Zuma Beach is a county beach located at 30000 Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California. One of the largest and most popular beaches in Los Angeles County, Zuma is known for its long, wide sands and excellent surf, it ranks among the healthiest beaches for clean water conditions in Los Angeles County. The origin of the name of the beach may be related to the origin of the name of nearby Point Dume. Point Dume was named by George Vancouver in 1793 in honor of Padre Francisco Dumetz of Mission San Buenaventura; the name was never corrected. On a plat map of the Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit confirmed to new owner Matthew Keller in August 1870, the point is marked on the map as "Point Zuma or Duma". Zuma is protected by the Lifeguard unit of the Los Angeles County Fire Department, with 14 lifeguard towers on the sands proper and one of four L. A. County Section Headquarters located at the center of the beach. Like all beaches with good surf, Zuma has its share of rip currents. Visitors are encouraged not to swim or surf in front of the Lifeguard Headquarters between Towers 8 and 9, an area prone to rip currents.
In fact, rip currents are so prevalent that as of 2007 the Los Angeles County Fire Department Lifeguard Unit uses Zuma Beach to illustrate a rip current. Zuma Beach hosts several premier surfing events each year. With optimum wind conditions nearly daily in the late afternoon, Zuma draws many to kitesurfing on the northern end of Zuma Beach. Zuma Beach can be accessed directly from PCH, lies between the major access corridors Las Virgenes/Malibu Canyon Road and Kanan-Dume Road to the southeast, Las Posas Road to the northwest. Parking is available in a large fee parking lot. Additional parking is available on the adjacent PCH. On its southeast side, Zuma is bordered by Westward Beach. Westward is geographically situated on Malibu's westernmost promontory known as Point Dume. Westward includes a stretch of 2-way road right at the sand's edge. Parking is available on the road as well as a fee parking lot. Westward Beach is marked by a shorter sand shelf than Zuma, a veritable pipeline, making the waves of less duration and higher impact.
Westward Beach is recommended only for strong swimmers, as the wave action compared to Zuma Beach is stronger, can push down on swimmers, delivers more of a "crunch." Westward Beach is where former lifeguard Jesse Billauer suffered the accident that left him paralyzed. Swimming. With its flat terrain, open parking lot, miles of pristine sand, xeriscape landscaping, it serves as an optimal first response open air shelter. Zuma Beach sports a dedicated helicopter landing area for medical emergency airlifts to local trauma centers. With its proximity to the film and television industry in Los Angeles, Zuma Beach has been a popular location for advertisements in film and print and television episodes, such as: FilmsPlanet of the Apes — the famous final scene was filmed near Westward Beach, on the cliff face of Point Dume Zuma Beach — a television film directed by Lee H. Katzin The final beach scene and the transitional image of a wave crashing against a rock in Barton Fink by the Coen brothers was shot at Zuma Beach.
Indecent Proposal — directed by Adrian LyneTelevisionI Dream of Jeannie — as "a deserted island in the South Pacific" when Capt. Tony Nelson discovers Jeannie in the first episode Baywatch — a used site for the television series America's Next Top Model — the location for a challenge commercial Scorpion — a location in Season 1, episode 12 Zuma Beach is home to the annual Malibu Nautica Triathlon, a benefit for Children's Hospital of Los Angeles; the swim portion begins at Zuma Beach, followed by a bicycle segment along the length of Zuma Beach north to Deer Creek Canyon, capped by a run along the sidewalk fronting Zuma Beach. In its 34th year as of 2008, the Malibu Nautica draws competitors from around the world but is best known in popular culture for the Hollywood celebrities and retired Olympic medalists who compete. Stars in recent Nauticas have been David Duchovny, Felicity Huffman, Carl Lewis, Jennifer Lopez, William H. Macy, Matthew McConaughey. Many television stars have competed. In 2008, athletes participating in the Nautica raised nearly $980,000 for Children's Hospital.
Zuma is the name of a Neil Young album released in 1975 Zuma Beach is mentioned in the song "Some Girls" by The Rolling Stones Zuma Beach is mentioned in the song "Why I Came to California" by Leon Ware U2 makes reference to Zuma Beach in their song "California". A singing surfer's wagon mentions Zuma in the song "Worthless" in The Brave Little Toaster. NASCAR on Fox used an instrumental called "Zuma Beach" from 2001 to 2006, it was co-written by Eric Cunningham. It is unknown if they named the song after the actual beach. Don Henley wrote the song "The Boys of Summer" on Zuma Beach Singers Gwen Stefani and Gavin Rossdale named their second child Zuma Nesta Rock Rossdale. Official website Zuma Beach at Citysearch
Batsell Baxter was one of the most important leaders and educators in the Churches of Christ in the first half of the 20th century. He received his early education from David Lipscomb and James A. Harding at the Nashville Bible School, he obtained degrees from Abilene Christian College, University of Southern California, Vanderbilt University. Baxter served as president of Abilene Christian College, David Lipscomb College, George Pepperdine College; these institutions are now called Abilene Christian University, Lipscomb University, Pepperdine University, respectively. He was Dean of Cordell Christian College in Oklahoma and Dean of Thorp Spring Christian College, he wrote several books and contributed to the Gospel Advocate, a periodical associated with the Churches of Christ. He preached for several different Churches of Christ. Baxter was the father of Batsell Barrett Baxter, a professor and preacher in the Church of Christ. On-line biography
Eddy D. Field Stadium
Eddy D. Field Stadium is home of the Pepperdine University Waves' baseball team located in Malibu, California, it was built in 1973, but underwent renovations in 1980 and 1999. It now holds up to all box seats, it is well known for its picturesque setting which includes the views of the Pacific Ocean, Catalina Island, the Santa Monica Mountains. College baseball writer Eric Sorenson of CSTV ranked Eddy D. Field Stadium as the best college baseball stadium in Division I baseball. List of NCAA Division I baseball venues Eddy D. Field Stadium
Neptune was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion. He is the counterpart of the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Pluto. Salacia was his wife. Depictions of Neptune in Roman mosaics those of North Africa, are influenced by Hellenistic conventions. Neptune was associated with fresh water springs before the sea. Like Poseidon, Neptune was worshipped by the Romans as a god of horses, under the name Neptunus Equester, a patron of horse-racing; the etymology of Latin Neptunus is unclear and disputed. The ancient grammarian Varro derived the name from nuptus i.e. "covering", with a more or less explicit allusion to the nuptiae, "marriage of Heaven and Earth". Among modern scholars Paul Kretschmer proposed a derivation from IE *neptu- "moist substance". Raymond Bloch supposed it might be an adjectival form in -no from *nuptu-, meaning "he, moist". Georges Dumézil though remarked words deriving root *nep- are not attested in IE languages other than Vedic and Avestan.
He proposed an etymology that brings together Neptunus with Vedic and Avestan theonyms Apam Napat, Apam Napá and Old Irish theonym Nechtan, all meaning descendant of the waters. By using the comparative approach the Indo-Iranian and Irish figures would show common features with the Roman historicised legends about Neptune. Dumézil thence proposed to derive the nouns from IE root *nepot-, "descendant, sister's son". More in his lectures delivered on various occasions in the 1990s, German scholar Hubert Petersmann proposed an etymology from IE rootstem *nebh- related to clouds and fogs, plus suffix -tu denoting an abstract verbal noun, adjectival suffix -no which refers to the domain of activity of a person or his prerogatives. IE root *nebh-, having the original meaning of "damp, wet", has given Sanskrit nábhah, Hittite nepis, Latin nubs, German Nebel, Slavic nebo etc; the concept would be close to that expressed in the name of Greek god Όυράνος, derived from IE root *h2wórso-, "to water, irrigate" and *h2worsó-, "the irrigator".
This etymology would be more in accord with Varro's. A different etymology grounded in the legendary history of Latium and Etruria was proposed by Preller and Müller-Deeke: Etruscan Nethunus, Nethuns would be an adjectival form of toponym Nepe, town of the ager Faliscus near Falerii; the district was traditionally connected to the cult of the god: Messapus and Halesus, the eponymous hero of Falerii, were believed to be his own sons. Messapus led others to war in the Aeneid. Nepi and Falerii have been famed since antiquity for the excellent quality of the water of their springs, scattered in meadows. Nepet is considered a hydronymic toponym of pre-Indo-European origin widespread in Europe and from an appellative meaning "damp wide valley, plain", cognate with pre-Greek νάπη, "wooded valley"; the theology of Neptune may only be reconstructed to some degree, as since early times he was identified with the Greek god Poseidon: his presence in the lectisternium of 399 BC is a testimony to the fact.
Such an identification may well be grounded in the strict relationship between the Latin and Greek theologies of the two deities. It has been argued that Indo-European people, having no direct knowledge of the sea as they originated from inland areas, reused the theology of a deity either chthonic or wielding power over inland freshwaters as the god of the sea; this feature has been preserved well in the case of Neptune, a god of springs and rivers before becoming a god of the sea, as is testified by the numerous findings of inscriptions mentioning him in the proximity of such locations. Servius the grammarian explicitly states Neptune is in charge of all the rivers and waters, he is the lord of horses because he worked with Minerva to make the chariot. He may find a parallel in Irish god Nechtan, master of the well from which all the rivers of the world flow out and flow back to. Poseidon on the other hand underwent the process of becoming the main god of the sea at a much earlier time, as is shown in the Iliad.
In the earlier times it was the god Portunus or Fortunus, thanked for naval victories, but Neptune supplanted him in this role by at least the first century BC when Sextus Pompeius called himself "son of Neptune." For a time he was paired with the goddess of the salt water. Neptune was considered the legendary progenitor god of a Latin stock, the Faliscans, who called themselves Neptunia proles. In this respect he was the equivalent of Mars, Janus and Jupiter among Latin tribes. Salacia would represent the virile force of Neptune; the Neptunalia was the festival of Neptune at the height of summer. The date and the construction of tree-branch shelters suggest a primitive role for Neptune as god of water sources in the summer's drought and heat; the most ancient Roman calendar set the feriae of Neptunus on July 23, two days after the Lucaria of July 19 and 21 and two days before the Furrinalia of July 25. Georg Wissowa had remarked that festivals falling in a range of three days are complementary.
Dumézil elaborated that these festivals in some way were all related to the importance of water during the period of summer heat and drought, when river and spring waters are at their lowest. Founding his analysis on the works of Palladius and Columella Dumézil argues that while the Lucaria were devoted to the dressing of woods, clearing the undergrown bushes by cutting on the 19 by uprooting and burning on the 21, the Neptunalia were devoted to works
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
Pepperdine University is a private research university affiliated with the Churches of Christ and located near Malibu, California. It is the location for Seaver College, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education and Psychology, the Graziadio Business School, the School of Public Policy. Courses are taught at the main campus, six graduate campuses in southern California, a center in Washington, DC, at international campuses in Germany, Italy, China and Argentina; the Ed. D. program in Organizational leadership, has held international courses in China, Chile, Costa Rica, India. In February 1937, against the backdrop of the Great Depression, George Pepperdine founded the university as a Christian liberal arts college in the city of Los Angeles. On September 21, 1937, 167 new students from 22 different states and two other countries entered classes on a newly built campus on 34 acres at West 79th Street and South Vermont Avenue in the Vermont Knolls neighborhood of South Central Los Angeles, referred to as the Vermont Avenue campus.
By April 6, 1938, George Pepperdine College was accredited by the Northwest Association. Pepperdine had built a fortune founding and developing the Western Auto Supply Company, which he started with a $5 investment, but his prosperity led to his greater ambition to discover "how humanity can be helped most with the means entrusted to care. Considered it wrong to build up a great fortune and use it selfishly." Pepperdine voiced his twofold objective for the college that bore his name, "First, we want to provide first-class accredited academic training in the liberal arts... Secondly, we are dedicated to a greater goal—that of building in the student a Christ-like life, a love for the church, a passion for the souls of mankind." By the 1960s, the young college faced serious problems. The area around the Vermont Avenue campus developed issues with urban decay; the situation exploded in the 1965 Watts Riots. In 1969 activists in the Watts area threatened to burn down the campus. In addition, the Vermont Avenue campus was running out of room to expand.
In 1967, the school began planning to move the undergraduate campus and a committee was formed to look at alternative locations, including sites in Valencia, Orange County, Ventura County and Westlake Village. Pepperdine favored the Westlake Village location until the Adamson-Rindge family, who owned hundreds of acres near Malibu, offered 138 acres of land. Despite concerns over building costs on the mountainous site, the school decided to move forward based on its prime location and potential for raising donations. Construction began on April 13, 1971 and the new campus opened for student enrollment in September 1972; the campus and many of its buildings were planned by Los Angeles-based architect and urban planner William Pereira. The old campus was sold to Crenshaw Christian Center, whose minister, Frederick K. C. Price oversaw construction of the "FaithDome," the largest domed-church in the United States, seating over 10,000. Pepperdine gained university status in 1971 when the school of law was added and the business and education departments became separate schools.
In the 1980s, Pepperdine rose to prominence as one of the United States' leading centers of conservative politics, attracting many conservative-leaning professors from nearby UCLA and USC. Prominent conservatives on the Pepperdine faculty have included Bruce Herschensohn, Ben Stein, Kenneth Starr, Arthur Laffer, Douglas Kmiec, Daniel Pipes. In 1985, 1993, 1996, massive brushfires threatened the campus with destruction, but firefighters protected all structures. On October 21, 2007, fast-moving wildfires forced campus residents to relocate and shelter in the Firestone Field house and Cafeteria, plus evacuations of local homes and businesses. Another November 2007 fire in Corral Canyon, accidentally set off by a group of Los Angeles youths, caused an evacuation of the Drescher Campus. However, most students were off-campus for the Thanksgiving holiday; the campus was again threatened by the Woolsey Fire in November 2018. Batsell Baxter Hugh M. Tiner M. Norvel Young William S. Banowsky Howard A. White David Davenport Andrew K. Benton The main campus is located among several ridges that overlook the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California.
It is considered one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world in terms of scenery and architecture, has been described as "a place that looks more like a beach resort than a private university." The main campus entrance road ascends a steep, well-groomed grassy slope past a huge stylized cross known as the Phillips Theme Tower, symbolizing the university's dedication to its original Christian mission. Most buildings were constructed in a reinterpretation of Mediterranean Revival Style architecture; the majority of the construction on the main campus was completed in 1973. There are views of the Pacific Ocean, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Long Beach and the westside of Los Angeles from numerous points. Alumni Park is located on the campus, it is a 30-acre expanse of lawns, hills and coral trees overlooking Pacific Coast Highway and the Pacific Ocean. Landscape architects Armstrong and Scharfman were responsible for the campus green space plann