1.
Pie chart
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A pie chart is a circular statistical graphic which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each slice, is proportional to the quantity it represents, while it is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are variations on the way it can be presented. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfairs Statistical Breviary of 1801, Pie charts are very widely used in the business world and the mass media. Pie charts can be replaced in most cases by other such as the bar chart. The earliest known pie chart is generally credited to William Playfairs Statistical Breviary of 1801, playfair presented an illustration, which contained a series of pie charts. One of those charts depicting the proportions of the Turkish Empire located in Asia, Europe and this invention was not widely used at first, The French engineer Charles Joseph Minard was one of the first to use pie charts in 1858, in particular in maps. Minards map,1858 used pie charts to represent the cattle sent from all around France for consumption in Paris, playfair thought that pie charts were in need of a third dimension to add additional information. It has been said that Florence Nightingale invented it, though in fact she just popularised it, a 3d pie cake, or perspective pie cake, is used to give the chart a 3D look. The use of superfluous dimensions not used to display the data of interest is discouraged for charts in general, a doughnut chart is a variant of the pie chart, with a blank center allowing for additional information about the data as a whole to be included. A chart with one or more separated from the rest of the disk is known as an exploded pie chart. This effect is used to highlight a sector, or to highlight smaller segments of the chart with small proportions. The polar area diagram is similar to a pie chart, except sectors are equal angles. The polar area diagram is used to plot cyclic phenomena, for example, if the count of deaths in each month for a year are to be plotted then there will be 12 sectors all with the same angle of 30 degrees each. The radius of each sector would be proportional to the root of the death count for the month. Léon Lalanne later used a diagram to show the frequency of wind directions around compass points in 1843. The wind rose is used by meteorologists. Nightingale published her rose diagram in 1858, the name coxcomb is sometimes used erroneously, this was the name Nightingale used to refer to a book containing the diagrams rather than the diagrams themselves. A ring chart, also known as a sunburst chart or a pie chart, is used to visualize hierarchical data
2.
Wikimedia Foundation
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The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites
3.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
4.
Ratio
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In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second. For example, if a bowl of fruit contains eight oranges and six lemons, thus, a ratio can be a fraction as opposed to a whole number. Also, in example the ratio of lemons to oranges is 6,8. The numbers compared in a ratio can be any quantities of a kind, such as objects, persons, lengths. A ratio is written a to b or a, b, when the two quantities have the same units, as is often the case, their ratio is a dimensionless number. A rate is a quotient of variables having different units, but in many applications, the word ratio is often used instead for this more general notion as well. The numbers A and B are sometimes called terms with A being the antecedent, the proportion expressing the equality of the ratios A, B and C, D is written A, B = C, D or A, B, C, D. This latter form, when spoken or written in the English language, is expressed as A is to B as C is to D. A, B, C and D are called the terms of the proportion. A and D are called the extremes, and B and C are called the means, the equality of three or more proportions is called a continued proportion. Ratios are sometimes used three or more terms. The ratio of the dimensions of a two by four that is ten inches long is 2,4,10, a good concrete mix is sometimes quoted as 1,2,4 for the ratio of cement to sand to gravel. It is impossible to trace the origin of the concept of ratio because the ideas from which it developed would have been familiar to preliterate cultures. For example, the idea of one village being twice as large as another is so basic that it would have been understood in prehistoric society, however, it is possible to trace the origin of the word ratio to the Ancient Greek λόγος. Early translators rendered this into Latin as ratio, a more modern interpretation of Euclids meaning is more akin to computation or reckoning. Medieval writers used the word to indicate ratio and proportionalitas for the equality of ratios, Euclid collected the results appearing in the Elements from earlier sources. The Pythagoreans developed a theory of ratio and proportion as applied to numbers, the discovery of a theory of ratios that does not assume commensurability is probably due to Eudoxus of Cnidus. The exposition of the theory of proportions that appears in Book VII of The Elements reflects the earlier theory of ratios of commensurables, the existence of multiple theories seems unnecessarily complex to modern sensibility since ratios are, to a large extent, identified with quotients. This is a recent development however, as can be seen from the fact that modern geometry textbooks still use distinct terminology and notation for ratios
5.
Fraction (mathematics)
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A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line, numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of parts, and the denominator. For example, in the fraction 3/4, the numerator,3, tells us that the fraction represents 3 equal parts, the picture to the right illustrates 34 or ¾ of a cake. Fractional numbers can also be written without using explicit numerators or denominators, by using decimals, percent signs, an integer such as the number 7 can be thought of as having an implicit denominator of one,7 equals 7/1. Other uses for fractions are to represent ratios and to represent division, thus the fraction ¾ is also used to represent the ratio 3,4 and the division 3 ÷4. The test for a number being a number is that it can be written in that form. In a fraction, the number of parts being described is the numerator. Informally, they may be distinguished by placement alone but in formal contexts they are separated by a fraction bar. The fraction bar may be horizontal, oblique, or diagonal and these marks are respectively known as the horizontal bar, the slash or stroke, the division slash, and the fraction slash. In typography, horizontal fractions are known as en or nut fractions and diagonal fractions as em fractions. The denominators of English fractions are expressed as ordinal numbers. When the denominator is 1, it may be expressed in terms of wholes but is commonly ignored. When the numerator is one, it may be omitted, a fraction may be expressed as a single composition, in which case it is hyphenated, or as a number of fractions with a numerator of one, in which case they are not. Fractions should always be hyphenated when used as adjectives, alternatively, a fraction may be described by reading it out as the numerator over the denominator, with the denominator expressed as a cardinal number. The term over is used even in the case of solidus fractions, Fractions with large denominators that are not powers of ten are often rendered in this fashion while those with denominators divisible by ten are typically read in the normal ordinal fashion. A simple fraction is a number written as a/b or a b
6.
Denotation
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Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it. Denotation is sometimes contrasted to connotation, which translates a sign to its associated meanings, in semiotics, the surface or literal meaning of a signifier. In logic, formal semantics and parts of linguistics, the extension of a term, in computer science, denotational semantics is contrasted with operational semantics. In media studies terminology, denotation is an example of the first level of analysis, denotation often refers to something literal, and avoids being a metaphor. Here it is coupled with connotation which is the second level of analysis. Semiotics for Beginners VirtuaLit Elements of Poetry
7.
Percent sign
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The percent sign is the symbol used to indicate a percentage, a number or ratio as a fraction of 100. Related signs include the permille sign ‰ and the permyriad sign ‱, english style guides prescribe writing the number and percent sign without any space between. In Finnish, the percent sign is always spaced, and a case suffix can be attached to it using the colon, in French, the percent sign must be spaced with a non-breaking space. In Italian, the percent sign is never spaced, in Spanish, the percent sign must always be spaced now, as almost every other symbol. In traditional Russian typography, the percent sign is never spaced, but it is not that common in Russia today. In Chinese, the percent sign is almost never spaced, probably because Chinese does not use spaces to separate characters or words at all, according to the Swedish Language Council, the percent sign should be preceded by a space in Swedish, as all other units. In German, the space is prescribed by the body in the national standard DIN5008. In Persian and Turkish, the percent sign precedes rather than follows the number and it is often recommended that the percent sign only be used in tables and other places with space restrictions. In running text, it should be spelled out as percent or per cent, for example, not Sales increased by 24% over 2006, but rather Sales increased by 24 percent over 2006. Prior to 1425 there is no evidence of a special symbol being used for percentage. The Italian term per cento, for a hundred, was used as well as several different abbreviations, examples of this can be seen in the 1339 arithmetic text depicted below. The letter p with its crossed by a horizontal or diagonal strike conventionally stood for per, por, par, or pur in Mediaeval. At some point a scribe of some sort used the abbreviation pc with a loop or circle This appears in some additional pages of a 1425 text which were probably added around 1435. The pc with a loop eventually evolved into a fraction sign by 1650. In 1925 D. E. Smith wrote, The solidus form is modern, the ASCII code for the percent character is 37, or 0x25 in hexadecimal. Names for the percent sign include percent sign, mod, grapes, in the textual representation of URIs, a % immediately followed by a 2-digit hexadecimal number denotes an octet specifying a character that might otherwise not be allowed in URIs. In SQL, the percent sign is a character in LIKE expressions. In TeX and PostScript, a % denotes a line comment, in BASIC, a trailing % after a variable name marks it as an integer
8.
Decimal
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This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation, the decimal numeral system has ten as its base, which, in decimal, is written 10, as is the base in every positional numeral system. It is the base most widely used by modern civilizations. Decimal fractions have terminating decimal representations and other fractions have repeating decimal representations, Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base-ten numeral system. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers and secondary symbols for half these values. Brahmi numerals have symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100, Chinese numerals have symbols for 1–9, and additional symbols for powers of ten, which in modern usage reach 1072. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols for the ten values to represent any number, positional notation uses positions for each power of ten, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier multiplied with that position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were at least two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rod system. Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands, the English word digit as well as its translation in many languages is also the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, however, the symbols used in different areas are not identical, for instance, Western Arabic numerals differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures. A decimal fraction is a fraction the denominator of which is a power of ten. g, Decimal fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000, and 58900/10000 are expressed in decimal notation as 0.8,14.89,0.00024,5.8900 respectively. In English-speaking, some Latin American and many Asian countries, a period or raised period is used as the separator, in many other countries, particularly in Europe. The integer part, or integral part of a number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. The part from the separator to the right is the fractional part. It is usual for a number that consists only of a fractional part to have a leading zero in its notation. Any rational number with a denominator whose only prime factors are 2 and/or 5 may be expressed as a decimal fraction and has a finite decimal expansion. 1/2 =0.5 1/20 =0.05 1/5 =0.2 1/50 =0.02 1/4 =0.25 1/40 =0.025 1/25 =0.04 1/8 =0.125 1/125 =0.008 1/10 =0
9.
Per mille
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A per mille, also spelled per mil, per mill, permil, permill, or permille is a sign indicating parts per thousand. Per mil should not be confused with parts per million, the sign is written ‰, which looks like a percent sign with an extra zero in the divisor. It is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters and it is accessible in Windows using ALT+0137. The term is common in other European languages where it is used in contexts, such as blood alcohol content. Examples of common use include, Legal limits of blood-alcohol content for driving a vehicle in some countries. Seawater salinity, for example, the salinity is 35‰
10.
Ancient Rome
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In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and then Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, Amulius, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
11.
Augustus
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Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards. He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
12.
Middle Ages
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
13.
Italian language
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By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages
14.
Conditional probability
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In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event given that another event has occurred. For example, the probability that any person has a cough on any given day may be only 5%. But if we know or assume that the person has a cold, the conditional probability of coughing given that you have a cold might be a much higher 75%. The concept of probability is one of the most fundamental. But conditional probabilities can be slippery and require careful interpretation. For example, there need not be a causal or temporal relationship between A and B, P may or may not be equal to P. If P = P, then events A and B are said to be independent, in such a case, also, in general, P is not equal to P. For example, if you have cancer you might have a 90% chance of testing positive for cancer. In this case what is being measured is that the if event B having cancer has occurred, alternatively, you can test positive for cancer but you may have only a 10% chance of actually having cancer because cancer is very rare. In this case what is being measured is the probability of the event B - having cancer given that the event A - test is positive has occurred, falsely equating the two probabilities causes various errors of reasoning such as the base rate fallacy. Conditional probabilities can be reversed using Bayes theorem. The logic behind this equation is that if the outcomes are restricted to B, Note that this is a definition but not a theoretical result. We just denote the quantity P / P as P and call it the conditional probability of A given B. Further, this multiplication axiom introduces a symmetry with the axiom for mutually exclusive events, P = P + P − P0 If P =0. However, it is possible to define a probability with respect to a σ-algebra of such events. The case where B has zero measure is problematic, see conditional expectation for more information. Conditioning on an event may be generalized to conditioning on a random variable, Let X be a random variable, we assume for the sake of presentation that X is discrete, that is, X takes on only finitely many values x. The conditional probability of A given X is defined as the variable, written P
15.
Interest rate
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An interest rate, is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed. The total interest on an amount lent or borrowed depends on the sum, the interest rate, the compounding frequency. It is defined as the proportion of an amount loaned which a lender charges as interest to the borrower and it is the rate a bank or other lender charges to borrow its money, or the rate a bank pays its savers for keeping money in an account. Annual interest rate is the rate over a period of one year, other interest rates apply over different periods, such as a month or a day, but they are usually annualised. A company borrows capital from a bank to buy assets for its business, in return, the bank charges the company interest. Base rate usually refers to the rate offered on overnight deposits by the central bank or other monetary authority. Annual percentage rate and effective annual rate or annual equivalent rate are used to help consumers compare products with different payment structures on a common basis, a discount rate is applied to calculate present value. Interest rate targets are a tool of monetary policy and are taken into account when dealing with variables like investment, inflation. The central banks of countries tend to reduce interest rates when they wish to increase investment. In the past two centuries, interest rates have been variously set either by national governments or central banks, during an attempt to tackle spiraling hyperinflation in 2007, the Central Bank of Zimbabwe increased interest rates for borrowing to 800%. Possibly before modern capital markets, there have been some accounts that savings deposits could achieve a return of at least 25%. Political short-term gain, Lowering interest rates can give the economy a short-run boost, under normal conditions, most economists think a cut in interest rates will only give a short term gain in economic activity that will soon be offset by inflation. The quick boost can influence elections, Most economists advocate independent central banks to limit the influence of politics on interest rates. Deferred consumption, When money is loaned the lender delays spending the money on consumption goods, since according to time preference theory people prefer goods now to goods later, in a free market there will be a positive interest rate. Inflationary expectations, Most economies generally exhibit inflation, meaning a given amount of money buys fewer goods in the future than it will now, the borrower needs to compensate the lender for this. Alternative investments, The lender has a choice between using his money in different investments, if he chooses one, he forgoes the returns from all the others. Different investments effectively compete for funds, risks of investment, There is always a risk that the borrower will go bankrupt, abscond, die, or otherwise default on the loan. This means that a lender generally charges a premium to ensure that, across his investments
16.
Percentile
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A percentile is a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall. For example, the 20th percentile is the value below which 20% of the observations may be found, the term percentile and the related term percentile rank are often used in the reporting of scores from norm-referenced tests. For example, if a score is at the 86th percentile, the 25th percentile is also known as the first quartile, the 50th percentile as the median or second quartile, and the 75th percentile as the third quartile. In general, percentiles and quartiles are specific types of quantiles, when ISPs bill burstable internet bandwidth, the 95th or 98th percentile usually cuts off the top 5% or 2% of bandwidth peaks in each month, and then bills at the nearest rate. In this way infrequent peaks are ignored, and the customer is charged in a fairer way, the reason this statistic is so useful in measuring data throughput is that it gives a very accurate picture of the cost of the bandwidth. The 95th percentile says that 95% of the time, the usage is below this amount, just the same, the remaining 5% of the time, the usage is above that amount. Physicians will often use infant and childrens weight and height to assess their growth in comparison to national averages and percentiles which are found in growth charts. The 85th percentile speed of traffic on a road is used as a guideline in setting speed limits. The methods given in the Definitions section are approximations for use in small-sample statistics, in general terms, for very large populations following a normal distribution, percentiles may often be represented by reference to a normal curve plot. The normal distribution is plotted along an axis scaled to standard deviations, mathematically, the normal distribution extends to negative infinity on the left and positive infinity on the right. Note, however, that only a small proportion of individuals in a population will fall outside the −3 to +3 range. For example, with human heights very few people are above the +3 sigma height level, Percentiles represent the area under the normal curve, increasing from left to right. Each standard deviation represents a fixed percentile and this is related to the 68–95–99.7 rule or the three-sigma rule. There is no definition of percentile, however all definitions yield similar results when the number of observations is very large. Some methods for calculating the percentiles are given below and this is obtained by first calculating the ordinal rank and then taking the value from the ordered list that corresponds to that rank. A percentile calculated using the Nearest Rank method will always be a member of the ordered list. The 100th percentile is defined to be the largest value in the ordered list, Example 1, Consider the ordered list, which contains five data values. What are the 5th, 30th, 40th, 50th and 100th percentiles of this list using the Nearest Rank method
17.
Hansard
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Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries. It is named after Thomas Curson Hansard, a London printer and publisher, though the history of the Hansard began in the British parliament, each of Britains colonies developed a separate and distinctive history. Before 1771, the British Parliament had long been a highly secretive body, the official record of the actions of the House was publicly available, but there was no record of the debates. The publication of remarks made in the House became a breach of Parliamentary privilege, as the populace became interested in parliamentary debates, more independent newspapers began publishing unofficial accounts of them. Several editors used the device of veiling parliamentary debates as debates of fictitious societies or bodies, the names under which parliamentary debates were published include Proceedings of the Lower Room of the Robin Hood Society and Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia. The Senate of Magna Lilliputia was printed in Edward Caves The Gentlemans Magazine, the names of the speakers were carefully filleted, for example, Sir Robert Walpole was thinly disguised as Sr. R―t W―le. In 1771 Brass Crosby, who was Lord Mayor of the City of London, had brought him a printer by the name of John Miller who dared publish reports of Parliamentary proceedings. He released the man, but was ordered to appear before the House to explain his actions. Crosby was committed to the Tower of London, but when he was brought to trial, several judges refused to hear the case and after protests from the public, Crosby was released. Parliament ceased to punish the publishing of its debates as harshly, partly due to the campaigns of John Wilkes on behalf of free speech, there then began several attempts to publish reports of debates. Among the early successes, the Parliamentary Register published by John Almon and John Debrett began in 1775, cobbetts avocation for the freedom of the press was severely punished by the British Government. On June 5,1810 William Cobbett stood trial for libel for an article he wrote against the British Government which was published by Thomas Curson Hansard. Cobbett was found guilty, upon the fullest and most satisfactory evidence, the sentence was described by J. C Trewin as vindictive. Cobbetts Parliamentary Debates became Hansard Parliamentary Debates, abbreviated over time to the now familiar Hansard, from 1829 the name Hansard appeared on the title page of each issue. Neither Cobbett nor Hansard ever employed anyone to take notes of the debates. For this reason, early editions of Hansard are not to be relied upon as a guide to everything discussed in Parliament. The last attempt at a rival was The Times which published debates in the 1880s. In 1878 a subsidy was granted to the Hansard press and at that point reporters were employed, despite hiring contract reporters there were still widespread complaints about the accuracy of the debates
18.
Latin
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Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole
19.
Ancient Greece
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Jewish, Assyrian, Phoenician and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent. The end of the Dark Ages is also dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political, military and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
20.
The Chicago Manual of Style
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The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its sixteen editions have prescribed writing and citation styles used in publishing. It is one of the most widely used and respected style guides in the United States, CMOS deals with aspects of editorial practice, from American English grammar and use for document preparation. The Chicago Manual of Style is published in hardcover and online, the Chicago Manual of Style also discusses the parts of a book and the editing process. An annual subscription is required for access to the content of the Manual. The Chicago Manual of Style is used in social science publications. It remains the basis for the Style Guide of the American Anthropological Association, many small publishers throughout the world adopt it as their style. The Chicago Manual of Style includes chapters relevant to publishers of books and it is used widely by academic and some trade publishers, as well as editors and authors who are required by those publishers to follow it. Kate L. Turabians A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, Chicago style offers writers a choice of several different formats. It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear, two types of citation styles are provided. In both cases, two parts are needed, first, notation in the text, which indicates that the information immediately preceding was from another source, and second, the full citation, which is placed at another location. Using author-date style, the text is indicated parenthetically with the last name of the author. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly, when page numbers are used, they are placed along with the authors last name and date of publication after an interposed comma. Research has found that students do not always cite their work properly, if the authors name is used in the text, only the date of publication need be cited parenthetically. Research done by Smith found that students do not always cite their work properly, in-text citations are usually placed just inside a mark of punctuation. An exception to rule is for block quotations, where the citation is placed outside the punctuation. The full citation for the source is included in a references section at the end of the material. As publication dates are prominent in this style, the reference entry places the publication following the author name
21.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
22.
Phoenix Suns
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The Phoenix Suns are an American professional basketball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. The Suns compete in the National Basketball Association as a team of the leagues Western Conference Pacific Division. Since 1992, the Suns have played their games at Talking Stick Resort Arena in downtown Phoenix. The Suns began play as a team in 1968. The franchise owns the NBAs fourth-best all-time winning percentage, winning 55 percent of its games, as a result, based on their all-time win-loss percentage, the Suns are the team with the highest winning percentage to have never won an NBA championship. The Suns were one of two franchises to join the NBA at the start of the 1968–69 season, alongside the Milwaukee Bucks, the team played its first 24 seasons at Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, located northwest of downtown Phoenix. Besides, part of the group were entertainers, such as Andy Williams, Bobbie Gentry and Ed Ames. There were many critics, including then-NBA commissioner J. Walter Kennedy, who said that Phoenix was too hot, too small and they paid an entry fee of $2 million. Suns was preferred over Scorpions, Rattlers, Thunderbirds, Wranglers, Mavericks, Tumbleweeds, Mustangs and Cougars. Stan Fabe, who owned a printing plant in Tucson, designed the teams first iconic logo for a mere $200. However, they were disappointed with the results, in the 1968 NBA Expansion Draft, notable Suns pick-ups were future Hall of Famer Gail Goodrich and Dick Van Arsdale. Jerry Colangelo, a scout, came over from the Chicago Bulls as the Suns first general manager at the age of 28. Both Goodrich and Van Arsdale were selected to the All-Star Game in their first season with the freshly minted Suns. Goodrich returned to his team, the Lakers, after two seasons with the Suns, but Van Arsdale spent the rest of his playing days as a Sun. The Suns last-place finish that led to a coin flip for the number-one overall pick for the 1969 NBA draft with the expansion-mate Bucks. Milwaukee won the flip, and the rights to draft UCLA center Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, while the Bucks went on to win the NBA Finals in 1971 and reach the Finals again in 1974, the Suns would not go to the Finals until 1976. The 1969–70 season posted better results for the Suns, finishing 39–43, the next two seasons, the Suns finished with 48- and 49-win seasons, however they did not qualify for the playoffs in either year, and would not reach the playoffs again until 1976. They also drafted center and eventual fan favorite Alvan Adams from the University of Oklahoma, the Suns and Buffalo Braves made a midseason trade, with Phoenix sending forward/center John Shumate to Buffalo in exchange for forward Gar Heard
23.
Shaquille O'Neal
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Shaquille Rashaun Shaq ONeal, nicknamed Shaq, is a retired American professional basketball player and former rapper who is currently an analyst on the television program Inside the NBA. Listed at 7 ft 1 in tall and weighing 325 pounds, ONeal played for six teams throughout his 19-year NBA career. Following his career at Louisiana State University, ONeal was drafted by the Orlando Magic with the first overall pick in the 1992 NBA draft. He quickly became one of the best centers in the league, winning Rookie of the Year in 1992–93, after four years with the Magic, ONeal signed as a free agent with the Los Angeles Lakers. They won three championships in 2000,2001, and 2002. Amid tension between ONeal and Kobe Bryant, ONeal was traded to the Miami Heat in 2004, midway through the 2007–2008 season he was traded to the Phoenix Suns. After a season-and-a-half with the Suns, ONeal was traded to the Cleveland Cavaliers in the 2009–10 season, ONeal played for the Boston Celtics in the 2010–11 season before retiring. He is one of three players to win NBA MVP, All-Star game MVP and Finals MVP awards in the same year. He ranks 7th all-time in points scored, 5th in field goals, 13th in rebounds, largely due to his ability to dunk the basketball, ONeal also ranks 3rd all-time in field goal percentage. ONeal was elected into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2016, in addition to his basketball career, ONeal has released four rap albums, with his first, Shaq Diesel, going platinum. He has appeared in films and has starred in his own reality shows, Shaqs Big Challenge. He currently hosts The Big Podcast with Shaq, ONeal was born on March 6,1972 in Newark, New Jersey, to Lucille ONeal and Joe Toney, an All-State guard in high school who was offered a basketball scholarship to play at Seton Hall. Toney struggled with addiction and was imprisoned for drug possession when ONeal was an infant. Upon his release, he did not resume a place in ONeals life and instead agreed to relinquish his rights to ONeals stepfather, Phillip A. Harrison. ONeal remained estranged from his father for decades, ONeal had not spoken with Toney or expressed an interest in establishing a relationship. On his 1994 rap album, Shaq Fu, The Return, ONeal voiced his feelings of disdain for Toney in the song Biological Didnt Bother, dismissing him with the line Phil is my father. However, ONeals feelings toward Toney mellowed in the years following Harrisons death in 2013, ONeal credits the Boys and Girls Club of America in Newark with giving him a safe place to play and keeping him off the streets. It gave me something to do, he said, id just go there to shoot
24.
National Basketball Association
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The National Basketball Association is the major mens professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier mens professional basketball league in the world. It has 30 teams, and is a member of USA Basketball. The NBA is one of the four professional sports leagues in the United States. NBA players are the worlds best paid athletes by average annual salary per player, the league was founded in New York City on June 6,1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3,1949, the leagues several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada. On November 1,1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, the first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that leagues 1948 title, Following the 1948–49 season, the BAA took in the remainder of the NBL, Syracuse, Anderson, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan, Denver, and Waterloo. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as arenas and smaller gymnasiums. The process of contraction saw the leagues smaller-city franchises move to larger cities, the Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, and then to St. Louis in 1955. The Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957, japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks. He remained the only player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships, to encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954. If a team does not attempt to score a goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, russells rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports. The 1960s were dominated by the Celtics, led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966
25.
Batting average
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Batting average is a statistic in cricket, baseball, and softball that measures the performance of batsmen in cricket and batters in baseball. The development of the statistic was influenced by the cricket statistic. In cricket, a batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. The number is also simple to interpret intuitively, if all the batsmans innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the average number of runs they score per innings. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players relative skills since the 18th century, most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is also the range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen typically average something between 20 and 30,15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australias Sir Donald Bradman, given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, and that only four other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic. The fact that Bradmans average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest sportsman in any sport. As at 21 October 2016, Adam Voges of Australia has recorded an average of 72.75 from 27 innings played and it should also be remembered, especially in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If their scores have a geometric distribution then total number of runs scored divided by the number of times out is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average, Batting averages can be strongly affected by the number of not outs. A different, and more developed, statistic which is also used to gauge the effectiveness of batsmen is the strike rate. It measures a different concept however – how quickly the batsman scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average and it is used particularly in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batsman scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed, in baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is usually reported to three places and read without the decimal, A player with a batting average of.300 is batting three-hundred. A point is understood, in only, to be.001. If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement, henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball
26.
Grade (slope)
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The grade of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of tilt, often slope is calculated as a ratio of rise to run, or as a fraction in which run is the horizontal distance and rise is the vertical distance. The grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides, stream and river banks, grades are typically specified for new linear constructions. The grade may refer to the slope or the perpendicular cross slope. There are several ways to express slope, as an angle of inclination to the horizontal, as a percentage, the formula for which is 100 rise run which could also be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 100. In the U. S. this percentage grade is the most commonly used unit for communicating slopes in transportation, surveying, construction, and civil engineering. As a per mille figure, the formula for which is 1000 rise run which could also be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 1000 and this is commonly used in Europe to denote the incline of a railway. As a ratio of one part rise to so many parts run, for example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 100 feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 20. This is generally the method used to describe railway grades in Australia, any of these may be used. Grade is usually expressed as a percentage, but this is converted to the angle α from horizontal or the other expressions. Slope may still be expressed when the run is not known. This is not the way to specify slope, it follows the sine function rather than the tangent function. But in practice the way to calculate slope is to measure the distance along the slope and the vertical rise. When the angle of inclination is small, using the slope length rather than the horizontal displacement makes only an insignificant difference, Railway gradients are usually expressed in terms of the rise in relation to the distance along the track as a practical measure. In cases where the difference between sin and tan is significant, the tangent is used. In any case, the identity holds for all inclinations up to 90 degrees, tan α = sin α1 − sin 2 α In Europe. Grades are related using the equations with symbols from the figure at top
27.
Road
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Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, avenues, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a function as urban space easement. Modern roads are normally smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel, historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In the United Kingdom there is ambiguity between the terms highway and road. The Highway code details rules for road users and this includes footpaths, bridleways and cycle tracks, and also road and driveways on private land and many car parks. Vehicle Excise Duty, a use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway, in the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, and private roads, which are privately controlled. The assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted, others believe that some roads originated from following animal trails. The Icknield Way is given as an example of type of road origination. By about 10,000 BC, rough roads/pathways were used by human travelers, the worlds oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone-paved streets are found in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC, corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in Glastonbury, England. The Sweet Track, a timber causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, tree-ring dating enabled very precise dating and it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6, 000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets were used in India as early as 3000 BC, in 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for Persia, including the Royal Road, which was one of the finest highways of its time. The road remained in use after Roman times, a hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, at its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire, the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved with tar
28.
Rail tracks
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The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties and ballast, plus the underlying subgrade. It enables trains to move by providing a surface for their wheels to roll upon. For clarity it is referred to as railway track or railroad track. Tracks where electric trains or electric trams run are equipped with a system such as an overhead electrical power line or an additional electrified rail. The term permanent way also refers to the track in addition to structures such as fences etc. Most railroads with heavy traffic use continuously welded rails supported by sleepers attached via baseplates that spread the load, a plastic or rubber pad is usually placed between the rail and the tieplate where concrete sleepers are used. The rail is held down to the sleeper with resilient fastenings. For much of the 20th century, rail track used softwood timber sleepers and jointed rails, jointed rails were used at first because contemporary technology did not offer any alternative. The joints also needed to be lubricated, and wear at the mating surfaces needed to be rectified by shimming. For this reason jointed track is not financially appropriate for heavily operated railroads, timber sleepers are of many available timbers, and are often treated with creosote, copper-chrome-arsenic, or other wood preservative. Pre-stressed concrete sleepers are used where timber is scarce and where tonnage or speeds are high. Steel is used in some applications, the track ballast is customarily crushed stone, and the purpose of this is to support the sleepers and allow some adjustment of their position, while allowing free drainage. A disadvantage of traditional track structures is the demand for maintenance, particularly surfacing and lining to restore the desired track geometry. Weakness of the subgrade and drainage deficiencies also lead to maintenance costs. This can be overcome by using ballastless track, in its simplest form this consists of a continuous slab of concrete with the rails supported directly on its upper surface. There are a number of systems, and variations include a continuous reinforced concrete slab. Many permutations of design have been put forward, however, ballastless track has a high initial cost, and in the case of existing railroads the upgrade to such requires closure of the route for a long period. Its whole-life cost can be lower because of the reduction in maintenance, some rubber-tyred metros use ballastless tracks
29.
Trigonometric functions
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In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Angles formed by two rays lie in a plane, but this plane does not have to be a Euclidean plane, Angles are also formed by the intersection of two planes in Euclidean and other spaces. Angles formed by the intersection of two curves in a plane are defined as the angle determined by the tangent rays at the point of intersection. Similar statements hold in space, for example, the angle formed by two great circles on a sphere is the dihedral angle between the planes determined by the great circles. Angle is also used to designate the measure of an angle or of a rotation and this measure is the ratio of the length of a circular arc to its radius. In the case of an angle, the arc is centered at the vertex. In the case of a rotation, the arc is centered at the center of the rotation and delimited by any other point and its image by the rotation. The word angle comes from the Latin word angulus, meaning corner, cognate words are the Greek ἀγκύλος, meaning crooked, curved, both are connected with the Proto-Indo-European root *ank-, meaning to bend or bow. Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, according to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. In mathematical expressions, it is common to use Greek letters to serve as variables standing for the size of some angle, lower case Roman letters are also used, as are upper case Roman letters in the context of polygons. See the figures in this article for examples, in geometric figures, angles may also be identified by the labels attached to the three points that define them. For example, the angle at vertex A enclosed by the rays AB, sometimes, where there is no risk of confusion, the angle may be referred to simply by its vertex. However, in geometrical situations it is obvious from context that the positive angle less than or equal to 180 degrees is meant. Otherwise, a convention may be adopted so that ∠BAC always refers to the angle from B to C. Angles smaller than an angle are called acute angles. An angle equal to 1/4 turn is called a right angle, two lines that form a right angle are said to be normal, orthogonal, or perpendicular. Angles larger than an angle and smaller than a straight angle are called obtuse angles. An angle equal to 1/2 turn is called a straight angle, Angles larger than a straight angle but less than 1 turn are called reflex angles
30.
Parts-per notation
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In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e. g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement, commonly used are ppm, ppb, ppt and ppq. Parts-per notation is often used describing dilute solutions in chemistry, for instance, the unit “1 ppm” can be used for a mass fraction if a water-borne pollutant is present at one-millionth of a gram per gram of sample solution. When working with aqueous solutions, it is common to assume that the density of water is 1.00 g/mL, therefore, it is common to equate 1 kilogram of water with 1 L of water. Consequently,1 ppm corresponds to 1 mg/L and 1 ppb corresponds to 1 μg/L, similarly, parts-per notation is used also in physics and engineering to express the value of various proportional phenomena. For instance, a metal alloy might expand 1.2 micrometers per meter of length for every degree Celsius. For instance, the accuracy of distance measurements when using a laser rangefinder might be 1 millimeter per kilometer of distance, this could be expressed as “Accuracy =1 ppm. ”Parts-per notations are all dimensionless quantities, in mathematical expressions. In fractions like “2 nanometers per meter” so the quotients are pure-number coefficients with positive values less than 1, when parts-per notations, including the percent symbol, are used in regular prose, they are still pure-number dimensionless quantities. However, they take the literal “parts per” meaning of a comparative ratio. Parts-per notations may be expressed in terms of any unit of the same measure, in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift is usually expressed in ppm. It represents the difference of a frequency in parts per million from the reference frequency. The reference frequency depends on the magnetic field and the element being measured. It is usually expressed in MHz, typical chemical shifts are rarely more than a few hundred Hz from the reference frequency, so chemical shifts are conveniently expressed in ppm. Parts-per notation gives a quantity that does not depend on the instruments field strength. One part per hundred is generally represented by the percent symbol and denotes one part per 100 parts, one part in 102, and this is equivalent to approximately one drop of water diluted into 5 milliliters or about fifteen minutes out of one day. One part per thousand should generally be spelled out in full and it may also be denoted by the millage symbol. Note however, that specific disciplines such as oceanography, as well as educational exercises, one part per thousand denotes one part per 1000 parts, one part in 103, and a value of 1 × 10−3. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 50 milliliters or about one, one part per ten thousand is denoted by the permyriad symbol
31.
Baker percentage
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Bakers percentage is a bakers notation method indicating the flour-relative proportion of an ingredient used when making breads, cakes, muffins, and other pastries. It is also referred to as bakers math, or otherwise contextually indicated by a phrase such as based on flour weight and it is sometimes called formula percentage, a phrase that refers to the sum of a set of bakers percentages. Because these percentages are stated with respect to the mass of rather than with respect to the mass of all ingredients. Flour-based recipes are more precisely conceived as bakers percentages, and more accurately measured using mass instead of volume, the uncertainty in using volume measurements follows from the fact that flour settles in storage and therefore does not have a constant density. A yeast-dough formula could call for the following list of ingredients, presented as a series of bakers percentages, converting bakers percentages to ingredient weights is one. Converting known ingredient weights to baker percentages is another, conversion to true percentages, or based on total weight, is helpful to calculate unknown ingredient weights from a desired total or formula weight. Depending on the weight unit, only one of the following four weight columns is used, The baker has determined how much a recipes ingredients weigh. Generally, the baker finds it easiest to use the system of measurement that is present on the available tools, the total or sum of the bakers percentages is called the formula percentage. The sum of the ingredient masses is called the formula mass. S. units can sometimes be awkward, intra-metric conversions involve moving the decimal point. Common avoirdupois and metric weight equivalences,1 pound =16 ounces 1 kilogram =1,000 grams =2.20462262 lb 1 lb =453.59237 g =0.45359237 kg 1 oz =28.3495231 g. In four different English-language countries of recipe and measuring-utensil markets, approximate cup volumes range from 236.59 to 284.1 milliliters, with this method, occasionally an error or outlier of some kind occurs. Manipulation of known flour-protein levels can be calculated with a Pearson square, in home baking, the amounts of ingredients such as salt or yeast expressed by mass may be too small to measure accurately on the scales used by most home cooks. For these ingredients, it may be easier to express quantities by volume, for this reason, many breadmaking books that are targeted to home bakers provide both percentages and volumes for common batch sizes. Besides the need for appropriate readability scales, a calculator is helpful when working directly from bakers percentages. Bakers percentages enable the user to, compare recipes more easily, spot a bad recipe, or predict its baked characteristics. Alter or add a single-ingredient percentage without changing the other ingredients percentages, measure uniformly an ingredient where the quantity per unit may vary. Scale accurately and easily for different batch sizes, common formulations for bread include 100% flour, 60% water/liquid, 1% yeast, 2% salt and 1% oil, lard or butter. In a recipe, the percentage for water is referred to as the hydration, it is indicative of the stickiness of the dough
32.
Volume percent
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It is the same concept as volume percent except that the latter is expressed with a denominator of 100, e. g. 18%. The volume fraction coincides with the concentration in ideal solutions where the volumes of the constituents are additive. Volume percent is an expression of a solutions concentration. However, percentages are only additive for ideal gases, the percentage by volume is one way of expressing the composition of a mixture with a dimensionless quantity, mass fraction and mole fraction are others. In the case of a mixture of ethanol and water, which are miscible in all proportions, the volume of such a mixture is slightly less than the sum of the volumes of the components. Alcohol by volume For non-ideal mixtures, see Partial molar volume and Excess molar quantity Alcohol proof Alcohol meter Apparent molar property Percentage