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Perak is a state of Malaysia on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Perak has land borders with the Malaysian states of Kedah to the north, Penang to the northwest and Pahang to the east, Selangor to the south. Thailand's Yala and Narathiwat provinces both lie to the northeast. Perak's capital city, was known for its tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped affecting the state's economy; the royal capital remains Kuala Kangsar. As of 2018, the state's population was 2,500,000. Perak has an equatorial climate; the state's mountain ranges belong to the Titiwangsa Range, part of the larger Tenasserim Range connecting Thailand and Malaysia. Perak's Mount Korbu is the highest point of the range; the discovery of an ancient skeleton in Perak supplied missing information on the migration of Homo sapiens from mainland Asia through Southeast Asia to the Australian continent. Known as Perak Man, the skeleton is dated at around 10,000 years old. An early Hindu or Buddhist kingdom, followed by several other minor kingdoms, existed before the arrival of Islam.

By 1528, a Muslim sultanate began to emerge in Perak, out of the remnants of the Malaccan Sultanate. Although able to resist Siamese occupation for more than two hundred years, the Sultanate was controlled by the Sumatra-based Aceh Sultanate; this was the case after the Aceh lineage took over the royal succession. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company, the VOC's increasing conflicts with Aceh, Perak began to distance itself from Acehnese control; the presence of the English East India Company in the nearby Straits Settlements of Penang provided additional protection for the state, with further Siamese attempts to conquer Perak thwarted by British expeditionary forces. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed to prevent further conflict between the British and the Dutch, it enabled the British to expand their control in the Malay Peninsula without interference from other foreign powers. The 1874 Pangkor Treaty provided for direct British intervention, with Perak appointing a British Resident.

Following Perak's subsequent absorption into the Federated Malay States, the British reformed administration of the sultanate through a new style of government promoting a market-driven economy and maintaining law and order while combatting the slavery practised across Perak at the time. The three-year Japanese occupation in World War II halted further progress. After the war, Perak became part of the temporary Malayan Union, before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya, it gained full independence through the Federation, which subsequently became Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Perak is ethnically and linguistically diverse; the state is known for several traditional dances: bubu and labu sayong, the latter name referring to Perak's unique traditional pottery. The head of state is the Sultan of Perak, the head of government is the Menteri Besar. Government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion, other religions may be practised freely.

Malay and English are recognised as the official languages of Perak. The economy is based on services and manufacturing. There are many theories about the origin of the name Perak. Although not used until after 1529, the most popular etymology is "silver"; this is associated with tin mining from the state's large mineral deposits, reflecting the Perak's position as one of the world's largest sources of tin. The first Islamic kingdom established in the state was of the lineage of the Sultanate of Malacca; some local historians have suggested that Perak was named after Tun Perak. In maps prior to 1561, the area is marked as Perat. Other historians believe that the name Perak derives from the Malay phrase "kilatan ikan dalam air", which looks like silver. Perak has been translated into Arabic as دار الرضوان, "abode of grace". Among the prehistoric sites in Malaysia where artefacts from the Middle Palaeolithic era have been found are Bukit Bunuh, Bukit Gua Harimau, Bukit Jawa, Bukit Kepala Gajah, Kota Tampan in the Lenggong Archaeological Heritage Valley.

Of these, Bukit Bunuh and Kota Tampan are ancient lakeside sites, the geology of Bukit Bunuh showing evidence of meteoric impact. The 10,000-year-old skeleton known as Perak Man was found inside the Bukit Gunung Runtuh cave at Bukit Kepala Gajah. Ancient tools discovered in the area of Kota Tampan, including anvils, cores and hammerstones, provide information on the migrations of Homo sapiens. Other important Neolithic sites in the country include Bukit Gua Harimau, Gua Badak, Gua Pondok, Padang Rengas, containing evidence of human presence in the Mesolithic Hoabinhian era. In 1959, a British artillery officer stationed at an inland army base during the Malayan Emergency discovered Gua Tambun, identified by archaeologists as the largest rock art site in the Malay Peninsula. Most of the paintings are located high at an elevation of 6 -- 10 metres. Seashells and coral fragments scattered along the cave floor are evidence that the area was once underwater; the significant numbers of statues of Hindu deities and of the Buddha found in Bidor, Kuala Selensing and Pengkalan Pegoh indicate that, before the arrival of Islam, the inhabitants of Perak were Hindu or Buddhist.

The influence of Indian culture and beliefs on society and values in the Malay Peninsula from early times is believed to have culminated in t

Szymon Romać

Szymon Romać is a Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team B and Polish club PGE Skra Bełchatów, Polish Champion. On April 2, 2015 was appointed to the Polish national team by head coach Stephane Antiga. After the training camp in Spała he went to team B of Polish national team led by Andrzej Kowal, he took part in 1st edition of 2015 European Games. On August 14, 2015 he achieved first medal as national team player - bronze of European League, his national team won 3rd place match with Estonia. 2009/2010 Polish Championship U21, with Czarni Radom 2010/2011 Polish Championship U21, with Czarni Radom 2017/2018 Polish SuperCup 2017, with PGE Skra Bełchatów 2017/2018 Polish Championship, with PGE Skra Bełchatów 2015 European League 2011 Polish Championship U21 - Best Server 2011 Polish Championship U21 - Most Valuable Player PlusLiga player profile

Crash (2009 TV series)

Crash is an English-language Welsh television drama series created by Tony Jordan and produced by Red Planet Pictures for BBC Wales. The series follows the lives of four newly qualified doctors; the series is filmed in Cardiff. The series first aired at 20:30 BST on BBC One Wales and BBC HD on Wednesday 9 September 2009; the plot of the show follows the lives of junior doctors Cath, Rob and Ameer as they start work at the fictional Cardiff City Hospital. The show will focus on the main characters personal relationships rather than on medical issues, as creator Tony Jordan states: "’s not a medical show, it’s just set in a hospital." Elin Phillips as Rhian Matthews: Wanting to be a Doctor since she was a little girl, Rhian is compassionate to her patients but a bit too overconfident, which leads her to not notice that a patient she is diagnosing has died. Gareth Milton as Simon Strettle: Another Junior Doctor at the Hospital, Simon wants to be a Pathologist, he has romantic feelings for Rhian, which doesn't go by unnoticed by Ameer.

Kezia Burrows as Cath Llewelyn: A Junior Doctor who likes to party, Cath wakes up for her first day at work in bed with Rob. Simon Rivers as Ameer Mowad: The most intelligent of the Junior Doctors. Ameer always wants to be a Surgeon. Confident he crumbles under the pressure of his first day on call on the Crash team. Alexander Vlahos as DylanMark Lewis Jones as Mike Hill: A&E Consultant at the Hospital. Nia Roberts as Mary Finch: The Hospital Registrar and wife of Mike Hill. Ian Virgo as Alun Gethin: The Senior House Officer to the Junior Doctors. Kezrena James as Penny: A Nurse at the Hospital who takes a shine to Rob. Gareth Jewell as Rob Williams: Confident in his work Rob seeks to help his patients and his friends to the best of his ability. However, when dealing with a mentally ill patient he is fatally stabbed. Crash was commissioned by Clare Hudson and Piers Wenger of BBC Wales for a 12-episode run to be produced by Tony Jordan's independent production company Red Planet Pictures; the show was filmed at the former site for St. Ilan's High School in Caerphilly, which closed down and became abandoned in 2008, re-dressed to become the wards and corridors of the fictional Cardiff Metropolitan Hospital.

Cardiff University's bioscience and psychology buildings were used for many of the hospital's exterior shots. The Cardiff University optometry building is used for some of the interior shots; the series was shot on Panasonic P2 cameras. 85% of the cast and crew were made up of local people. The episodes of Crash are each written by one writer, with the whole production overseen by Tony Jordan. Jordan himself wrote the first episode of the show, while subsequent episodes have been written by a range of new and established writers including playwright Kit Lambert, actor Richard Harrington and winner of the first Red Planet Prize, Joanna Leigh. Unlike other shows that use this writing model, Jordan doesn't rewrite or add to any of the other writers scripts. Instead each writer has to go through several drafts of rewriting their own scripts before they are filmed. Reviews for the show's first episode have been mixed. Gavin Allen at Media Wales said that the show was of "...much better quality than you might expect for regional programming.".

Caroline Hitt at the Western Mail felt the show looked good but bemoaned the death of Rob after just one episode. DeeDee Ramona at Mental Health Nursing site Mental Nurse however thought that the storyline of Rob and his patient was sensationlised, while TV reviewer and blogger Dan Owen awarded the show one and a half out of five stars and summed up the show as being like "... Scrubs with the jokes taken out, only not as hard-hitting."Viewing figures for the show however have been quite positive. The first episode peaked with 170,000 viewers and an 18% audience share with a further 85,000 watching the Tuesday night repeat. BBC Wales head of programmes Clare Hudson said she was “...delighted with how well Crash has been received by the audience." Crash at BBC Programmes Crash at Red Planet Pictures Crash on IMDb

Vimana (architectural feature)

Vimana is the structure over the garbhagriha or inner sanctum in the Hindu temples of South India and Odisha in East India. In typical temples of Odisha using the Kalinga style of architecture, the vimana is the tallest structure of the temple, as it is in the shikhara towers of temples in West and North India. By contrast, in large South Indian temples, it is smaller than the great gatehouses or gopuram, which are the most striking architectural elements in a temple complex. A vimana is shaped as a pyramid, consisting of several stories or tala. Vimana are divided in two groups: jati vimanas that have up to four tala and mukhya vimana that have five tala and more. In North Indian temple architecture texts, the superstructure over the garbhagriha is called a shikhara. However, in South Indian Hindu architecture texts, the term shikhara means a dome-shaped crowning cap above the vimana. A typical Hindu temple in Dravidian style have gopuram in the four directions i.e. East - main entrance and south - side entrances, West - only opened on auspicious day where it is believed we will go directly to Heaven.

The temple's walls are square with the outer most wall having four gopura, one each on every side, situated in the center of each wall. This will continue to next tier depending upon the size of the temple; the sanctum sanctorum and its towering roof are called the vimana. These do not assume as much significance as the outer gopuram, with the exception of a few temples where the sanctum sanctorum's roofs are as famous as the temple complex itself; the kanaka-sabai at Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram, is another example. This shrine is covered with golden plates, but is different in its structure and massive in size when compared to most other vimanas. Historical evidence states that during the ninth century, Parantaka I funded to cover this vimana with ornamental gold and it retains its glory today; the Ananda Nilayam vimana of the Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala, is a famous example where the gopuram of the main shrine occupies a special place in the temple's history and identity. Meenakshi Temple has two golden vimana, the huge one for Shiva and the second one for his consort, Meenakshi.

The vimana of the Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, is another example, with a exaggerated height. This form is not common; the Jagannath Temple, has the Neelachakra on the sikhara, i.e. the top of the vimana. It is a representation of the sudarshana chakra; the vimana of the Konark Sun Temple was the tallest of all vimana. Balinese temple Meru tower Shikhara Stupa Hindu temple architecture List of tallest Vimanams

Styx World: Live 2001

StyxWorld Live 2001 is a live album by the band Styx released in 2001. It is drawn from performances at the Kosei Nenken Hall, Japan, February 10-11, 2000, Offenbach, October 27, 2000, the Shaw Center, Alberta, February 11, 2001. "Rockin' the Paradise" - 4:12 "High Enough" - 2:07 "Lorelei" - 4:07 "A Criminal Mind" - 5:59 + "Love Is the Ritual" - 5:31 "Boat on the River" - 4:25 "Half-Penny, Two-Penny" - 6:35 "Sing for the Day" - 4:22 "Snowblind" - 5:22 "Sometimes Love Just Ain't Enough" - 2:45 "Crystal Ball" - 6:28 "Miss America" - 6:19 "Come Sail Away" - 10:11+ Produced by Lawrence Gowan Tommy Shaw: Vocals, Electric & Acoustic Guitar, Mandolin James "J. Y." Young: Vocals, Electric & Acoustic Guitar, Keyboards Lawrence Gowan: Vocals, Keyboards Glen Burtnik: Vocals, Electric Guitar Chuck Panozzo: Bass Todd Sucherman: Drums

Caspian Rain

Caspian Rain is the fourth novel from Gina B. Nahai and takes place in the decade before the Islamic Revolution; the book was published in 2007 by MacAdam/Cage in the United States and has been published in 15 languages. The novel takes place in Iran in the decade before the Islamic Revolution and follows 12-year-old Yaas, born into an upper-class Muslim/Jewish family; as the country heads towards chaos, Yaas finds herself trying to navigate the complicated world of Iranian society, coming to terms with her fragmenting family, dealing with the possibility of going deaf, the result of a genetic illness. The book was nominated by MacAdam/Cage Publishing for the 2007 Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award, it was listed as one of the best books of the year by both the Chicago Tribune and San Francisco Chronicle. Critical response was positive. Allison McCulloch of the New York Times Book Review wrote that the novel is "an accurate glimpse into a alien culture" and that Nahai "tells Yaas's story with elegance and insight."

Meganne Fabrega of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote that "Nahai's narrative skill and linguistic talent shine."