Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo. Created and developed in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and introduced as Brad's Drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-Cola in 1898, shortened to Pepsi in 1961. Pepsi was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern, North Carolina, United States, in 1893 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his drugstore where the drink was sold, it was renamed Pepsi-Cola in 1898 after the Greek word for "digestion", which the drink was purported to aid, "cola" after the kola nut. The original recipe included sugar and vanilla. Bradham sought to create a fountain drink, appealing and would aid in digestion and boost energy. In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse; that year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles, sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race."
The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was used over the next two decades. In 1923, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy—in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on the wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark. Megargel was unsuccessful in efforts to find funding to revive the brand and soon Pepsi's assets were purchased by Charles Guth, the president of Loft, Inc. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores, he sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after the Coca-Cola Company refused to give him additional discounts on syrup. Guth had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula. On three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, the Coca-Cola Company was offered the opportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company, it declined on each occasion. During the Great Depression, Pepsi-Cola gained popularity following the introduction in 1934 of a 12-ounce bottle.
Prior to that and Coca-Cola sold their drinks in 6.5-ounce servings for about $0.05 a bottle. With a radio advertising campaign featuring the popular jingle "Nickel, Nickel" – first recorded by the Tune Twisters in 1940 – Pepsi encouraged price-conscious consumers to double the volume their nickels could purchase; the jingle is arranged in a way that loops, creating a never-ending tune:"Pepsi-Cola hits the spot / Twelve full ounces, that's a lot / Twice as much for a nickel, too / Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you."Coming at a time of economic crisis, the campaign succeeded in boosting Pepsi's status. From 1936 to 1938, Pepsi-Cola's profits doubled. Pepsi's success under Guth came. Since he had used Loft's finances and facilities to establish the new Pepsi success, the near-bankrupt Loft Company sued Guth for possession of the Pepsi-Cola company. A long legal battle, Guth v. Loft ensued, with the case reaching the Delaware Supreme Court and ending in a loss for Guth. From the 1930s through the late 1950s, "Pepsi-Cola Hits The Spot" was the most used slogan in the days of old radio, classic motion pictures, television.
Its jingle was used in many different forms with different lyrics. With the rise of radio, Pepsi utilized the services of a young, up-and-coming actress named Polly Bergen to promote products, oftentimes lending her singing talents to the classic "... Hits The Spot" jingle. Film actress Joan Crawford, after marrying Pepsi-Cola president Alfred N. Steele became a spokesperson for Pepsi, appearing in commercials, television specials, televised beauty pageants on behalf of the company. Crawford had images of the soft drink placed prominently in several of her films; when Steele died in 1959, Crawford was appointed to the Board of Directors of Pepsi-Cola, a position she held until 1973, although she was not a board member of the larger PepsiCo, created in 1965. Pepsi has been featured in several films, including Back to the Future, Home Alone, Wayne's World, Fight Club, World War Z. In 1996, PepsiCo launched the successful Pepsi Stuff marketing strategy. "Project Blue" was launched in several international markets outside the United States in April.
The launch included extravagant publicity stunts, such as a Concorde aeroplane painted in blue colors and a banner on the Mir space station. The Project Blue design arrived in the United States test marketed in June 1997, released in 1998 worldwide to celebrate Pepsi's 100th anniversary, it was at this point. In October 2008, Pepsi announced that it would be redesigning its logo and re-branding many of its products by early 2009. In 2009, Diet Pepsi, Pepsi Max began using all lower-case fonts for name brands; the brand's blue and red globe trademark became a series of "smiles", with the central white band arcing at different angles depending on the product until 2010. Pepsi released this logo in U. S. in late 2008, it was released in 2009 in Canada, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Chile, Dominican Republic, the Philippines, Australia. In the rest of the world, the new logo was released in 2010; the old logo is still used in several international markets, has been phased out most in France and Mexico.
Walter Mack was named the new president of Pepsi-Cola and guided the company thr
Mike Gilmartin was an American football offensive lineman, signed by the Arena Football League's Philadelphia Soul in 2010. He played college football at Rutgers University. Born in Massachusetts, Gilmartin was raised in Fort Myers, Florida, as well as nearby Estero, where he played on the Estero High School football team. Recruited by schools such as South Carolina, Pittsburgh, University of Florida, University of Miami, Georgia Tech, Central Florida, Boston College and Syracuse Gilmartin verbally committed to South Carolina to play under Lou Holtz and Dave DeGuglielmo, but he signed with Greg Schiano at Rutgers University. At Rutgers he was a four year All Big East Academic. Played Right Tackle, Right Guard, Left Center, as well as Special Teams, he won three bowl games. Gilmartin graduated from Rutgers in December 2008 with a BA in American Studies, he did not participate in Pro Day his senior year. He took a year off from football and came back to Pro Day at Rutgers University in March 2010.
There was interest from scouts- but his time away from the field was questioned. He participated in UFL tryouts and went to Alabama for workouts with the Vipers, an AFL team, he signed with Philadelphia Soul, an Arena Team in November 2010. He has three daughters and resides in New Jersey
The Blues Brothers is a 1980 American musical comedy film directed by John Landis. It stars John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd as "Joliet" Jake and Elwood Blues, characters developed from "The Blues Brothers" recurring musical sketch on the NBC variety series Saturday Night Live; the film is set in and around Chicago, where it was filmed. The film's screenplay was written by Landis, it features musical numbers by rhythm and blues and blues singers James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, John Lee Hooker. It features non-musical supporting performances by Carrie Fisher, Henry Gibson, Charles Napier and John Candy; the story is a tale of redemption for paroled convict Jake and his blood brother Elwood, who set out on "a mission from God" to save from foreclosure the Catholic orphanage in which they were raised. To do so, they must reunite their R&B band and organize a performance to earn $5,000 needed to pay the orphanage's property tax bill. Along the way, they are targeted by a homicidal "mystery woman", Neo-Nazis, a country and western band—all while being relentlessly pursued by the police.
Universal Studios, which had won the bidding war for the film, was hoping to take advantage of Belushi's popularity in the wake of Saturday Night Live, Animal House, the Blues Brothers' musical success. The start of filming was delayed when Aykroyd, new to film screenwriting, took six months to deliver a long and unconventional script that Landis had to rewrite before production, which began without a final budget. On location in Chicago, Belushi's partying and drug use caused lengthy and costly delays that, along with the destructive car chases depicted onscreen, made the final film one of the most expensive comedies produced. Concerns that the film would fail limited its initial bookings to less than half those a film of its magnitude received. Released in the United States on June 20, 1980, it received positive reviews, it earned just under $5 million in its opening weekend and went on to gross over $115 million in theaters worldwide before its release on home video. It has become a cult classic, spawning the sequel, Blues Brothers 2000, 18 years, a critical and commercial failure.
Blues vocalist and petty criminal "Joliet" Jake Blues is paroled on good behavior grounds from Joliet Correctional Center after serving three years of a five-year sentence, is picked up by his blood brother Elwood in his Bluesmobile, a battered, decommissioned police car. Elwood demonstrates its capabilities by jumping an open drawbridge; the brothers visit the Roman Catholic orphanage where they were raised, learn from Sister Mary "the Penguin" Stigmata and old friend Curtis that it will be closed unless $5,000 in property taxes is collected. Jake offers to steal the money. During a sermon by the Reverend Cleophus James at the Triple Rock Baptist Church, Jake has another idea: they can re-form their band, the Blues Brothers, which disbanded while Jake was in prison, raise the money to save the orphanage; that night, state troopers attempt to arrest Elwood for driving with a suspended license. After a high-speed chase through the Dixie Square Mall, the brothers flee to the flophouse where Elwood lives, miraculously escaping a rocket launcher attack by a mysterious woman.
The next morning, as the police arrive at the house, the woman detonates a bomb that demolishes the building, but somehow leaves Jake and Elwood unharmed, saves them from being apprehended. Jake and Elwood begin tracking down members of the band. Five of them are playing a Holiday Inn lounge as "Murph and the Magic Tones," and agree to rejoin; the sixth member, "Mr. Fabulous", turns them down as he is the maître d' at expensive restaurant "Chez Paul", but the brothers behave obnoxiously in the restaurant until he relents. On their way to meet the final two band members, the brothers find the road through Jackson Park blocked by an "American Socialist White People's Party"—"the Illinois Nazis"—demonstration on a bridge, it is mentioned that "The Nazis" won their court case a reference to The Skokie Affair. Elwood runs them off the bridge; the commander orders a subordinate to record the car's license number. Meanwhile, the last two band members, Matt "Guitar" Murphy and "Blue Lou" Marini, who now work in a soul food restaurant, rejoin the band against the advice of Murphy's wife and restaurant owner, Aretha Franklin.
The reunited group obtain instruments and equipment from Ray's Music Exchange in Calumet City, Ray, "as usual", takes an IOU. As Jake attempts to book a gig, the mystery woman blows up the phone booth; the band stumbles into a gig at a local honky-tonk. They win over the rowdy crowd, but run up a bar tab higher than their pay, infuriate the country band, booked there, the Good Ole Boys. Realising that they need one big show to raise the necessary money, the brothers persuade their old agent to book the Palace Hotel Ballroom, north of Chicago, they mount a loudspeaker atop the Bluesmobile and drive the Chicago area promoting the concert, but in the process alert the police, the Nazis, the Good Ole Boys of their whereabouts. The ballroom is packed with blues fans and the Good Ole Boys. Jake and Elwood perform two songs sneak offstage, as the tax deadline is approaching. A record company executive offers them a $10,000 cash advance on a recording contract—more than enough to pay off the orphanage's taxes and Ray's IOU—and shows them how to slip out of the building unnoticed.
As they make their escape via a service tunnel, they are confronted by the mystery woman: J