the Dawes Rolls. This completed the extinguishment of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, during the ensuing decades, the Five Civilized Tribes lost 90 million acres of former communal lands, which were sold to non-Natives.
Tribe members suffered from the breakdown of the structure of the tribes. During the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration supported passage on June 18,1934 of the US Indian Reorganization Act and it ended land allotment and created a New Deal for Indians, renewing their rights to reorganize and form their self-governments. During the 1850s, the United States federal governments attempt to control over the Native Americans expanded. Numerous new European immigrants were settling on the border of the Indian territories. Conflicts between the groups increased as they competed for resources and operated according to different cultural systems, many European Americans did not believe that members of the two racial societies could coexist within the same communities. The new policy intended to concentrate Native Americans in areas away from encroaching settlers, finally defeated by the US military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations.
Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres of land, the Reservation system, though forced upon Native Americans, was a system that allotted each tribe a claim to their new lands, protection over their territories, and the right to govern themselves. With the Senate supposedly being able to only through the negotiation of treaties, they adjusted their ways of life. The tribe was viewed as a cohesive group, led by a hereditary, chosen chief. The tribes were seen as strong, tight-knit societies led by men who were opposed to any change that weakened their positions. Many white Americans feared them and sought reformation, the Indians failure to adopt the Euroamerican lifestyle, which was the social norm in the United States at the time, was seen as both unacceptable and uncivilized. On February 8,1887, the Dawes Allotment Act was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland, in opposition to their white counterparts, they did not see it from an economic standpoint. But, many began to believe they had to adapt to the majority culture in order to survive
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe