Perak known by its honorific Darul Ridzuan or "Abode of Grace", is one of the thirteen states of Malaysia, the fourth-largest one. It borders Kedah at the north; the state's administrative capital of Ipoh was known for tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped affecting the state's economy. The royal capital, remains at Kuala Kangsar, where the palace of the Sultan of Perak is located; the state's official name is Perak Darul Ridzuan. Perak means silver in Malay, derived from the silvery colour of tin. In the 1890s, with the richest alluvial deposits of tin in the world was one of the jewels in the crown of the British Empire. However, some say. Darul Ridzuan is the state's Arabic honorific, can mean either "land" or "abode" of grace. Legend tells of a Hindu-Malay Kingdom called Gangga Negara in the northwest of Perak. Archaeological discoveries indicate; the modern history of Perak began with the fall of the Malacca Sultanate. Raja Muzaffar Shah, the eldest son of the last Sultan of Melaka, Sultan Mahmud Shah and his Queen Tun Fatimah, fled the Portuguese conquest of 1511 and established his own dynasty on the banks of the Sungai Perak in 1528.
Being rich in tin ore deposits, the dominion was under continuous threat from outsiders. The Dutch attempted to control the tin trade in the 17th century, built defensive forts at the mouth of the Perak River and on Pulau Pangkor. Early history recorded the arrival in Perak of the Dutch in 1641, when they captured the Straits of Malacca and controlled tin-ore and spice trading. However, the Dutch attempt to monopolise the tin-ore trading in Perak by influencing Sultan Muzaffar Syah failed, they turned to Sultanah Tajul Alam Safiatuddin, the Sultan of Aceh, to seek permission to trade in Perak, which forced the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty, allowing the Dutch to build their plant in Kuala Perak on 15 August 1650. This did not go down well with the aristocracy of Perak. In 1651, Temenggung and the people of Perak destroyed the Dutch plant; the Dutch were forced to leave their base in Perak. The Dutch sent a representative to Perak in 1655 to renew the earlier agreement and to seek compensation for the loss of their plant.
The Perak government however was thus surrounded by the Dutch. In 1670, the Dutch returned to Perak to build Kota Kayu, now known as Kota Belanda, on Pangkor Island. Perak agreed to the construction because of news that the Kingdom of Siam would be attacking the state. In 1685, Perak once again attacked the Dutch on Pangkor Island, forcing them to retreat and close their headquarters; the Dutch failed. In the 19th century, the Bugis and the Siamese all attempted to invade Perak, only British intervention in 1820 prevented Siam from annexing Perak. Although the British were reluctant to establish a colonial presence in Malaya, increasing investment in the tin mines brought a great influx of Chinese immigrants, including Foo Ming, who formed rival clan groups allied with Malay chiefs and local gangsters which all fought for control of the mines; the Perak Sultanate was unable to maintain order as it was embroiled in a protracted succession crisis. In her book The Golden Chersonese and The Way Thither, Victorian traveller and adventurer Isabella Lucy Bird describes how Raja Muda Abdullah turned to his friend in Singapore, Tan Kim Ching.
Tan, together with an English merchant in Singapore, drafted a letter to Governor Sir Andrew Clarke which Abdullah signed. The letter expressed Abdullah's desire to place Perak under British protection, "to have a man of sufficient abilities to show a good system of government." In 1874, the Straits Settlements governor Sir Andrew Clarke convened a meeting on Pulau Pangkor, at which Sultan Abdullah was installed on the throne of Perak in preference to his rival, Sultan Ismail. This Pangkor Treaty required that the Sultan of Perak accept a British Resident, a post granted wide administrative powers. In 1875, various Perak chiefs assassinated the British Resident James W. W. Birch, resulting in the short-lived Perak War of 1876. Sultan Abdullah was exiled to the Seychelles, the British installed a new ruler; the new resident, Sir Hugh Low, was well-versed in the Malay language and local customs, proved to be a more capable administrator. He introduced the first rubber trees in Malaya. Perak joined Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States in 1896.
However, the British Resident system persisted until the Malayan Union was established in 1948. Perak gained its independence from the British on 31 August 1957. Under the laws of the Constitution of Perak, Perak is a constitutional monarchy, with a constitutional hereditary ruler; the current Sultan of Perak is the 35th Sultan of Perak. He was appointed as the new Sultan on 29 May 2014; the preceding Sultan was Sultan Azlan Muhib
The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states. When the Sultanate of Malacca empire fell to Portugal in 1511, Sultan Mahmud Syah I retreated to Kampar and died there in 1528, he left behind two princes named Sultan Muzaffar Syah. The former went on to establish the Sultanate of Johor. Muzaffar Syah was invited to rule Perak: he became the first sultan of Perak. In contrast to the other Malay sultanates, the ruling dynasty of Perak utilises a somewhat complex order of succession; the reigning Sultan appoints princes in the male line of descent from a Sultan to certain high princely titles. They are arranged in a strict order of precedence indicating the order of succession to the throne; as per ruling of 25 February 1953, the present hierarchy of titles and the corresponding order of succession is as follows: Raja Muda Raja di-Hilir Raja Kecil Besar Raja Kecil Sulong Raja Kecil Tengah Raja Kecil Bongsu. While titleholders are appointed for life, titles may be revoked in cases of proven incompetence or disability.
On the death or promotion of an existing titleholder, the holder of the next most senior title succeeds him. The Raja Muda is the heir apparent, succeeds the ruling sultan on his demise, whereupon the prince holding the title of Raja Di-Hilir becomes the new Raja Muda; the Raja Kechil Besar becomes the Raja Di-Hilir. The new Sultan may appoint his own nominee to the junior-most title made vacant by these successions; the Perak royal regalia consists of items that are said to have been with the Perak Sultanate from its inception, some of which pre-dating the Malacca Sultanate. The regalia is used during the installation ceremony of Sultan of Perak and few other royal ceremonies. Royal headress Royal aigrette Royal tiara Royal sword Cura Si Manja Kini Royal blade Taming Sari Royal blade Sari Gading Mestika Embun - known as ‘Ball of Petrified Dew. ’Given to Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak by Tok Temong, a local official. Mohor Kecil Cap Halilintar - seal made of silver, placed behind the right ear of the Sultan during installation.
Ceremony Royal Musical Ensemble Pontoh - golden armlets worn by the Sultan and his consort around both arms during the installation ceremony. Agok - golden pendant, worn around the neck of the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Dokoh - golden brooch, worn by the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Royal seal Royal coat of arms Panji Di-Raja Royal umbrella State umbrella State spear Kancing Halkah - decorative ornament worn around the neck of a tunic, believed to be a gift from the Emperor of China to Parameswara of Malacca. Sundang Keris Panjang Baur-Baur Orang Besar Negeri Kamar Rantai Bunga Nyiur Geluk Puan - Betel leaves container. Presented to Tok Temong by Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak but returned to be royal regalia of Perak. Batil Emas The following is the orders and medals given by Sultan of Perak; when applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated. The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perak: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957.
Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses. The Most Esteemed Perak Royal Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses; the Most Esteemed Azlanii Royal Family Order founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2010. Awarded in two classes: First Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii Second Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii II The Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred for distinguished services to the Sultan of Perak; the Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Nazrin Shah: founded by Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah. The Most Illustrious Order of Cura Si Manja Kini: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1969 and 1989. Awarded in four classes: Grand Knight or Dato'Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Knight or Dato' - Darjah Dato’ Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Commander or Ahli Paduka - Darjah Ahli Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Member or Ahli - Darjah Ahli Cura Si Manja Kini The Most Valliant Order of Taming Sari: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1977.
Awarded to military and police personnel in six classes: Dato' Seri Panglima - Darjah Dato’ Seri Panglima Taming Sari Dato' Pahlawanan - Darjah Dato’ Pahlawan Taming Sari Ahli Perwira - Darjah Ahli Perwira Taming Sari Ahli Hulubalang - Darjah Ahli Hulubalang Taming Sari Ahli Kesatria - Darjah Ahli Kesatria Taming Sari Ahli Perajurit - Darjah Ahli Perajurit Taming Sari The Most Illustrious Order of the Perak State Crown: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957. Awarded in four classes: Knight Grand Commander or Dato' Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka M
An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
Bumiputera or Bumiputra is a controversial Malaysian term to describe Malays and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, i.e. the Malay world, used as in Indonesia and Brunei. The term comes from the Sanskrit and absorbed into the classical Malay word bhumiputra, which can be translated as "son of the land" or "son of the soil". In the 1970s, the Malaysian government implemented policies which The Economist called "racially discriminatory" designed to favour bumiputras to create opportunities, to defuse interethnic tensions following the extended violence against Malaysian Chinese in the 13 May Incident in 1969; these policies have succeeded in creating a significant urban Malay and Native Bornean middle class as well. They have been less effective in eradicating poverty among rural communities; some analysts have noted a backlash of resentment from excluded groups, in particular the sizeable Chinese and Indian Malaysian minorities. The concept of a bumiputra ethnic group in Malaysia was coined by Abdul Razak Hussein.
It recognised the "special position" of the Malays provided in the Constitution of Malaysia, in particular Article 153. However, the constitution does not use the term bumiputra. Definitions of bumiputra in public use vary among different institutions and government departments and agencies. In the book Buku Panduan Kemasukan ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Program Pengajian Lepasan SPM/Setaraf Sesi Akademik 2007/2008, the Malaysian Higher Education Ministry defined bumiputra as follows, depending on the region of origin of the individual applicant: Peninsular Malaysia "If one of the parents is Muslim Malay/Orang Asli as stated in Article 160 Federal Constitution of Malaysia. Most of these encompass communities that were established in southeast Asia prior to the arrival of the British colonialists who forever altered the demographics of Malaysia. Others favour a definition encompassing all children of Bumiputra. At the time of Malaya's independence from the British in 1957, the population included many first or second-generation immigrants who had come to fill colonial manpower needs as indentured labourers.
Chinese legal immigrants, who settled in urban areas, played a significant role in the commercial sector after the Indians left the country to return to India, many of the commercial sectors were sold to the Chinese immigrants. The Communities Liaison Committee, comprising leading politicians from different racial backgrounds, supported the promotion of economic equality for the Malays, conditional on political equality for the non-Malays. CLC member E. E. C. Thuraisingham said, "I and others believed that the backward Malays should be given a better deal. Malays should be assisted to attain parity with non-Malays to forge a united Malayan Nation of equals."Article 153 of the Constitution states that, It shall be the responsibility of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to safeguard the special position of the Malays and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities in accordance with the provisions of this Article. Article 160 defines a Malay as being one who "professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay customs and is the child of at least one parent, born within the Federation of Malaysia before independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957, or the issue of such a person."
Article 8 of the Constitution, states that all Malaysian citizens shall be equal under the law, "Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens on the ground only of religion, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, profession, vocation or employment." Article 153. The term of the Bumiputras' special position has been disputed; the Reid Commission, which drafted the Constitution proposed that Article 153 expire after 15 years unless renewed by Parliament. This qualification was struck from the final draft. After the 13 May Incid
Seri Iskandar is a town and district capital of Perak Tengah in Perak, Malaysia. It is located at about 40 km southwest of Ipoh on the main Ipoh-Lumut highway; the adjacent towns are a once-famous mining town and Bota. Universiti Teknologi Petronas, a branch campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA and Kolej Profesional MARA are located in Seri Iskandar. Construction works for UCSI University is under progress and target to commence classes in mid 2018; the prospect of the town will emerge as the "University Town" like Kampar. The town was named after Paduka Seri Sultan Iskandar Shah, who ruled the state of Perak from 1918 until 1938. Several institutions started the township in the mid-eighties; the Engineering Branch Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia started its operation on a disused tin mine at about 5 km south of Tronoh in 1986. A religious secondary school, SMKA Sultan Azlan Shah, occupied a newly built school buildings at about 7 km east of Bota Kanan in 1987. A radio transmission station and a teachers living quarters were built soon after within this area.
In 1988, the state government came out with a plan of a township with its own name. A large industrial park, a university with commercial parks and housing estates with an airport were parts of the plan of the township. However, progress was slow and the investors were slow to come in; the eastern part of Seri Iskandar was an extension of Tronoh Mines prior to the 80's. In the early 90's, USM Engineering Campus was surrounded by disused mining pools. Except for a school, palm oil plantations covered the western part at this time. To travel from Tronoh to Bota, one must go through Parit, to reach Bota, it was not until the construction of a highway between Ipoh and Lumut that connected Tronoh to Bota directly, that further development took off. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS started its operation in the USM Campus buildings in 1996. USM Engineering Branch was to move to a new campus in Penang and the move was completed by 2001. PETRONAS acquired lands adjacent to the USM campus to build a new campus for UTP.
The new campus was built by 2003. The Universiti Teknologi MARA moved from Seri Manjung to Seri Iskandar by 2001; the numbers of food stalls and restaurants surged due to the sudden increase of population from the two new universities and the supporting industries. Residential areas were established starting with Taman Maju, RPA Changkat Sodang, JKR & Teachers' Quarters, Bandar Universiti, Desa Seri Iskandar, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Taman Gemilang and Puncak Iskandar. A number of public facilities were established in Seri Iskandar starting with a primary school, followed by the district office, a vocational school, a secondary school, a health office,a petrol station and a mosque. Two institutions of higher learning, Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara and Kolej Professional MARA started operations in 2002 and 2005 to build the reputation of Seri Iskandar as a'Bandar Ilmu'. Seri Iskandar is a combination of satellite towns, most of them with several rows of shophouses and residential housing areas.
The satellite towns are: Bandar Seri Iskandar Bandar Universiti Bandar Baru Seri Iskandar Taman Maju Desa Seri Iskandar Seri Iskandar is located halfway between the state capital, Ipoh city and Lumut. Seri Iskandar is 10 km from Bota, 10 km from Tronoh, 17 km from Parit, 40 km from Ipoh and 40 km from Sitiawan
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Vehicle registration plates of Malaysia
Malaysian registration plates are displayed at the front and rear of all private and commercial motorised vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. The issuing of the number plates is regulated and administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department or JPJ. Latest number plate being issued can be checked; the following are examples of the formats used. Number plates are issued and are formatted for any motorised vehicle that runs on rubber tyres, including most road-legal private and industrial vehicles, emergency vehicles, selected heavy equipment. With the exception of those issued for taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all vehicle number plates in Malaysia have white characters on black background for both front and rear plates, regardless of the vehicle type. Standards for number plate designs have been defined by the Road Transport Department but are only practiced to an extent. Character size and colour use are more enforced for accurate identification and optimum visibility. However, the dimensions of the plates displaying the license number are more loosely enforced.
While many vehicles display plates in regulation dimensions or are housed in dealer plate frames with standardised dimensions, some license plates are outlined to fit into vastly larger recessed spaces holding the rear license plates, or appear with reduced or custom dimensions where no proper alcoves exist, as practiced on the front fenders and fairings of most motorcycles and the front of sports cars. A compact version of Arial Bold is the typeface preferred by the Road Transport Department and is thus the most used, but other easy-to-read typefaces are acceptable. Common alternative choices include Charles Wright, used on Singaporean, Hong Kongese, British plates, FE-Schrift, used on German plates and is thus popular among Malaysian owners of cars with European marques German brands and models. More obscure custom typefaces have been known to be used on grey import vehicles and aftermarket licence plates. Early Malaysian number plates were made of pressed metal, but were superseded by plastic plates since the 1970s, with characters either printed on or molded in plastic pieces.
Reason for usage of plastics plates are cost metal theft are rampant in Malaysia. However, the biggest disadvantage of using plastic plates are fragile, easy to reproduce which giving advantages to criminals such as car cloning syndicates, missing letters due to adhesive no longer able to stick on the background plate which causing the vehicle unable to identified by law enforcers. Standardised number plates are being discussed by JPJ from 2016 to include RFID chip and made from pressed metal. With the exception of Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi plates, taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all Peninsular Malaysian number plates for private and commercial type motor vehicles with the exceptions of those used by taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats follow a Sxx #### algorithm. S - The state or territory prefix. X - The alphabetical sequences. # - The number sequence. The exceptions in the algorithm are as follows: There can be no leading zeroes in the number sequence; the letters I and O are omitted from the alphabetical sequences due to their similarities with the numbers 1 and 0.
The letters Z is reserved for use on Malaysian military vehicles. The algorithm started with a state prefix and a number sequence which ranged from 1 to 9999. For example, P 1 would be the first registration plate of Penang. Once P 9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the state prefix; when PA 9999 was reached, the number sequence was reset and the alphabetical sequence progressed. After PY 9999 was achieved, a second alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the first alphabetical sequence; when PAY 9999 was reached, the second alphabetical sequence was reset and the first alphabetical sequence progressed. As the most registered number plate series in the country, the W series' traditional 7-character format became the first in Peninsular Malaysia to be exhausted when WYY 9999 was reached on 26 September 2013. To allow further W plates, the algorithm was altered to feature an alphabetical suffix behind the number sequence, resetting at W 1 A; when W 9999 Y was achieved, the second alphabetical sequence emerged between the state prefix and number sequence, leading to WA 1 A.
When WA 9999 Y is met, the first alphabetical sequence will reset and the second alphabetical sequence will advance, giving WB 1 A. When WY 9999 Y is reached, a third new alphabetical sequence will be spliced into the algorithm, between the second alphabetical sequence and number sequence, resulting in WAA 1 A; the series will end. The new format would theoretically allow a vastly larger number of registered plates, better addressing the risk of exhaustion of numbers, but is subject of conflicts with a certain series of Singaporean number plates On 18 May 2016, less than three years into the implementation of the extended W series, the Transport Ministry, on the request of